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Russia, Biology of, 151; Science in, 190, 194, 287; Inter. Sowerby (J. De Carle), his Death, 374
national Exhibition at Moscow, 393

Spain and Portugal, Results of Dredging Expedition (Br. A.), 456
Sabine's Report on Terrestrial Magnetism, Sir W. Thomson, Sparrows, Exportation of, 245, 280
F.R.S., on (Br. A.), 264

Spectra of Stars, 99
St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, 229, 452, 476

Spectroscope, Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., on the (Br. A.), 267
St. Thomas's Hospital Opened by the Queen, 148, 149

Spectrum of the Aurora ; 280; at Aberdeen 347, 366 ; T. W.
Salem, Peabody Academy of Science, 109; Proceedings of the Backhouse on the, 66
Essex Institute, 501

Spectrum of Comet, 95; of Uranus, 88
Salmon Ladders for Reservoirs (Br. A.), 337

Spectrum Microscope, Compound Prism for, 511
San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences, 419

Sponges in the British Museum, 50
Sanitary Science and State Medicine, 137

Sponges, their Affinities, by H. J. Carter and W. Saville
Sanitary Science in India, 150

Kent (F.Z.S.) on, 184, 201, 224; from the Coast of Spain
Saturday Afternoon Rambles, by Henry Walker, 157

and Portugal, 456
Saturday Afternoon Scientific Excursions, Prizes Offered, 493 Spontaneous Generation, 125; Dr. Bastian on, 178; Sir Wm.
Saturn, Observations of, 360

Thomson, )Br. A), on, 269 ; Papers at the Brit. Ass., 377
Saturn's Rings, Lieut. A. M. Davies, F.R.A.S., on, 159, 203; Sprung (A.) on a Rare Atmospheric Phenomenon, 346

the Reviewer on, 306; R. A. Proctor, F.R.A.S., on, 223, 346 Squaring the Circle, by J. Harris, Montreal, 25
Saunders (W. Wilson, F.R.S.) on New and Rare Fungi, 240 Squier (E. G.), on the Ruined Cities of Central America, 466
Schenk, on German Fossil Plants, 35

State Aid to Science, 301, 461
Schobl (Dr.) on the Mouse's Ear, 253

State Scientific Questions, proposed Commission on, 130
School of Mines, its Proposed Transfer to Kensington, 259 State Medicine, Examinations for Diplomas at Dublin Univer-
Schorlemmer (C.) on Hydrocarbon , 95

sity, 137
Science and Art Department, Kensington ; Summary of Report Statistical Society, Proceedings of, 154, 168

for 1870, 259; Whitworth Scholarships, 260, 286; Prof. Staveley (E. F.), on “British Insects,
Huxley's Instruction to Science Teachers, 168, 361 ; its Steam Life Boats, John Fellowes on, 181
Administration, 404

Steam Boiler Legislation (Br. A.), 397
Science for the People in France, 394

Stellar Scintillation, Prof. Respighi on, 99
“Science in Plain English,” by William Rushton, 142, 166 Stephan (M.), his Observations of Encke's Comet, 492, 499
Scientific Instruction, Royal Commission on, 107

Stephanurus, discovered in America and Australia, 508
Scientific Value of Cheese Factories, 104

Stevenson (T., C E.), on Towers of Cement Rubble for Beacons
Sclater (Dr. P. L., F.R.S.), on Captain Sladen's Expedition, and Lighthouses, 366 ; New Reflector for Lighthouses, 396
405; on the Birds of the Lesser Antilles, 473

Stewart (Prof. B., F.R.S.), Mohn's Storm Atlas for Norway,
Scotland, Geological Survey of (Br. A., 292

63; “Psychic Force," 237, 279; Temperative Equilibrium
Scotland, Report on Earthquakes in (Br A.), 317

with a Body in Motion (Br. A.), 331
Scott (Michael) on Improved Ships of War (Br. A.), 397 Stokes's Dynamical Theory, Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S., on
Scott (Robert H., M.A., F.R.S.), on the Minerals of Strontian, (Br. A.), 267
Argyleshire, 37 ; on Forms of Cloud, 505

Stonyhurst, Meteorological Observatory at, 247, 248
Scottish Arboricultural Society, 73

