« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
more convenient one with a folding roof is still open to the same collected in regard to the metric system, but regretted that the objections as regards bulk, weighi, and inconvenience.
Commissioners had not recommended a bolder course than the artificial horizon is an absolutely essential part of a traveller's permissive legislation of its use. The Commissioners assumed equipment, so that any improvement in its construction is sure there was no immediate cause requiring a general change in the to be welcomed. Captain George's instrument is stated to com- existing system of legal weights and measures of the country for bine all the advantages of the larger and more cumbrous horizon the purposes of external trace, but they had not sufficiently taken now in use, together with the additional property of securing into account the bearings of the question on education and observations at very low altitudes. The improvements are not scientific workmanship, and the general economics of the nation. confined to its reduced size and weight, but extend to its The committee admit that the full realisation of the advantages mechanical arrangements, form, and moderate price. The new of the system must be the work of time, but all the more neceshorizon weighs 1} lb., while that now in use weighs 64 lbs. The sary is it to make provision for the same by inserting in any self-replenishing horizon consists of two circular disc-like measure on the subject clauses fixing a time when the use of the reservoirs, about 24 inches in diameter, and three-quarters of an new system will become binding. Pending the final settlement inch in depth, made of iron in one casting. One contains the of this important question, the committee are gratified in finding mercury, and the other is the trough, fitted with a glass cover for that the Educational Code of this year for the first time prescribes observing. The discs are connected at their circumferences by that in all schools the children in Standards V. and VI. in a narrow neck, with a hole drilled through it, by which the arithmetic should know the principles of the metric system. The mercury passes from one reservoir to the other, communication com inittee are convinced that the school is the proper place for being opened or cut off by a stop-cock, without removing the initiating this useful reform, and urge that teachers should at glass cover, or running the risk of losing any of the mercury. once commence to introduce this subject in the schools. The
A paper by Major Basevi, On the Minicoy Island, was next committee have represented to the London School Board the read.* Major Basevi, who is connected with the Great Trigono- desirability of introducing the metric system into its schools, and netrical Survey of India, visited the Island of Minicoy, with will correspond in a similar manner with other school boards. In the object of comparing the intensity of gravity on an island
order to diffuse information on the subject, the committee suggest siation with that at inland stations in the same latitude. Minicoy that they should be re-appointed, with a grant of at least 751. is a small coral island, in shape somewhat resembling a crescent, from the sunds of the Association. Aster some discussion, the and about 64 miles long. The whole of the island is covered report was accepted—it being understood that no opinion was with cocoa plants, which are the chief source of wealth to the expressed on the compulsory question. On the same day inhabitants, all of whom have their own trees—the rich as many
the Report of the Committee for the Tabulation of the Census as 2,000. The village of Minicoy is situated nearly in the
was read by Mr. Fellowes. It stated that various suggestions middle of the island on the west side. It is half a mile long, had been made to Mr. Bruce, with the view of having the returns and contains about 300 houses, built of coral rock, cemented from the various parts of the kingdom tabulated in one uni!orm with lime and thatched with palm leaves. The result of Major method, and the committee had reason to believe that the recom. Basevi's observations on the Island of Minicoy was the conclu- mendation in their memorial would ultimately, to a considerable sion that gravity on the coast is greater than inland, and at an extent, be adopted by Her Majesty's Government, ocean station like Minicoy greater than on the coast.
After the reading of Mr. Fellowes's paper On a Proposed already known that at inland stations gravity appeared to be in Doomsday Book, giving the value of the Governmental property, defect of that observed at coast stations in similar latitudes; as a basis for a sound system of national finance and accounts, and, by including the ocean station of Minicoy in Major Basevi's Mr. T. J. Boyd, master of the Merchant Company, read a series, a confirmation of the law has been obtained.
