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very brilliant; 24, visible from shortly before 9h P.M.; the on the 21st correspond the magnetic disturbances at finest display took place uh P.M.; 25, traces visible during Rome on the 22nd and the aurora borealis in England at evening in S.S.E. ; 30, traces visible during evening, S.E. Little Wratting, Stonyhurst, and York.

October 21.–Visible during the evening, at 10" 30" P.M., April.—To the aurora australis on April 5, at Melsome fine streamers 30° and 40° high ; 25, visible at times bourne, correspond the aurora australis observed at during the evening, though completely overcast, as a many places of Europe on the same day, at Münster, luminous sheet, extending from S.W. to S.E.; 26, shortly Peckeloh, Lennep, Bonn, Linzig, Dülken, Brunswick, after midnight a beautiful display, though cloudy. Niederorschel, Stettin, Kurnik, Munich, Feldkirch, Wol

November 9.-Visible shortly after midnight until early gast, Berlin, France and Italy, Paris, Austria, Athens, morning, again during the whole evening; fine red streamers at Úpsala, Petersburg, Riga, Pulbus, and Stockholm. visible through bright moonlight ; 15, auroral light visible To the magnetic disturbance on April 23 correspond during the evening, but no streamers ; 17, visible at 9h the magnetic disturbances at Rome, and the aurora 301 P. M., for a short time ; 18, visible all through the borealis at Papenburg on the same day. evening; 19, visible all through the evening; at 9" 20" P.M. May.—To the aurora australis on the 20th at Melbourne very fine streamers ; 20, visible from 11" P. M.; at io minutes corresponds the very fine aurora borealis at Münster, past midnight, a fine display, with streamers extending which also was seen on the same day at Mannheim, Paris, from S.E. to S.W. At 4" A.M. on the 21st the whole ex- and London, and the great magnetic disturbances 'visible tent of the southern sky, from the horizon upwards, was in Rome and Munich. illuminated by a reddish light, terminating in something June.—To the magnetic disturbances in Melbourne on resembling a corona, but no streamers at all were visible; the 13, 14, 16, 17 correspond the magnetic disturbances a thunderstorm occurred towards daylight, and the whole at Rome on the same days. (Bulletino Meteorologico dell' appearance vanished instantaneously at 4" 40m A.M, when | Osservatorio del Collegio Romano, No. 7, vol x.) a terrific thunderclap occurred ; 23, visible between 11" P.M. July:-To the magnetic disturbances on July 8 and 28 and midnight ; 24, traces visible all through the evening ; at Melbourne correspond the disturbances at Róme on the 25, traces visible all through the evening ; 29, visible from same days. gh 30 to 10h P.M., but not brilliant.

August.—To the aurora australis on the 22nd at MelDecember 10- Faint streamers visible all through the bourne corresponds the aurora borealis on the 21st at evening ; 16, visible all through the evening, at 10" P.M. Volpeglino near Tortona in Italy. To the magnetic disturbvery fine streamers, and at intervals, up to 2h A.M. on the ances in Melbourne on the 3, 7, 19, 20, 21, 23 correspond 17th, a very fine display ; 17, visible during the evening, the contemporary disturbances of the magnetic instruments some fine streamers at 9" P.M.

at Rome. With the magnetic disturbances on the 7th 1871, January 3.–Visible during the evening ; 13, visible the aurora borealis at Upsala coincides. With the disafter 11" P.m, no streamers, but strong reddish light in turbance on the 19th the aurora borealis at Münster and S.S.W.; 15, at midnight, faintly visible ; 20, visible during at Carthaus near Dülmen. With the disturbances on the evening, but only faint; 21, visible during evening, but 20th the aurora borealis at Münster, Groeningen, Peckonly faint.

eloh, Oesel, Leipzig, and Upsala. To the magnetic disFebruary 12, visible for a short time at 9" P.M.

turbance on the 23rd corresponds the aurora borealis at

Glasgow. List of dates when great disturbances in the magnetic elements took place, of the same nature as during corresponds the aurora borealis at Carthaus, Danzig,

September.—To the aurora on the 25th in Melbourne auroral displays, but when no auroras were visible, Peckeloh, Weisenheim, also at Arnsburg, Oesel in or at least observed :