Storm and Danger Signal Light, Inextinguishable, 49
Scottish Naturalist, 319, 498

Storm-Atlas sor Norway, 63
Sea, Colours of the, W. M‘Master on, 203, 305

Storm of August 12, 1871, 326
Seagrasses, Geographical Distribution o, 211

Storm Signal Observations, 52
Secchi (Père) on the Sun and its Temperature, 41, 82, 204, 384 Storms, Magnetic, in Higher Latitudes, 441
Seeley (H. G.) on Ornithosauria, 100

Stowmarket, Gun-Cotton Explosion, 309, 518
Sensation and Science, 177

Strange (Lt. -Col., F.R.S.), “ Permanent Commission on State
Serocold (G. P.) on Rain after Fire, 83

Science Questions,” 130
Sewage, Prof. Corfield on, 287

Striated Muscular Fibre in Gasteropoda, 114
Sharp and Dresser's “ Birds of Europe," 308

Strontian, Argyleshire, Mineralogy of, 37
Shaw (J.), Changes in the Habits of Animals, 506

Strutt (Hon. J. W.) on Colour, 142
Shetland, Magnetic Storms in, 441

Stuart (J.) on Prof. Tyndall's Fragments of Science,” 237
Ships of War, Improved (Br. A)., 397

Stuart (D. J.) on Thermometer Observation, 467
Shooting Stars of August 1871, 504

Submarine Telegraphs, 8; Injuries to, 436
Signal Light for Storm and Danger, Inextinguishable, 49 Sun: Prof. Newcomb on, 41, 160, 183, 204, 322, 423; R. A.
Signal Service in America (See Meteorology, Hough, Prof. S. W., Proctor, F.R.A.S., on, 41, 183, 322, 346, 424, 465, 487 ;
Maury, Prof. T. B., Wild, Prof.)

Père Secchi on, 41, 82, 204, 384 ; E. J. Stone on, 322
Silver, Coal and Gems, in Bolivia, 418

Sun, its Temperature, 42, 82, 204 ; Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S.,
Skelton (Mr.) his New Lamp for Street Lighting, 477

on, (Br. A.), 268, 384, 449, 487
Skull of the Eel, its Structure, 146

Sun's Parallax, John Flamsteed's Ghost, on, 503
Slade Professorship at University College, 50

Sun-Spots, J. Birmingham on, 102, 133; New Theory on, 163,
Sladen (Capt.) his Expedition to Yunan, 405

172, 175, 224, 359
Smith (John) on "Domestic Botany,” 304

Switzerland, Biology in, 171; “Bibliothéque Universelle et Revue
Smith (Worthington G., F.L.S.) on New and Rare Fungi, 240 Suisse,” 234 ; Waterspout in, 375
Smithsonian Institute, Washington (See America)

Sylvester (Prof. F.R.S.) and the Government, 324, 326
Smoke Jacket for Firemen, 126

Symons (G. J.) on Solar Radiation Temperatures, 393
Smyth (C. P., F.R.S.) Paris Observatory and Metric System, 120 Tait (Lawson), on the New View of Darwinism, 201
Snake Bites, 74, 134, 192, 229, 287, 325

Tait (Prof. P. G., M.A.) on Mathematical and Physical Science
Societies and Academies, 17, 36, 57, 77, 95, 115, 134, 153, 173 (Br. A.), 270 ; on Thermal Conductivity of Metals (Br. A.),

195, 215, 234, 254, 300, 320, 339, 359, 379, 400, 419, 440, 352 ; on Thermo-Electricity (Br. A.), 396
479, 498, 519

Talbot (Fox) on a Method of Estimating the Distances of Fixed
Society of Antiquaries, Exhibition of Stone Implements, 50 Stars (Br. A.), 396
Society of Arts, 32, 374; Award of Albert Gold Medal, 107 Tapeworm (7ænia mediocanellata), 500, 506
Solar Aurora, Prof. C. A. Young on, 345

Tapir, New, from Panama, 417
Solar Eclipse (See Eclipse)

Tate (George), of Alnwick, his Death, 210
Solar Parallax, Prof. S. Newcomb on, 160 ; R. A. Proctor, | Taunton School of Science and Art, 12
F.R. A.S., on, 183, 424