paper On Educational Hospital Reform ; the Scheme of the EdinCaptain A. Pullan contributed some notes On British burgh Merchant Company. The object of this paper was to Gurhwal
, where he had been employed for four years on the illustrate, from what had been done by the Merchant Company Trigonometrical Survey ; and Mr. Samuel Mossman a paper On in recent years, the manner in which similar foundations might the Inundation and Subsistence of the Yangtze River,
increase their use ulness and extend the benefits contemplated by Mr. Clements Markham read a report On Badokshan, by the founder. Bandit Manphul ; and a description of a journey from Yassin On the following day Col. Sir J. E. Alexander read a paper On to Yarkhand, by Ibrahim Khan. The most interesting feature Sanitary Measures for Scottish Villages
Among the evils in connection with these papers was that they confirmed the pointed out as existing in these villages were the overcrowding surveys of the country made in 1838.40 by Captain Wood of of cottages, the system of "box-beds," in which father, mother, the Royal Navy Captain Wood, who is a native of Edinburgh, and children might often be found huddled together, the built-in discovered the river Oxus, and for doing so was awarded one of windows quite incapable of being opened, the general want of the gold medals of the Royal Geographical Society. His air and ventilation, and the proximity of cow-sheds and pig-sties. surveys were ignored by Prussian and Ru-sian geographers, but The writer showed how ministers, surgeons, schoolmasters, and were now confirmed by the native travellers who have devoted employers might promote the welfare of the people by incultheir attention to the parts of the country in question.
cating the laws of health, and promoting a taste for pure and The Rev. F. O. Morris contributed a paper On Encroach
innocent recreations. ments of the Sea on the East Coast of Yorkshire. It was stated One of the most interesting episodes in this section oc. that on the average there had been a loss of land of from two to curred on Saturday, when the reading of a paper by Mr. three yards every year-probably about 2 to 2 yards per annum. George Smith, On Indian Statistics and Onicial Reports, If looked at in round numbers, the waste of land, at three yards gave occasion to the following remarks on Indian educain each year, would be found to be about thirty-nine acres tion by a native Hindoo, Mr. A. Jyram Row.
A great between Spurn Point and Flamborough Head alone, or in a element in the success of the schemes for the better educa. hundred years of 3,900 acres, which, at a value per acre of 30l. tion of the Indian population was the nature of the educaor 501., would represent a serious money loss of grain or other
tion which must in future be given to the natives of India. At crops ; or, taking the was!e, as had been calculated, at one mile
present it was certainly of a character calculated to do a great since the date of the Conquest (1966), the money value in that deal of good, but at the same time it was restricted to English interval, at 30l. per acre, would be equal to 691,2001., or at 50l | literaʻure and mathematics. Now, the mere reading of Shakean acre no less that 1, 152,000l. Mr. Morris concluded by saying spear, and the mere cramming of a few propositions from there was no doubt whatever that a sea-wall of roughly-hewn, Euclid, would never enable people to embrace large questions or even unhe w'n, stones, laid on an angle of about thirty-five of speculative and scientific interest, which alone could be exdegrees, would lor ever protect the land from encroachment.
pected in the end to lead to any practical result. Without such an education these statistical schemes would seem at first sight to
have nothing to do with anything that was practical, unless it 'SECTION F.
were (as some people supposed) that they merely had reference The papers and discu:sion in Section F are scarcely of a to the imposition of a poll-tax or some such thing. They could nature to come within the range of a report in NATURE. Occa- not see (and it was not to be expected that people unaccustomed sionally, however, they may well find a place, as when on the first to scientific questions and the bearings of each department of day Sir John Bowring read the report of the Metric Committee science upon the solution of problems entirely unconnected with of the British Association. The Committee were much gratified the department could see) that such schemes would be of the at the large amount of information the Royal Commissioners had highest consequence towards the material welfare and progress,
not only of Hindostan, but of every nation on the globe. There- for a cable of which the metal would be one inch in diameter :fore, he was of opinion that such an influential body as the Let the cable manufacturer provide himself with a number of British Association would do well to exert its influence in ob- plates of rolled iron, of the same quality as the cylindrical bars taining for the natives of India a more thorough scientific edu- of iron of which the ordinary links are made. The thickness of cation.
each plate is to be equal to the diameter of the bar from which The time of this section on Monday, August 7, was chiefly it is provided. Eight links will have to be punched out of the occupied by debating the administration of the Poor-law Refor- plates by means of a steam punch. One new link, when filed matories and kindred subjects not suited to our columns. half round, will be placed longitudinally at each extremity of the paper on the Scientific Aspects of Children's Hospitals, Dr. | cable, with which it will be connected. A new link, alter being William Stephenson endeavoured to show how far their general filed as aforesaid, will be inserted longitudinally at every filteen management tended to promote the twofold object for which they fathoms in each cable, so as to form a part or parts of the cable ; were called into existence-namely, the relief of the children of and each cable being about 150 fathoms long, will require eight the poor and scientific instruction in the diseases of children--and
new links. what external causes were at work to check the full development of the influences they exeried. He pointed out the importance burgh, was read by Mr. Miall
A paper On Road Steamers, by Mr. R. W. Thomson, Edin. of such institutions as the Sick Children's Hospital, in the way
In the outset, the paper alluded
to the importance of road steamers and the difficulties which had of extending the knowledge of the diseases of children among
been encountered in arriving at the present stage of perfection students of medicine, and also in the way of training nurses both for the hospital and for the lamily.