Schleswig, Lichtenberg, Hamburg, Upsala. To the 1870: January 3, 4; February 10, 11; March 20, aurora australis on the 26th at Melbourne corresponds 21; April 22, 23, 28 ; May 16 ; June 13, 14, 16, 17; the aurora borealis at Lichtenberg, Weisenheim, Upsala, July 5, 28 ; August 3, 7, 19, 20, 21, 23 ; September 4, 5, 6, Glasgow. To the aurora on the 30th at Melbourne cor7, 8, 16, 18, 26, 27 ; October 1, 15, 24; November 10, 22, responds the aurora borealis on the same day at Upsala 27 ; December 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 22, 23, 25, 27. 1871: and Lichtenberg. To the aurora australis on the 21st at January 5, 6, 10, 27, 28, 30 ; February 4, 5, 9, 13, 14, 15. Melbourne correspond the contemporary aurora borealis

at Upsala, Schleswig, Arnsburg, Lichtenberg, Hamburg, We add to the above-mentioned auroræ australes and | Norburg, Alsen, and the magnetic disturbance at Rome. magnetical disturbances observed in Melbourne the fol- To the aurora on the 24th at Melbourne corresponds lowing ones observed in our own hemisphere :

the contemporary aurora borealis at Carthaus near Dül1870, January.—To the aurora on January 8, at Mel- men, Niederorschel, Groeningen, Danzig, Wolgast, Peckbourne, corresponds the aurora borealis on 8th at Oxford, eloh, Weisenheim, Norburg, Alsen, Eger, Prague, OderLiverpool, Cockermouth, and North Shields. To the berg by the Inn, Kremsmünster, Moncalieri, Vienna, magnetic disturbances on January 3 and 4 correspond the Stockholm, Hawkhurst, London. On the same day great disturbances observed on the same days at Rome; on disturbances of the magnetic instruments were observed January 3 aurora boreales were observed in Piedmont at Rome and at Kremsmünster. and in France ; also in England at Guernsey, Worthing, October.—To the aurora australis on the 21st at Mel. Royston, Norwich, Boston, Eccles, and Culloden. Aurora bourne corresponds the aurora borealis on the same day borealis visible on the 4th in England at Wisbech.

in England, and on the foriner day in Westphalia and February.–To the aurora australis visible on February England. To the aurora australis on the 25th at Mel. 1, from 8 to 10", at Melbourne, correspond the aurora bore- bourne corresponds the brilliant aurora borealis which was alis seen at many places of the Europe on the same day, at seen at many places in Germany, England, Russia, Sweden, Münster, Munich, Ruhrort, Nevtomysl, Peckeloh, Lennep, Italy,* Greece, and Turkey on the same day. To the at Upsala (5" 50" to 13"), also at Caslin, Petersburg, aurora on the 26th at Melbourne corresponds the aurora Königsberg, Paris, London, Calais, Cracow, Stockholm, borealis on the same day in Hamburg, Lichtenberg, Keitum, and in England at Eastbourne, Royston, Little Wrat. Athens, and in England. To the magnetic disturbances ting, Norwich, Wisbech, Boston, North Shields, and on the ist at Melbourne corresponds the aurora borealis Culloden. To the magnetic disturbances on ith at at Peckeloh, Upsala, and in England, and the magnetic disMelbourne correspond the aurora borealis observed on the turbances on the same day. To the magnetic disturbances same day at Upsala, and in England at Taunton, Wilton, on the 15th at Melbourne correspond the contemporary magStreatley, Cardington, York, Hawsker, North Shields.

* Bulletino Meteorologico dell'Osservatorio del Collegio Carlo Alberto in March.-To the magnetic disturbances at Melbourne

Moncalieri.

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netic disturbances in Rome, and the aurora borealis at Up-Coleoptera recently made in Ireland, the most interesting species sala. Tothe magnetic disturbance on the 24th at Melbourne being Chlamius holosericcus from near Killaloe. Mr. Champion correspond the great magnetic disturbances at Rome, and exhibited an example of Emus hirtus recently captured by him the very fine aurora boreales on the same day in Ger- in the New Forest ; also rare British Hemiptera. Mr. Blackmore many, Russia, England, Turkey, Greece, and Sicily.

exhibited a collection of insects of all orders from Tangiers ; locusts November.—The aurora australis of November 9 at

were extremely destructive there, and on the shore the pedesMelbourne, lasting from midnight till the morning twilight, tions of these insects. —Mr. Dunning read a letter from the Rev.