Technical Education, Wm. Rushton on, 142, 166; W. Mattieu
Solar Radiation Temperatures, 393

Williams on, 180
Solar Spectrum, Prof. C. A. Young on the, 445

“Telegraph Earth,”. Quantitative Method of Testing, 399
Solly (Samuel, F.R.S.), Obituary Notice of, 436

Telegraphs, Submarine, 8, 436
Sorby (H. C., F.R.S.) on the various Tints of Foliage, 341 ; Teleosaurus from Kimmeridge Bay, 153

on Blood Spectrum, 505; Compound Prisms for Spectrum Telescope for the Washington Observatory, 493
Microscopes, 511

Telescope, the Melbourne, 109
Sound, its Velocity in Coal, 487, 506

Temperature, its Distribution in the North Atlantic, 251

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Temperature of the Deep Sea, Dr. Carpenter on, 97, 162 Walker (Henry) on Saturday Afternoon Rambles Round
Temperature of the Earth, 133

London," 157
Temperature of the Sun, 42, 82, 204, 268, 384, 449, 487 Wallace (Alfred R., F.Z.S.) on Staveley's British Insects, 22 ;
Tennant (Lt.-Col.) on the Total Eclipse of Dec. 12, 1871, 339 on “ Dr. Bastian's Work on the Origin of Life," 178; on
Terrestrial Magnetism, Sabine's Report on (Br. A.), 264

“H. Howorth's New View of Darwinism," 181, 200, 201,
Tests, Use and Abuse of, 467

240, 221, 222; on Recent Neologisms, 222, 242; on the
Texas, Entomology of, 51

Population of the Indian Islands,” 254; on Canon Kingsley's
Therapeutics, Dr. T. K. Chambers on, 168

At Last : : a Christmas in the West Indies," 282
Thermal Equivalents of Oxides of Chlorine (Br. A.), 291 Waller (W. E.) on a Rare Moth, 466
Thermo-Dynamics, Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., on (Br. A.), 268 ; Ward (Thos.) on Optical Phenomenon of Colour, 68
Rev. H. Highton on, 46

Washington, Signal Office at, 390, 410; Telescope of the
Thermo-Electricity, Prof. Tait on (Br. A.), 396

National Observatory, 493
Thermometer, Self-Registering, 430 ; Observations, 467 Waterspouts in Cork Harbour, 325; in Southern India, 287 ; in
Thickness of the Earth's Crust, 28, 45, 65, 141, 344, 366, 383

Switzerland, 375; at Constantinople, 212
Thomson (Prof. James), Continuity of the Fluid State of Watson (H. W.), "Elements of Plane and Solid Geometry,” 364
Matter” (Br. A.), 291 ; Water in Frost (Br. A.), 331

Weather Map of the War Department, Washington, 411
Thomson (Prof. Allen), Opening Address on Biology (Br. A.), 293 Webb (Rev. T. W., F.R.A.S.) on Aurora by Daylight, 27; on
Thomson (Prof. Wyville, F.R.S.), Lecture on Natural History at a New Dynameter, 427; on Dr. Engelman's Work on the

Edinburgh, 32, 74,190; Temperature in the North Atlantic, 251; Light of Jupiter's Satellites, 442
on Echinoderms (Br. A.), 334; on the Fauna of the North Weinhold (Adolp. F.) his “Experimental Physics," 148
Atlantic (Br. A.), 377 ; on Palæozoic Crinoids, 496

“Western Chronicle of Science,” 220, 243
Thomson (R. W.), on Road Steamers (Br. A.), 337

West India Islands, Ornithology of, 473 ; Conchology, 307 ;
Thomson (Sir Wm., F.R.S.), his Inaugural Address at the Cyclone, 417, 454, 464; Hurricane and Earthquake, 375

British Association, 262; Remarks thereon by E. Ray Lan- West Wind, Prevalence of, 8; J. J. Murphy on, 102
kester, F.L.S., 368 ; on the Origin of Life, 305; on Ocean Wet and Dry Bulb Formulæ (Br. A.), 353
Circulation, 316; Report of the Tidal Committee, 375