with these machines. A uniformity in the working of the engine On Tuesday, the paper which excited the greatest interest and having been reached, a thick carpet of india-rubber for the tires most animated discussion was by Miss Lydia Becker, On some
of the wheels was introduced, which much improved the running Maxims of Political Economy as applied to the Employment of vented hard shocks to the machinery, but saved the road from
on roads. These india-rubber tires not only completely preWomen and the Education of Giris; and this was followed by the grinding action of the iron wheels which was so injurious to one on Varal Efficiency and Dockyard Economy, by Mr. Charles by-ways. There had been serious objections made to the use of Lamport, and by others on Land Tenure and the Assessment of
these engines by people interested in the roads, but the author the l oor, concluding the business of this section.
could assure them that the india-rubber tires actually improved
the roads. The paper went on to refer to rigid tires as used for SECTION G.
road steamers, and stated that the amount of adhesion obtained On the opening day of the Association, Mr. Thomas Steven by this tire was much less than by the india-rubber kind. The son, C.E., in introducing the subject of a Proposed Auto
latier kind took a firm hold of the road, whatever might be the matic Gauge for the Discharge over Waste Wairs, said that nature of the surface. The only ground upon which india-rubber in order to ascertain the amount of available rainfall, which
tires did not work well was where the soil was extremely wet or was so important in questions of water supply, it was neces
of a very soft nature. For farm work the wheels of the engine sary to gauge the quantity of water which escaped at the waste required a much thicker coat of india-rubber. weirs of reservoirs. Observations made only once or twice a day Mr. Robert Fairlie read a paper On the Gauge of Railways. could not supply the information. He proposed to place a tube | The author argues for the narrower gauge, and says :- - Experience perforated vertically with small holes, the lowest of which was
has shown that 3ft. 6in. can be made a highly economical and on a level with the top of the waste weir, so that whenever water
efficient width, but it does not by any means follow that it is the passed over the weir, it also passed through the holes in the tube.
most serviceableand most efhcient, any more than it follows that the The water was collected in a tank capable of holding the dis
accidental 41t. 84in. was all that could be desired, even though charge for a certain number of hours. The quantity so collected
an Act of Parliament had made it an article of belief. On the conwas a known submultiple of what passed over the weir.
trary, as our knowledge and experience increase, we are enabled discharge through the holes was ascertained by experiment. to approach more and more nearly to that happy mean on either In the discussion which foilowed, different views were ex
side of which is error. While, on the one hand, there is every pressed as to the practical value of Mr. Stevenson's proposal, necessity for obtaining such a gauge as will afford a good and which was, however, favourably regarded by Prof. Rankine.