trian is often up to his ankles in the dead and dying accumulacorresponds to an hour to the aurora borealis which was

Mr. Wayne, of Much Wenlock, calling attention to the damage seen at clear full moon on the evening of the 8th in Schles

done to his strawberries in consequence of a Myriopod effecting wig, and to the magnetic disturbances at Rome on the an entrance into the interior of the ripe fruit; also complaining 8th and 9th. To the auroræ australes on the 15th, that his young carrots were destroyed by a dipterous larva, probably 17th, and 18th at Melbourne correspond the auroræ that of Psila rosa, which bored into the root.—Mr. Druce exhibited boreales on the 14th, 17th, and 18th in England. To the a collection of rare Diurnal Lepidoptera, including species of Papilio, great aurora australis on the 19th at Melbourne corre- Euryades, Heliconia, Eresia, Catagramma, Agrias. Paphia, &c. sponds the contemporaryaurora borealis at Münster, Nieder- Mr. Stainton exhibited an example of Botys fuscalis captured by the orschel

, Peckeloh, Schleswig, also at Upsala and in England. Rev. R. P. Murray in the Isle of Man, to the head of which a To the aurora on the 23rd in Melbourne corresponds portion of the puparium still adhered; the insect was flying the aurora borealis in England of the 22nd and 23rd. To briskly when taken, notwithstanding that it must have been nearly the aurora australis of the 24th corresponds the aurora

blind. Mr. Albert Müller exhibited a leaf from a vine growing borealis at Upsala of the 24th and in England. The Riley, State Entomologist for Missouri, exhibited a collection of

at Basle showing the damage done by Phytoptus vitis.--Mr. magnetic disturbances at Rome on the 19th, 20th, 23rd American insects with their transformations. Prof. Westwood 24th, 25th, and 29th coincide with the aurora australis, read a paper on new species of exotic Papilonida, Mr. S. S. on the same days, and the magnetic disturbances at Rome Saunders read a monograph of the Strepsiptera, describing on the 10th, 22nd, and 27th, with the disturbances at Mel-twenty-one species ; he considered the group as undoubtedly bourne on the same days.* Besides the aurora borealis pertaining to the Coleoptera, in the vicinity of Rhipiphorus. on the 22nd in England, and on the 27th in Brünn coin- Mr. C. O. Waterhouse read a memoir on some species of Cancide with the contemporary magnetic disturbances at

tharis. The Baron de Selys Longchamps communicated a Melbourne.

statistical sketch of the Odonata; the number of species of dragon December.—To the aurora australis on the 6th and 17th flies now known he estimated at 1,344. at Melbourne corresponds the aurora borealis at Peckeloh, Society of Biblical Archæology, July 4.-Samuel Birch, Keitum, and in England. To the aurora on the 17th at LL.D., F.S.A., in the chair. The Rev. F. K. Cheyne, M. A., Melbourne corresponds the contemporary aurora borealis

was duly elected a member of the society. The Rev. B. T. at Münster, Schleswig, Breslau, Keitum, and in England. Lowne, M.R.C.S., read a paper “On the Flora of Palestine.' The magnetic disturbance on the 22nd at Melbourne

He considered that it comprised eight distinct elements, four of coincides with the aurora borealis on the 22nd in

the dominant existing floras of Southern Europe, Russian Asia,

North Africa, and that of Arabia and North Western India. Schleswig.

Each of these floras was stated to occupy a distinct region of January 1871.—To the aurora australis on the 3rd and 13th at Melbourne correspond the magnetic disturbances examples of plants belonging to palæarctic Europe, constituting

the country. Interspersed with these are found numerous at Rome on the same day, and to the aurora australis of its fifth element. The Arctic fora of Hermon and Lebanon conthe 13th corresponds the aurora borealis on the same stitutes the sixth. Mr. Lowne thought further that the cedars of day at Münster, Breslau, Cologne, Schleswig. To the the Lebanon, and the papyrus of the Jordan lakes were the aurora on the 15th at Melbourne corresponds the aurora remnants of two ancient and almost extinct floras belonging borealis at Breslau and Schleswig on the 15th. To the to two distinct geological periods. - James Collins read a paper aurora on the 20th at Melbourne corresponds the aurora