Wheat Cultivation in India, 108
Thorpe (Prof. T. E.), on Crookes's "Chemical Analysis,” 81 Wheeler (Prof.) on " Chemistry in the United States," 292
Thunderstorms, at Calcutta, 287; near Glasgow, June 20, 1871,

Whirlwind in Buckinghamshire, 324
202 ; of August 13, 1871, 335

White (Dr. J.B.), Lepidoptera of Perthshire, 190
Thunderstorms, Rev. C. A. Johns, F.L.S., on, 367

Whitney (Prof.), Geological Survey of California, 420
Tidal Committee (Br. A.), Report by Sir W. Thomson, 375 Whitworth Scholarships, Science and Art Department, 260,
Tih, Desert of the, Report by C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake on, 33, 52 286 ; on Eclipse Photo hs, 85, 160
Time-signals, 74, 103

Wild (Prof.), his Self-Registering Barometer, 432
Tissandier, Gaston, on Aërostation, 3

“ Wild Flowering Plants,” by Thos. Baxter, 245
Tobacco, a Poison for Snakes, 494

Wilder (Prof. B. G.), “Human Locomotion,” 437
Todhunter (I., F.R.S.), Solution of a Geometrical Problem, 444 Williams (W. Mattieu, 5.C.S.), on Science in Italy, 100, 468 ;
Tornado in Ohio, 308

on Technical Education, 176 ; Iron and Steel, 226; An Offer
Transparency, a Cause of, Prof. Zenger on (Br. A.), 354

to the London School Board, 285
Transparent Compass, 366

Williamson (Prof. W. C., F.R.S.) on the Fossil Plants of the
Transit Instrument at Greenwich, 103

Coal Measures, 173; on the Classification of Vascular Crypto-
Transit of Venus, 12, 103, 107 ; Preparations for Observations gamia (Br. A.), 357, 426, 490, 504 ; on Exogenous Structures

at Greenwich, 260; Government Aid to Observation, 324 amongst the Stems of Coal Measures, 408
Tribe (Alfred), on Chemical Dynamics, 195 (Br. A.), 291 Wilson (J. M.) on Neologisms, 367; “Some Speculations on
Trinidad, Scientific Association of, 43

the Aurora,” 372; Meteor in the Isle of Man, 385 ; Teaching
Trout, Tailless, in Scotland (Br. A.), 333

Elementary Geometry, 387, 404; on a Plane's Aspect, 506
Tunnel through Mont Cenis, Opening of the, 415

Winchester College Natural History Society, 169
Turnbull (W. P.), Obituary Notice of, 394

Winstanley (D.) on Daylight Auroras, 280
Turner( W., M.D), Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 359 Wirtgen (Dr. P. H.), “Flora der Preussichen Rheinlande," 211
Twisden (Rev. J. S.), on Ball's “Experimental Mechanics,” 510 | Woodward (Henry, F.G.S.)“On the Fauna of the Carboníferous
“Two Suns, Theory of,” by M. Latterade, 216

Epoch," 59; on Ornithosauria, 100; on the Coal Period
Tyler (T.), on H. Howorth’s New View of Darwinism, 221 (Br. A.), 354 ; Arachmidæ from the Dudley Coal-field, 376
Tylor (Edward B., F.R.S.), on “Primitive Culture," 117, 138 ; Woolhope Naturalists' Club, 284
German Translation of his “ Primitive Culture,” 436

Working Men's Club and Institute Scientific Classes, 211
Tyndall (Prof., F.R.S.) on Dust and Smoke, 124, 164; "Hours Working Men's College, 416
of Exercise in the Alps,” 198 ; on the Colours of the Sea, Working Men's University, Proposed, 41
203; "Fragments of Science,”. 237; "Notes of Nine Lectures Workshop, The,” by Prof. Baumer and others, 179
on Light,” 284; on the Bending of Glacier Ice, 447

Worthing, Alleged Earthquake at, 349, 385
Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 149

Yarkand, its Longitude solved, 38
Typhoon in Japan, 375

Yarrell's““ British Birds,” Revised Edition of, 89, 403
Ullyett (Henry), on the Duties of Local Nat. Hist. Societies, 142 Yates (Jas., F.R.S.), Legacies to University College, 260, 307
Underground Temperature, Report of Committee of Br. A., 396 “ Year Book of Facts,” Timbs's, 239
Unionida, Synopsis of,” by Isaac Lea, LL.D., 119