useful width of vehicles, on the other it is necessary to avoid A paper on A New Form of Salmon Ladders for Reserroirs was such narrow limits as would necessitate the introduction of too read by Mr. Alexander Leslie, C.E. The new form of salmon
great overhang on each side of the rails. The 3ft. gauge appears ladders for reservoirs of varying level, a model of which was ex- to me to comply with all the necessary condicions better than any hibited, contemplates that on all occasions the whole ouiflow re- other, and it is from no mere theurising that I lend all the quired to run down the stream should be i hrough only one sluice influence I have towards its adoption. There is a certain amount at a time, and over the top of that sluice, which would open by of saving in first cost as compared with the 3ft. 6in., not a large lowering, and shut by being raised, except in extreme loods, amount, but worth considering. This, however, I leave out of when, for the sake of keeping down the level of the lake, so as the discussion for the present. The all-important matters are to to avoid flooding the adjoining lands, or when from any other place upon the rails a thoroughly efficient stock that shall possess exceptional reason, such as an accumulation of ice, it may be a maximum of capacity and a minimum of weight, and to supply necessary to provide a lower outlet or the means for a more rapid engine-power under the most economical circumstances, and I discharge. Assuming the rise of the lake to be 12 feet, and that hold it to be tasier to accomplish these objects on the 3ft. gauge it is full, or up to the level of the waste weir, the uppermust than upon any other. I am led to this conclusion both by a sluice is opened, so that the water may flow over it to the depth comparison of ihe actual work done on the railways of the 3st. 6in. of, say, from 9 to 12 inches, and then run down the inclined plane gauge, with that which can be accomplished with the 3st. gauge, of, say, 10 feet in width, composed of a series of pools fo med and because, having in view the practical requirements of goods by stops reaching quite across from wall to wall, the fall rom trafic, I find that I can obtain an ample floor area with less deid surface to surface of those stops being 18 inches, and the depth weight than can be secured by any other width ; on a wider of each pool being not less than 3 feet. The fish may then easily gauge the dead-weight increases, on a narrower one the capacity leap over the successive falls, seven in number, after which they diminishes. He quoted figures to show that to carry 50 tons of must take the last leap over the sluice into the lake, the last leap goods on the Norwegi.ın or(Jueensland 3st. o'n. gauge, the proporbeing at first like all the rest, 18 inches, but diminishing in jion of one ton per waygon being preserved, 92 per cent of the height as the level of the lake is lowered, vill at last it is noding, weight of rolling stock used on the fli.8}in. would be required ; as when the level of the lake comes to be the same as that of the against only 43 per cent. on a 31t. gauge, showing a saving of 47 pool. The paper went on to describe the process of the working per cent. on the latter as compared with the 3ft. oin. Of course, of the machine when the lake gets too low to give the requisite is the wagons were loaded up to full capacity, these percentages supply of water over the top, and concluded by stating that it would be very much changed. It is to this point especially that would be preferable not to make the ladder above 18 inches. On I wish to direct your attention, as upon it the economy of the that point, however, the author did not offer any decided opinion, 3st. gauge rests. Whatever saving may be effected in first cost but left it an open question.
may be lost sight of, the great advantage lying in the saving The next paper was by Mr. R. A. Peacock, C. E., Jersey, on ellected in working expenses. Every ton of dead weight saved A Chain Cable Testing and proposed Vw Link. The paper pro- goes towards securing the prosperity of the line, and if we posed to provide a new testing link, which, it was believich, would can obtain the anple platform winich the zít. gauge gives, combe found useful in various ways. The following is a descri, tion bined with so much saving in weight, nothing is left to be desired.
A paper On a New System of Warming and Ventilation by clude, because human remains are not, as a rule, found assoMr. J. D. Morrison, was read. The main features of the sys- ciated with flint implements and animal remains in the bone lem consist in so circulating fresh air through a warming cham- caves, that therefore they cannot have been originally deposited per into the room, and foul air through the fire into the chimney, along with them. He also cites a number of unquestioned hat all local currents are resolved into one, which forms an upper instances in which the bones of man have been found in such warmer current from the fire to the opposite wall, and an under situa'ions, to all appearance contemporaneous with the animal colder current from the wall back again to the fire, when, after remains. Even were such evidence entirely wanting. Mr. Pen. supporting combustion, the products escape up the chimney. gelly considers the flint implements themselves absolutely conThe vacuum thus produced by the warmer current through the clusive proof of the contemporaneity of man with the mammoth chimney creates the now colder current from the atmosphere, and the extinct cave-animals. One of the most valuable and which, passing through the heating chanıber, supports the respi. interesting art cles in the nu dber, though a short one, is entitled ration of any number of persons.