"On the Gums, Perfumes, and Resins mentioned in the Bible,” borealis on the 19th at Thurso.

particularly pointing out the fact that few of them were indi. February.-To the aurora australis on the 12th at genous to Palestine, and that many have been wrongly named by

the Greek and later botanists. In the course of his observaMelbourne corresponds the aurora borealis on the 12th at Münster and Niederorschel, Peckeloh, Wolgart, the true and false Balm of Gilead, ladanum, sandal wood, &c.,

tions Mr. Collins detailed the characteristic differences between Moncalieri, Coeslin, Breslau, the pharos of the Weser, and the greater or less efficacy of their medicinal properties. on the west coast of England, Eger, Datschitz, Florence, Mr. Lowne and Mr. Collins brought for exhibition a large Rome, Volpeglino, and ihe aurora borealis on the 13th number of mounted specimens, and a complete collection of at 3 A.M, at Rome. The magnetic disturbances on the gums, perfumes, &c., to illustrate their respective papers. 4th at Melbourne correspond to the magnetic disturb

PARIS ances at Rome on the same day. To the magnetic disturbances on the 5th at Melbourne corresponds the

Académie des Sciences, June 28.-M. Claude Bernard in aurora borealis at Breslau. To the magnetic disturb

the chair. M. Robin presented a new edition of his great work ances on the 9th at Melbourne corresponds the aurora

on the Microscope.-M. Elie de Beaumont presented a most

valuable book by M. Rivat, who died recently, and who was borealis at Cleve and Thurso.

one of the chief engineers in the mining service, containing a EDWARD HEIS

new method of extracting silver from sulphuric ores, with the Münster, Westphalia, June 30

assistance of super-heated steam. The quantity of steam required was originally very great, and is now reduced to both of what it was when the first experiments were tried. This process of

quantitative analysis is largely used in the Laboratory of the Ecole SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES

des Mines, at Paris. — Father Secchi sent a memoir on a sup:

posed relation between protuberances, sun.spots, and “faculæ," LONDON

as discovered by him.- M. Struve and others sent a letter on be. ! Entomological Society, July 3.-A. R. Wallace, president, half of the German astronomers, who will meet at Vienna, and

Some instruin the chair. Prof. Westwood exhibited the minute-book of pro- | asking for the presence of French astronomers. ceedings of an Entomological Society existing in London in ments destroyed by the Communists were intended for that 1780, but which appeared to have been dissolved after about a meeting.-M. Delaunay has circulated amongst the members a year. The members seemed to have consisted of Messrs. Drury, small notice relating to an intended meteorological atlas of Honey, Swift, Francillon, Jones, and Bentley ; the meetings France, and presented the volume of meteorological observations being held weekly.--Mr. S. Stevens exhibited a collection of made at the National Observatory, which he calls the “Obser. * Bulletino Meteorologico del Collegia Romano, dell'Osservatorio di

vatory of Paris.” M. Charles Sainte-Claire Deville rose im. Palermo edel Collegio Carlo Alberto a Moncalieri.

mediately in order to present the French Academy with the

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observations made at the observatory of Montsouris. The two

VIENNA observatories are at a distance of something less than a mile, and Imperial Academy of Sciences, May 11.-Dr. Neilreich a deadly feud appears to exist between them.-M. Ch. Sainte- communicated a critical revision of the species, forms, and hybrid Claire Deville then read a paper relating to the part taken by forms of the genus Hieracium hitherto observed in Austria and him in the projecting of the meteorological atlas of France in Hungary. The author remarked upon the peculiar difficulty of 1847.-M. de Falen and Fisher described bathymetrical obser

deciding what constitutes a species among the Hawkweeds, and vations and researches executed on the coasts of France, in pointed that by one course, the number of species is inordinately 1847, in depths varying up to 250 fathoms. The submarine increased, whilst the other diminishes it to an unnatural minifauna has no peculiarity worth mentioning. M. Gustave Tis

In his treatment of the Hawkweeds of Austria and Hunsandier, one of the postal aeronauts, presented a résumé of the re

gary he has adopted a middle course, namely, the establishment sults obtained by the sixty-four postal aeronautical expeditions of what he calls “artificial species.” – Prof. E. Linnemann during the siege of Paris. IIe merely gives however the num- transmitted a memoir on the simultaneous formation of propylic ber of letters and pigeons sent, but not the number of pigeons aldehyde, acetone, and allylic alcohol with acroleïne, by the desicreturned to Paris, and of letters duly posted in the post-offices cating action of chloride of calcium upon glycerine. — Prof. of the French postal service delegated in the provinces.