Year Book of Science Advocated by Sir W. Thomson, 264
Universal Atmosphere, 487

Yellow Rain in New Granada, 68; J. Jeremiah on, 161
Uarnus, Spectrum of, 88

Young (Prof. C.A.) on the Solar Aurora Theory, 345 ; on the
Utrecht, Science at, 31

Solar Spectrum, 445 ; on an Explosion (?) on the Sun, 488
Valencia, Meteorological Observatory at, 245

Young (John) on Carboniferous Fossils in West Scotland, 443
Vapour of lodine, Dr. Andrews on (Br. A.), 316

Yule (Col. II., C.B.), his Opening Address on Geography
Vascular Cryptogams, Classification of (See Williamson, Prof.) (Br. A.), 297; on Rainfall (Br. A.) 358
Venus (See Transit of Venus), Observations of, 360

Zenger (Prof.) on a Cause of Transparency (Br. A.) 354
* Vertebrate Skeleton, Mivart St. George, F.R.S.,on the, 36

Zodiacal Light, 42
Vesuvius, Eruption of, 308

Zöllner (Prof.), his New Theory of Sun-Spots, 163
Victoria Institute, 50, 148

Zoological Record,” 88
Vision, Defective, Dr. Boettcher on, 140

Zoological Results of Dredging Expedition off Spain and Portugal
Vital Force, Prof. Allen Thomson on (Br. A.), 295

(Br. A.), 456
Volcanic Region of Cotapaxi, 212

Zoology at the Br. A., 317, 377
Volcano in America, 56 ; near Celebes, 286 ; Pacific Islands, 169 Zoology, its Study in Great Britain, 193
Volcano Island, Santa Cruz, 212

Zoological Society, Frigate Bird at Gardens, 394; New Species
Voelcker (Dr.) on Soils and Drainage, 38

of Cassowary, 436; Proceedings, 36, 77, 134, 175, 513 ; New
Walden (Viscount) on the Birds of Celebes, 37

Tapir from Panama, 417
Wales (Capt. Douglas) “On the Converging of the Wind in Zoology of New Zealand, 51; of Nova Scotia, 32; of Palestine, 32
Cyclones, " 254

Zoology, Recent French Discoveries, 369

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ever

it furnished him with the rudiments of various sciences THURSDAY, MAY 4, 1871

that he could pursue and extend in his leisure moments.

A few years more passed away, and the advances made in THE SMALLER LECTURESHIPS AT THE every department of knowledge rendered it impossible for LONDON MEDICAL SCHOOLS

any man to undertake singly to lecture upon two different

sciences, such as chemistry and botany, or even upon two 1. —THE CONSERVATION OF FORCE

such cognate subjects as anatomy and physiology. Each A BOUT sixty years ago the student who determined required its separate professor, who delivered from thirty

to enter the medical profession was usually bound as to ninety lectures upon his special science, and attendance an apprentice to some respectable country practitioner, upon them was rigorously enforced both by the lecturer and spent several years in acquiring the rudiments of his himself and by the examining bodies. profession, by bandaging bad legs, dressing simple And now ensued a period that was undoubtedly opwounds, bleeding freely everybody that presented himself posed to all true intellectual training. The student, as and prescribing and dispensing for the poor. He then soon as he entered the profession, saw little practice, came to London, or attended one of the larger provincial but was everlastingly in attendance upon lectures. No towns provided with a hospital, and followed the practice mental effort was required, and, except in the case of of some celebrity, hearing an occasional lecture and much first rate lecturers, none, we are convinced, was clinical discussion, and finally presented himself for ex- exerted in acquiring and assimilating the information amination before the Master and Court of Assistants of conveyed. Here and there a good lecturer, thoroughly the College of Surgeons, and started in practice. Such master of his subject, chained his audience; but the training was solid and good ; practice went before, and substance of four out of five lectures either entered theory followed after; some thought, indeed, the cart at one ear to pass out at the other, or was altogether went before the horse; yet the excellence of the plan refused admission to the brain by the locked portals of was shown in the high scientific position and lucrative the slumbering student. The horses were indeed put practice obtained by many a well-known name. As before the cart, but the team was so strong that they Shakespeare knew little Latin and less Greek, our stu- often ran away with the cart before anything useful had dent knew little anatomy and less physiology, but what been put into it. The requirements of the examining he did know was substantial, and served him in good bodies in regard to these lectures rendered it imperative stead.