“A New Mechanical Agent : A Jet of Sand.” Mr. B. C. On Friday, August 8, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, F.C.S., read a Tilghman, of Philadelphia, appears to hive solved the problem paper On the Rhysimeter, an instrument for indicating the of cutting or carving, mechanically, hard substances, such as velocity of flowing liquids, and for measuring the speed stone, glass, or hard metals, in an expeditious, accurate, and of ships through the water. The principle on which it is economical manner. He has shown that a jet of quiriz sand constructed resembles that of the anemometer, recently thrown against a block of solid corundun will bore a hole through brought into notice by Mr. Fletcher, by which he is it one and a half inches in diameter and one and a half in his able to measure the speed of hot air, flame, and smoke, deep in twen y-five minutes and this with a velocily obtainable contaminated with dust or corrosive vapours, as met with in by the use of steam as a propelling power at a pressure of 300lbs. furnace Nues and factory chimneys. Both in the anemometer per square inch. The apparatus used for grinding or cu'ting and in the rhysimeter, the impact force of the current, and also glass or stone is described in detail. By covering parts of the its tendency to induce a current parallel with itself, are measured glass surface by a stencil or pattern of any tough or elastic mateand made to become indicators of the force and velocity of the rial, such as paper, lace, caoutchouc, or oil paint, designs of any stream. The apparatus is very simple. A compound iube with kind may be engraved upon i. In his abs'racts of the Progress two orifices at the bottom, one of which faces the source of the of Science, the editor now confines himself entirely to the current, while the other faces the opposi'e direction, is held in physical branches. the stream, and communicates by tubes with the indicator where THE American Naturalist for August con'ains no one very the pressure is measured by columns of ether, water, or mer
strikirg paper, though several of consiаerable interest. Dr. ). cury, according to the circumstances of the case. When used
S. Billin's contributes a mycological paper on the “Study of to measure the velocity of a brook or open stream of water, the Minute Fungi,” and Mr. A. S. Ritchie one, entitled “The speed at any depth or at any portion of its surface can be sepa- Toad as an Entomologist,” showing the very large number of sately estimated. For taking the speed of water in pipes it is insects which that animal destroys. On one occasion the writer only necessary that there should be suitable cocks screwed into found thirteen perfect insects in the stomach of a toad belonging the pipes at the required places ; through these the “speed- to nine species, besides one elytron each of two others, and iube" of the rhysimeter passes without allowing any escape of other vestiges of legs and wings. He concludes that the toad is water, whatever may be the pressure. A still more important of great service to agriculturists.- Prof. Lesquereux has an article application of the instrument is to measuring the speed of ships. on ihe “Mode of Preseryation of Vegetable Remains in the Here the speed-tube pierces the bottom or si e of the ship, and American Coal Measures,”, an important article on vegetable projects a few inches into the water outside. The indicator may palæontology; and Alexander Agassiz a short paper on Systebe in the captain's cabin. It resembles in size and appearance a matic Zoology and Nomenclature,” indicating the great imporbarometer. In it a column of mercury indicates continually the tance of a correct system of nomenclature as an item in the speed of the ship. The full effect of the velocity is imparied t) history of zoology. the mercury, without loss by friction or otherwise, so that the
TheWestern Chronicle of Science for July 1871. Edited by T. H. indication must always be absolutely correct. The instrument
Collins, F.G.S. Nos. 1-7. Falmouih, W. Tregaskis. — We have may be made self-registering, showing by a dial the total number of knots the ship has run since she left port, and marking scientific periodical, and sincerely hope it will not be allowed to
much pleasure in noticing the first seven numbers of this local on a sheet of paper the speed attained at every portion of the drop from want of subscribers, of which the editor complains. It time. This permanent register may, in many cases, be of the
should be encouraged by all lovers of scientific inquiry, not only greatest value.
The paper was illustrated by diagrams, and by in the western district but throughout the country. Its low price, tables showing the velocities in knots per hour, or in feet per only twopence, puts it within the reach of all, while at the same second, for the various heights of the columns of water or mer
time a large circulation is required to make it pay. The seventh cury.
number contains an interesting paper, valuable both to architects Admiral Sir Edward Belcher said the principle was very valu
and geologists, on the ornamental rocks of Devon and Cornwall, able, but he did not see the necessity of passing the tube down
counties abounding in beds of vari-coloured limestone sufficiently so far below the water. He thought one or two inches would
hard to receive the polish of marble. The second is a most sensuffice.
sible and judicious paper on the duties of local societies. If the Prof. Rankine said the principle of the instrument was an old
suggestions here made were carried out in all societies, an interest one, and the author, he believed, admitted this. Mr. Fleicher
in physical science would soon become universal. Besiiles other had overcome a series of inconvenient and difficult details, and
matters, the number contains the results of the May examinations had produced an instrument which had actually been applied to
in science, so far as these concern the classes in the We tot practice with satisfactory results. He belived that the instrument would be a good substitute for the old log system of ascer
Cornwall. A large proportion seem to have passed in the various
subjects, the total number of successful candidates being 69. laining the speed of a ship. This section did not sit on Saturday.