F. Simony presented the conclusion of his memoir upon the July 3.-M. Claude Bernard in the chair. --M. Delaunay read

glaciers of the Dachsteingebirge. - Prof. V. von Lang communi. a letter from M. Marie Davy, in answer to M. Ch. Sainte-Claire cated a paper on the dioptrics of a system of centred spherical Deville's communication on the l'hysical Atlas of France. The surfaces.-Prof. C. Jelinek communicated a note by Prof. Handl learned astronomer, supporting M. Marie Davy, admits that the containing corections of errors in Kunzek's meteorological obser. idea of constructing a physical atlas belongs to M. Ch. Sainte vations made at Lemberg.--Dr. von Monckhoven exhibited a Claire Deville, who originated it in 1847 ; but he contends that in blowpipe constructed by him for the production of the Drum1868 he tried to start it, since nothing had been done during mond light, which permits the use of hydrogen, common twenty-one years. M. Delaunay contends moreover that it is a duty gas, or alcohol as the combustible material. He also dis. for the National Observatory to undertake such a publication. cussed some of the incandescent materials which may be em. It is to be hoped that M. Delaunay's exertions will not interfere ployed, of which he seems to preser white marble. Prof. Brühl with M. Sainte-Claire Deville's own publications, and at all transmitted three plates of the anatomy of the lice, intended for events, that we shall have at least an atlas worthy of the French early publication, for the purpose of claiming priority in case of reputation in meteorological matters. But the safer way for both his results being hit upon by Dr. v. Graber, in his memoir on contending parties should be to agree in a common work.. Such the same subject lately communicated to the Academy of Sciences. a resolution would diminish the expenses to the Republic, and May 16. — The following memoirs were communicated :enlarge the chances of common success. M. Sainte-Claire

Graphical determination of the stereographic and allied projecDeville's brother, the chemist, was not returned a member for

tions of the lines of the geographical sphere,” by Prof. J.O.StreissParis, although he received more than 50,000 votes.-M. Delaunay

ler ; “The pressure of water as a motor," by M. F. Schindler. -presented for M. Latterade a most extraordinary memoir on

Director C. von Littrow presented a report upou the determina"The Theory of two Suns.” M. Latterade contends that the

tion of the latitude and azimuth effected by Prof. E. Weiss at warm period which is demonstrated by the presence of tropical Dablitz.-M. F. Unferdinger communicated two mathematical fossils in Sweden and Norway was produced by the proximity of papers, one upon four integrals, the other upon the theory of that a very powerful star which had given to the earth an immense spherical triangle in which one angle is equal to the sum of the quantity of heat, and which from that time has receded into the

other two. abysses of celestial space. M. Latterade contends that the supplementary sun has not disturbed the elements of the planets, because its attractive power was smaller than its warming power.

BOOKS RECEIVED He states, moreover, that the warming power does not vary according to the mass, like the attractive power. This communi- ENGLISH.-Mycological Illustrations: W. W. Saunders, W. G Smith, A.W. cation was referred gravely to a committee composed of three Bennett, part 1 (Van Voorst). -Darwinism Refuted: S. H. Laing (E. Stock).

A Treatise on Asiatic Cholera : C. Macnamara (Churchill). A History of members.-M. Champion sent a new memoir on nitro-glycerine,

British Birds : W. Yarrell, edited by A. Newton, part 1 (Van Voorst). - The which he has studied with so much care during the investment of Census of England and Wales for 1871, Preliminary Report. Paris. It is not only a very dangerous study, but also a very AMERICAN. --A Treatise on Disease; of the Nervous System: W. A. Hampainful labour, as violent headaches are experienced by persons

mond (New York, Appleton). engaged in such operations. The whole of the memoir is Foreign.—Das Leben der Erde : N. Humnel (Leipzig, Fleischer).-Die

Grundsätze graphischen Rechnens, part 1: K. Von Out (Prag, Calve). worthy of being read attentively by working chemists. We will not try to analyse it, but merely mention two facts. Electricity is without action on glycerine as proved by Ruhmkorff, and explosion does not take place at 360° Fah.