for every school, however small, to have as numerous a A few years after the time we are speaking of, staff of lecturers as the largest. The senior officers of the systematic courses of lectures upon various subjects, as medical staff consequently took the more important subupon chemistry, botany, anatomy and physiology, medi-jects of medicine and surgery, anatomy and physiology, cine and surgery, began to be delivered at the larger whilst the younger ones divided amongst them chemistry schools, at the instigation of the Society of Apothecaries, and botany, materia medica, forensic medicine, and midwho were constituted by the Act of 1815 the guardians of wifery. In many instances these latter posts were filled “general practice,” two or even three subjects being given by gentlemen who had received no special training, but by the same lecturer; and attendance upon these soon who accepted them and often worked at them with praise. came to be regarded as an important part of the student's worthy energy, merely to secure the succession to the education. So far all was well. The several subjects medical staff, upon obtaining which the minor lectureship mentioned above were treated broadly by such men as was at once given up. Abernethy, Cooper, Babington, and others, generally It is obvious that lectureships so obtained and so held speaking with direct reference to medicine or surgery ; must have been in many instances valueless alike to the and the student underwent a training that possessed con

lecturer himself and to the student who sat under siderable value in relation to his future profession, whilst him, yielding to the former a barren honour, and to

VOL. IV.

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the latter a signed schedule,—the advantage of the out the metropolis. In a future article we shall suggest professor and not the advancement of the student being what appears to us a desirable and practical scheme for the point considered. During the last few years a reaction medical education. has been setting in against this perpetual lecturing, and the number required to be attended has been considerably

THE LITERATURE OF CHEMISTRY reduced. The University of London deserves the credit of having been the first to break through this absurd sys- THE appearance of the April number of the “Journal tem, by requiring attendance on only one or two courses, of the Chemical Society” marks the commencement and this rather as evidence of the student being really of a new era in English Chemical Literature, containing, engaged in the study of medicine than for any other pur- as it does, besides the papers which have been read before pose, leaving him free to acquire his information as best the Society, the first instalment of the promised “abstracts.” he can, but testing its extent and value by a searching The papers selected for this purpose by the accomplished examination.

editor are ninety-one in number, comprising every branch No doubt many of the posts above alluded to are filled of Chemical Science, Technology included, and are clasby men of great talent and ability, but their powers are

sified under six various headings, as “Physical Chemistry," crippled by the small means at their disposal, which pre-“ Inorganic Chemistry,” &c. The abstracts themselves, vents many illustrations or experiments from being exhi- made by the gentlemen whose names appear on the bited which are almost essential for thorough teaching. wrapper of the journal, are naturally of different degrees

As a means of improving the system of education of literary merit, but seem to be carefully and conscienby supplying a better class of lectures on some subjects tiously done ; all the points of essential importance in the than those at present given, and at the same time ob- original papers being retained. The reader will thus not taining better remuneration for the lecturers them- only have a good general notion of the extent of the reselves, a scheme has recently been advanced by which searches made by any particular author, but also be able it is proposed that certain medical schools in the me- to repeat any of the experiments, or prepare any of the tropolis should be amalgamated, a reduction in the substances from the directions given. These abstracts are number of lecturers being thus effected, whilst the therefore really what they profess to be, and not merely pecuniary value of those that remain will undergo notices of a few lines in length, from which but little more considerable augmentation. It is hoped that the value of information can be gleaned than from the title of the these posts would then be sufficient to lead to their being paper. accepted not by those who only use them as a stepping- The Council of the Chemical Society is to be constone for advancement, but by gentlemen who have devoted gratulated on the energetic way in which it has enthemselves exclusively to the study of the department of deavoured to supply a great defect in our scientific science on which they lecture.