Since the commencement of the Revue Scientifique, it has continued much the same course as its predecessor ihe Revue des
Cours Scientifyues. Seven numbers are now before us, containing SCIENTIFIC SERIALS
among others, the following articles, besides reports of lectures or
extracts from the proceedings of various learned societies at home The article in the Quarterly Journal of Science for July which and abroad :-Van Beneden on Commensalism in the animal will be most read, is by the editor, Mr. Crookes, Experimental kingdom, Ancient Churches by M..Ch. Contejean, Geographical Investigation of a New Force,” on which we have already com- distribution of the Balænæ by Van Beneden, Physico-chemical mented. “The Dawn of Light Printing” gives a sketch of researches or Aquatic Articulates by M. Felix Plateau, M. the early discoveries in photography of Niepce, Fox Talbot, Chauveau's Report on Science and Legislation in relation to the and Daguerre. Mr. F. C. Danvers gives an account of the Cattle-plague in France, M. Claude Bernard on the Inpresent condition of inventions for Pneumatic Transmission, fluence of External Heat on Animals, Accounts of the Life and with mathematical formulæ for the power obtained. Under the Wri ings of M. Claparède and Prof. Payen, M. Pasteur's title “Where are the bones of the Men who made the unpolished address, “ Why France did not find superior men in the moment Flint Implements ?” Mr. Pengelly argues that we know so little of peril,” the addresses delivered at the Liverpool meetings of the about the effect of various climatic and atmospheric conditions on British Ass civion by Huxley, Tyndall, and Rankine, and the bones of man and the lower animals, that it is rash to con- repo ts of some of the sectional proceedings.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES
a moment before the sun and moon's limb appeared, so that the
observer following either of them might well miss it. In the BENGAL
search for and verification of this important observation, the Asiatic Society, June 7.-"Memorandum on the Total duration of total phase can matter little. I have been in comEclipse of December 11 and 12, 1871,” by Lieut. Col. J. F. Ten; munication with the Home Secretary on the subject of obsernant, K. E., F.R.S. In December of this year we have a Total vations of this eclipse, and my views, Í may say, have been most
I Eclipse visible in Southern India. The duration is short, but in cordially receivd. 'I am not yet in a position to submit a prosome respects the circumstances are very favourable, as the Line position officially, but I have great hopes of being able to do so in of central Eclipse passes over the Nilgherry Hills, where, I a few days. * I may just mention that in plotting the shadow track understand, fine weather may be confidentle expected. In order on a map it is necessary to allow for the error of its zero of longi1o be prepared, I have computed carefully the Central Line across tude, a precaulion often forgotten. The longitudes of the G. 1. India, and have added the extent to which errors of the Tabular Survey require a correction of 3'-2-7", and those of the Atlas of place of the moon may be expected to shift it. I hope to have | India one of 4-11" to adjust them to the accepted longitude of before the Eclipse a knowledge of what errors may be anticipated Madras. in the Tables, and thus be in a position to choo-e a central spot, The President was very glad to learn from Colonel Tenif it is worth making a change. The figures, however, show that nant that the Government is likely to sanction a scientific ex. this is not probable, the principal result of an error in Right pedition to the Nilgherries or the occasion of the total eclipse Ascension being to shift the centre of the shadow along its path, in December next. The objects to which Colonel Tennant prue The deviation from which would be corrected by a small error in posed to direct observation were, he need hardly say, of very great the declination which could hardly be foreseen. The duration of scientific interest and importance. The spectroscop c analysis of the Eclipse will be small. At the Nilgherries it will be about the Corona, so far as it had yet been effected, had been protwo minutes, but this cannot, so far as I know, be as yet ac. ductive of no very certain results. The ma'ter could not, how. curately predicted, from uncertainty as to the real diameters of ever, be in better hands than those of Colonel Tennant. He the sun and moon, when free from the enlargement by irradiation. only wished to suggest that those members of the Society, who If the value of the moon's diameter deduced by Oudemans frum might have the requisite leisure and opportunity, should, even Eclipses, be used with that of the sun obtained in the Greenwich with the unaided eye, endeavour to observe as carefully as posTransit Circle, then I find the duration in the Nilgherries just two | sible the exact apparent shape and characteristics of the Corona. minutes. The data of the Nautical Almanac give two minutes He believed that data of very considerable value might be thus seven seconds, and if I may judge from the result I got in 1868 obtained by persons who knew how to ob-erve. Later in the the real duration will fall between these. Short as this time is, evening Colonel Tennant kindly consen'ed to draw up some it is enough with an adequate preparation to produce some re- short direct ons which might serve as a guide to members of the sults of value. It is long enough to allow photographs to be Society who might visit localities of the total eclipse. taken of ihe Corona, as 10 whose structure there is more to be discovered. There seems now no sort of doubt that the Corona
PARIS is not only a solar appendage, but is, as I stated in my report on the Eclipse of 1868, the comparatively cold atmosphere of the
Academie des Sciences, Aug 7.-M. Faye in the chair. No. sun. This should be further spectrosc pically examined. Ob
tice was given of the death o. M. Lecoc, a correspondent living in servers have differed about the number and position of the faint
Clermont Ferrand, the author of valuable pamphlets and bright lines they have seen, but it does not seem that any one
papers on the gro ogy of Central France.