CONTENTS

PAGE as supposed, but at 540° only.-M. Quatrefages presented an interesting memoir from M. Dareste, who is pursuing with con

THE Next TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE . stant success his studies on artificial monstrosities, produced by TYNDALL'S “HOURS OF EXERCISE IN THE ALPS." By the Rev. T. G. different operations on eggs during incubation. The learned BONNEY, F.G.S.

199 physiologist examines the alterations produced in the blood, and

Our BOOK SHELF. (With Illustration.) finds the number of corpuscles is very small indeed under special

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:circumstances.-Father Denza sent from Italy an account of the

A New View of Darwinism.-H. HOWORTH; LAWSON TAIT aurora borealis observed in Italy on the evenings of April 9, 10,

Recent Neologisms.-Dr. C. M. INGLEBY 18, and 23. Father Denza mentions other auroræ boreales on

Affinities of the Sponges - E. PARFITT the 7th, 12th, and 18th of June. This last display was very

Cramıning for Examinations . brilliant, and was accompanied with very great magnetical

Great Heat in Iceland during the present Summer.-A. BUCHAN

The Late Thunderstorm.-R. L. Jack. disturbances. It coincided, moreover, with great storms ob

Saturn's Rings. - Lieut. A. M. DAVIES, R.N.. served in England and other countries. --Baron Larey announced that Dr. Castano is just leaving France for a climatological and

On an Error in Regnault's Calculation of the Heat Converted into

Work in the Steam Engine.-A. W. BICKERTON, F.C S. medical inspection of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and perhaps

THE CAUSES OF THE COLOURS OF THE SEA. By Lieut.-Col. W. M‘MASTER 203 Iceland, as well as the Faroe Islands.—In its secret sitting the

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SUN. By J. ERICSSON . Academy is discussing the titles of several candidates to fill the

GREYTOWN AND ADJACENT COUNTRY. By Lieut. S. P. OLIVER, R A. room of M. Lamé, who was mostly engaged in abstruse researches

(With Illustration.) on the application of high mathematics to molecular physics

THE DATE OF THE INTERMENT IN THE AURIGNAC Cave By W. during his whole lifetime. M. Puiteux was chosen as candidate

Boyd DAWKINS, F.R.S. .
in the first line. He will be certainly returned on the ioth. M. DAYLIGHT AURORAS
Lamé cannot have any fitter or more qualified successor.-M. NOTES
Delaunay has published the result of observations for the month

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICA of June. The greatest excess of black bulb thermometer in

CORRESPONDENCE OF NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN AURORÆ. By Dr. vacuo exposed to the sun over the ordinary thermometer in the shade was 351° Fah, on June 1, and the smallest on the 5th, SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. when it was only 4o.

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THURSDAY, JULY 20, 1871

third are to vacate their seats every two years, but are to be eligible for re-election.

2. The Council, which is proposed to " consist of fifteen THE NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE COLLEGE OF members, including a Chairman, of whom five shall be memPHYSICAL SCIENCE

bers of the Chapter, Senate, or Convocation of the Uni

versity of Durham ; and of these one shall be the Warden, WE

E have apprised our readers from time to time and of the other four at least two shall be members of the

of the progress of the arrangements for the pro- Senate ; but all members of the Council shall be elected out posed College of Physical Science in Newcastle. In our of and by the Governors themselves. They shall be elected report of the meeting held on the 25th of March; at which for five years, one-third of the number resigning their places the scheme was first publicly broached, we expressed an every three years, but being re-eligible. They shall in all estimate of the administrative ability of the committee cases retain their appointment for two years." appointed to carry into effect the resolutions then adopted, This Council is to meet monthly, and to transact all the which events have amply justified. A second public ordinary business of the College, arranging the periods meeting was held in Newcastle on Saturday last to receive of study and fees of the students, and to assume the at the hands of the executive an account of their labours, general direction of affairs. and the Report now before us shows the energy which has To a committee of this body, with which all the Probeen brought to bear upon a complicated and laborious fessors shall be combined, is entrusted the more strictly task. Few who read the announcement of the first meet-academical administration and discipline, including the ing-probably few even of those who were there present, number and direction of the Professors' Lectures, subject supposed that the ship, of which the lines were then but to the general control of the Council. talked of, could be ready at the expiration of little more In conclusion, it is proposed "that while steps are being than three months to launch and make her trial voyage. taken to draw up the necessary documents and to pro