literature, by affording us the means of obtaining a At the present moment the lectureships in several of general view of the progress of Chemistry both here and the smaller schools yield such small returns to their holders on the Continent. Chemists have hitherto had to depend as would astonish many of their hearers. As a matter of chiefly on Will's “ Jahresbericht,” which, although useful fact we could mention an instance where the proceeds of in its way, has the double disadvantage incident upon its an entire summer course of lectures has amounted on the method of arrangement, first, in not being published average for the past three years to a sum not exceeding until long after the end of the year, and, secondly, of 61. Can this for a moment be regarded as in any way being rather a résumé of the chemical work done, than a proportionate to the intellectual labour, the time, and the condensed account of particular researches. There is money expended in their preparation, illustration, and no doubt that these abstracts, if furnished with a full delivery? It might be considered to be a moderate recom- and comprehensive index, both of the subject-matter and pense for one lecture, but as payment for a course it is the names of the authors, will become a standard work simply monstrous. Is it surprising that the lectures ar of reference, not only here but on the Continent. often given without animation, and listened to without It is to be hoped that other Scientific Societies will be interest ?

induced to follow the example of the Chemical Society, By amalgamating several schools, however, such chairs and, by publishing abstracts of all papers connected with might, it is hoped, be so far increased in value as not their particular branch of science, give an impetus to its only to lead men of high ability, and distinguished for cultivation, and render a knowledge of its general protheir knowledge in particular branches of science, to gress easily attainable. The value of such abstracts is accept them, but to provide ample funds to admit of their greater than might at first sight appear ; for the study of copious illustration, and for the purchase of expensive Science, both for its own sake, and in its application to apparatus apparatus which the smaller schools now the Arts, is extending so rapidly that it requires a find it difficult or impossible to procure. It would not considerable expenditure of time to acquire a knowledge be difficult, we imagine, to find room for those who at of the numerous researches and discoveries which are present hold appointments as demonstrators, with lighter now being made in any particular science, and leaves but but not less important duties than they have hitherto per- little for the study of the sciences allied to it. If, then, formed. At all events it seems to us that the amalgama- each of the learned societies were to publish abstracts tion scheme, if fairly carried out, would prove the most similar to those of the Chemical Society, it would render splendid example of the Conservation of Force with which it comparatively easy for the workers in any one departwe are acquainted, and on that ground alone should re- ment of science to acquire something more than a superceive the cordial support of the medical teachers through- ficial knowledge of the discoveries made in the others.

the invitation “Try Lapland” fails to stimulate the GLAISHER'S TRAVELS IN THE AIR

jaded nerves of the zealous explorer of “fresh fields and Travels in the Air. By James Glaisher, Camille Flam- pastures new.” In the realms of air, however, there is

marion, W. de Fonvielle, and Gaston Tissandier. still plenty of new ground, if we may be allowed the Second and revised edition. With 125 illustrations. Hibernicism. Mr. Glaisher and the illustrious French trio (London: R. Bentley, 1871.)

can claim this field as almost exclusively their own, though, OTH the scientific and the lover ot adventure will find doubtless, they will not long be left in undisturbed posses

abundance to interest them in this handsome volume. sion of it. After a brief history of the rise and progress of The terrestrial fields of enterprise are getting exhausted. aërostatics in England, Mr. Glaisher here recounts to us Mont Blanc has long since been used up. We are getting the particulars of ten of his most remarkable ascents ; tired of Central Africa and the Steppes of Tartary. Even and the Frenchmen then follow suit. The volume is got

BOTH

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up in drawing-room style, as a veritable livre de luxe; at present of even the fundamental principles of we wish we could transfer to our pages some of the beau- Meteorology, than as establishing any new laws. With tiful chromo-lithographs by which it is illustrated, in regard to temperature, Mr. Glaisher remarks that the particular, the wonderful mirage and luminous aureole decrease as we ascend is far from constant, and we must which serves as frontispiece, and the falling stars as ob- entirely abandon the theory of a decline of 1° of temserved from the balloon, at p. 262. We must, however, perature for every increase of 300 ft. of elevation. With content ourselves with two or three of the scarcely less reference to the colour of the sky, he states that, as viewed effective woodcuts.

from above the clouds, it presents a deep blue colour, The scientific information contained in the volume is which deepens in intensity with increase of elevation important, though rather as showing how little we know regularly from the earth if the sky be free from clouds, or

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