M. Lecocq was, has connected i be variations with the position of the part ex
however, a very active and clever physici-t, and started many amined. To do this appears urgently necessary, and there have
theories of his own. He was a Professor in the University, and his been additions made to the speciioscope which will allow more loss will be very deeply felt by his friends. — Two different papers than one portion of the Cori na to be examined, and its lines were sent describing a bolide which was seen on the 15th of August, recorded during the short time it is visible. There is ano her and which is most extraordinary, as it was visible during ewenty subject, too, of si ectroscopic examination. Kirchhoff, in his theory minutes by Marseilles observers. The course was most irregular of the so'ar cons'itution, supposed it surrounded by an extensive
and zig zag. Leverrier supposed that two different bolides might
have been seen at Marseilles and at the other stations, as the de. atmo-phere consisting of metallic and other vapours, as well as gases, by the absorp ion of which the dark Fraunhö'er lines were scriptions do not agree. The fact of remaining visible during so produced. It has long been clear that there was no such exo
long a time at Marseilles is astonishing, and M. Leverrier is at a tensive a mosphere, and sime physicists have been satisfied that
loss to account for it. The phenomenon will be more fully investi. there is none such. Mr. Lockyer and his collaborateurs, though gated. This is also the case with a paper sent by M. W. de Fonthey have detected a great number of bright lines at the bases vielle, describing the fall of a thunder-bolt on August 3, 3" 1999, of the prominences, have never approached, so far as I know,
on the kirchen of a convent situated in Paris, at 250 yards from the number of even the conspicuous dark lines, whose
The National Observatory, where the astronomers felt a great
shock. origin as, therefore, not been sati-factorily made out.
A gas-burner was lit under very curious circumstances. the Ei lipse of December 22, 1870, however, Prof. Young, at
The explosion was very long and very strong, and it is supposed the moment of obscuration, and fur one or two seconds later,
the lightning was shaped like a sphere falling from the clouds. M. saw, as 'ar as he could judge, every atmospheric line reversed, much imporrance for public safety, as ignition of gas may be the
Dumas showed the interest of elucidating a phenomenon of so and ihis was confirmed by Mr. Pye. I have but the scant information of this point given in the Royal Astronum cal Society's Dumas and M. Jamin, professor to the Sorbonne. Special
secret cause of many fires. The committee is composed of M. Council Report, but it is sufficient to show
me why this has not experiments and inquiries will be made at the expense of the been seen before by observers looking out for it, and also to make me feel the imporiance of verifying the observation. To under. Academy. M, Fonvielle will be an auxiliary member of the stand why it has not been seen before, it must be c nsidered that committee. --M. Delaunay read a paper on the Observatory the image of a bright object in the focus of a telescope when re- during his administrati n, and showing that observations of small lieved against comparative darkness is enlarged by a phenomenon planets will be made with greater zeal than on former years. -A known as irradiation ; the light encroaches on the darkness.