We need not reprint the whole Report, as portions of it ceed with the election of the Council in the terms of the are merely the official announcement of arrangements Constitution, the government of the College shall realready made public ; but its contents may be briefly main in the hands of the Executive Committee, who sha ] summarised. The Committee state that

act as the Council for the period of one year. "At their first meeting it was found that the scheme had “At the invitation of the North of England Institute o so far interested the general body of the inhabitants of the Mining and Mechanical Engineers, the Literary and district, that very much more support would be forthcoming Philosophical Society, the Medical College, and the than was sufficient to provide for the six years' experiment; | Natural History Society, occupying a group of buildings and as the University of Durham intimated that the pro- in a good situation already dedicated to scientific purmised aid (1,000l. per annum) would be made permanent poses, a suitable suite of rooms for the lectures, private if a capital sum could be obtained sufficient to secure the rooms for the professors, laboratories, and offices, has continuance of the support from the district, it was con

been secured, which will be sufficient for the accommodasidered advisable to appeal to the public for 30,000l. This tion of the College for some years, when it is hoped the sum was mentioned not as being completely adequate to success of the Institution will be so secured that a sum meet the expenses of a collegiate institution, but as pro- of money sufficient to build separate and suitable accomviding sufficient funds for the commencement of such an

modation will be easily procured.” undertaking.”

It is almost needless to say that this report was well Towards this fund 21,460l, has been obtained, together received and unanimously adopted, and that the meeting with three subscriptions each of 100l. a year, and a hope willingly accorded to the Executive Committee the prois expressed that within the next few months between posed continuation of their powers for a year. In the 30,000l. and 40,000l. may be raised.

discussion some remarks were made by gentlemen taking The election of Professors in Mathematics, Geology, an active part in the labours of the Committee, which Chemistry, and Experimental Physics, and the determina- are worthy of note. tion of the Committee to open the College in October are

Mr. Lowthian Bell alluded to the present available announced. It is recommended that the lecture fees should accommodation for the College as insufficient, except for be such as may secure a large attendance of students and temporary purposes, and suggested the probable necessity it is suggested that five guineas yearly for each course, and for building at any rate new laboratories. He also bade one guinea entrance, would be suitable to this end. the meeting to regard the four professorships already

It had been agreed by the committee to propose the established as but a commencement, there being many following Constitution. The governing bodies of the Col- other departments of Physical Science which must ere lege to be :-firstly, the Governors, cecondly, the Council. long be provided for, and made special allusion to the

1. The Governors; to be limited at first to forty-seven, claims of Biology to representation. of whom nine are to be ex-officio members of the body.

It is true that another member of the committee with Of the remaining thirty-eight, three are to be north-country very pronounced political views, suggested that a chair of Members of Parliament, and two Professors in the Col. Political Economy should be the next subject adopted, lege. Nine are to be elected by subscribers to the fund, but as he did not attempt to show the position of Political and the rest in different proportions by the Chapter of Economy in his scheme of physical science, it was Durham, the Senate, the Convocation, the Municipal scarcely thought necessary to argue the point. Councils of twelve northern towns, and the Scientific In far wider spirit were the remarks of a subsequent Societies of the district. Of the elected members one- speaker, who looked hopefully forward to the time when

VOL. IV.

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success in teaching physical science should enable them “bird's-eye" view of all the various forms of commerto enlarge the basis of the Institution, so as to include all cial metallurgy of lead (in humbler phrase of lead smeltthe higher branches of a liberal education.

ing) will here find a classified survey of it as pracWe have, on more than one occasion, advocated the tised in Great Britain, all over Europe, and in North addition of a Biological chair to the four already agreed America, with some notices of attempts made in South upon, for it has seemed to us an anomaly that a School America. Of the very ancient lead-smelting processes of of Physical, or, to use the correlative term, Natural Asia, probably the earliest practised on a large scale in Science, should be without teaching in general Natural the world, and still believed to be in use in China and History, especially in a locality in which excellent facili- Japan, we do not find a word. Of recent methods in use ties exist. But there is another view which has been pro- in Japan there is a brief notice from Mr. Pumpelly at minently in our mind. If the College were intended to be p. 384, and in China at p. 479. a mere mining and engineering school, established to The first one hundred pages are occupied with the enable engineers and coal-viewers to educate their pupils physical and chemical properties of lead viewed from with less labour and cost, its claim upon the general | the metallurgical stand-point, one which we cannot but public would be small. It is due to the public that Science think is always essentially misty and unsatisfactory. for its own sake,-Science with less direct reference to The physics and chemistry of any metal ought to considerations of pounds, shillings, and pence, should be be the same to everybody, and it seems to recognised ; and in no way could this be so readily done, ought to be fully and accurately known before under existing circumstances, as by the establishment of a ever the student opens a metallurgical book. If that Chair in Biology.

be admissible, then metallurgy proper has its limits adWe readily admit the pre-eminent importance of the vantageously defined and narrowed, and its treatises subjects selected to commence with, and as willingly record ought to be then divided into two distinct classes-the one our confidence that the Executive Committee will ap- like the small octavo volume of Rammelsberg (that most proach this as all other subjects with the single desire to elegant and classic work, now several years published, but do what is right.

yet as true and valuable in almost every page as when it Finally, we would make one comment on the attitude was wet from the press), which teaches the principles of of Durham University. For many years past it has been metallurgy, that is to say, the principles of those reactions regarded as almost hopeless to expect any active assistance which occur in the established and fully-adopted processes in educational matters from that hitherto somewhat sleepy of commercial metallurgy, without going into any details body. But with the new Dean seems to commence a as to apparatus, furnaces, or criticism, as to whether i his new régime, and facts appear to bear out the testimony of or that method or construction of plant be better or worse. many of the speakers at Saturday's meeting, that in all The other, consisting not of any attempt to aggregate arrangements in connection with the new College, the in one volume the details of manufacturing apparatus, University authorities have shown the widest liberality of trying to tell all about the minutiæ, of all the diverand unselfishness.

sities of all the commercial metallurgies in the world The vast importance of schools of this sort, and the —which, we are compelled to say, is impossible within prospect of a movement with a similar object in the West even the very diffuse limits taken by Dr. Percy-will best Riding of Yorkshire, renders needless any apology for consist, we think, of monographs, such as those of M. reviewing with some detail this last addition to our scien- Grüner, in the Annales des Mines of a year or two back, tific institutions.

on this subject of lead. Each one of these monographs,

with the necessary plates of illustration, should really, PERCY'S METALLURGY OF LEAD

and in a genuinely practical way, exhaust one single

national or special system of smelting of lead, or of some The Metallurgy of Lead, including Desilverisation and

one other metal. Cupellation. By John Percy, M.D., F.R.S. (London: Such has been the plan almost universally adopted in J. Murray, 1870.)

Germany and France, and with results at once far more HE preparation of metallic lead from its several ores, comprehensive, clear, and exact, than are practicable from

amongst which galena stands foremost, presents to the hand of any one man, however able, or in any volume us processes and circumstances which, though generally though bulky, illustrated only by woodcuts however exsimple, are amongst the most interesting and delicate in cellent, and those of Dr. Percy's present volume are rethe whole range of productive metallurgy. It is therefore markably clear and good. with even more expectation than attached to his former For the practical and exhaustive description, in fact, of volumes on Copper, Zinc, and Iron that we opened Dr. any single smelting process largely in commercial use, an Percy's present volume ; and, in finding a copious and atlas of folio copper plates, forming a volume in itself, is well-arranged compilation, we have not been disappointed, indispensable. The result of the contrary view of the metalalthough we might have anticipated something more of lurgist's descriptive task, is inevitably that want of balance, original research.

and yet incompleteness here and there, which characterise It would, indeed, be improbable, with the great power all these metallurgic volumes of Dr. Percy. Thus, for we of obtaining information directly from manufacturers feel bound to give an example to sustain our criticism, in his necessarily belonging to the influence and position of a volume on Iron, Dr. Percy goes into the question of blowProfessor at the Government School of Mines, that the ing machines, blast cylinders, and the like--a thing really result should be any other. Accordingly, the reader who as foreign to the metallurgy of iron as the theory and pracdesires to obtain a distinct and tolerably detailed though tice of building chimney stalks would be to that of lead ;

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