letter was read from M. Angström, the Swedish physicist, mainThe sun thus appears larger and the moon smaller than the taining that each gas has its own spectrum in spite of the real size. This con:inues till the real contact of the limbs in differences exhibited by previous experiments. The learned ternally; at this moment the thread of light, which previously physicist shows that in each case where differences were found, it bad considerable width, appears suddenly broken and vanishes in
is possible to expla'n it by extraneous matters, mixed with the suba total ec ipse ; while in the transit of a planet or annular eclipse is obvious.-M. Bert, who was formerly the Prefect of the North
stance submitted to the experiment. The importance of this memoir there appears the “black drop" of the observers of the Trausit of Venus in 1769. At page 16, vol. xxix, of the monthly notices during the investment of Paris, sent a paper on the death of of the Astronomical Society will be found some higures illus
fishes living in fresh water when immersed in sea water. These trating this phenomenon in a planetary trans t. When we are
fishes are literally suffocated by a singular effect of desiccition, dealing with so thin a stratum surrounuing the true photosphere,
the exosmose is very active, princ pall, when their skin is clotlet we cannot see it in sunshine, as it is lost in the irradiation ( ! may observed on logs, which lose the greater part of their werghii,
with large scales. "The phenomenon is quite extraordinary when be partly visible in very large telescopes where the irradiation's very small), and we are very ap to lise it a the woment when and are almost as much dried up as if they had been salted vie. the sun disappears, for it is found only between the places where
• This has since been lone.
M. Bert will examine the action of fresh water on sea-fish, so wide.spread, left a large part of the area lying between the which is not so rapid. These sea-fish are too heavy for fresh Mississippi and Atlantic uncovered. This area the elephant, running water, and are found generally to remain at the bottom mastodon, great beaver, &c., inhabited during the continuance of the water. On the contrary, fresh water fish always swim at of the flood that covered the forest bed. From this retreat they the top of salt water.
issued with the subsidence of the water, following the retreating
shore-line, till they occupied all the region now exposed about NEW YORK
the great lakes. By what influence they finally became extinct, Lyceum of Natural History, Oct. '24, 1870.--In a we cannot yet say. It has been claimed that they continued to paper read at this sitting the author observed :--In the se- exist down to the advent of man, and that he was an agent in quence of events included in our Drift period there is a their destruction. This statement may be true, but requires marked break, a middle period, during which, over most of further proof before it can be accepted with confidence. The the north-western states, no Drift deposits were made, and when vegetation of the forest bed indicates a cold climate, thus most of this area was covered with a forest growth and sustained confirming what we had otherwise learned of the habits many and large animals. At a subsequent period, all parts of of the extinct elephant. He was clothed with long hair and this area, less than 500 feet above the highest of our present wool, was capable of enduring, and probably preferred a subgreat lakes, was submerged, and most portions of it covered to arctic climate, and was associated in this country as in Europe, greater or less depth, with new Drift deposits, clays, sands, with the musk ox and the reindeer. We may therefore infer gravel and boulders, a large part of northern and remote origin. that a progressive increase in the annual temperature, drove Nearly all the large boulders of the Drift belonging to this later, most of the animals of the Forest-bed northward, and caused to epoch are sometimes of great size (100 tons) and have been floated gather on the shores of the Arctic sea, the herds 'of elephants to their present positions, as they overlie undisturbed stratified whose remains so much impress all travellers who visit that sands and clays, which would have been broken up and carried region. This was probably the scene of the last vigorous and away by glaciers or currents of water, moving with sufficient abundant life, and of the death of the species ; an event consevelocity to transport these blocks. Hence they must have been quent, perhaps, on the action of local causes, which we shall floated from the Canadian highlands, the place of origin of most comprehend when we have opportunities of studying the record. of them, by icebergs. This epoch of the Drift period I have One remarkable statement in regard to the Forest-bed requires therefore termed the Iceberg Epoch. During this epoch the notice. In more than one instance, parties digging wells in submergence of the land in the interior of the continent, was South-Western Ohio, have reported not only that they found a greater than in the epoch of the deposition of the Champlain black soil and logs, but that “some of these logs bore marks and Erie clays, and all the area north of the Ohio was covered of the axe, and were surrounded with chips. These stories I with water up to a height of over 500 feet above Lake Erie, or formerly rejected as pure fabrications; but in the light of recent 1,100 feet above the ocean level. The highlands of south eastern observations, they seem to me to be in part true, and not diffiOhio, and most of the country south of the Ohio river, were not cult of explanation. covered by this food, and now bear no drist deposit of any kind. Tracing out the line of ancient water-surface, we find that the depression was greater towards the north, so that the Alleghanies and their foot-hills, and also a wide area of comparatively low
BOOKS RECEIVED country in the Southern states, formed not only a shore, but a continental limit to the great interior iceberg-ridden sea of the FOREIGN. - Through Williams and Norgate)-Skandinaviens Coleoptera later Drift Epoch. In the western reaches of this sea, which was
Synoptiskt Bearbetade, vol. x: C. G. Thomson.-Medicinische Abhandlun
gen: E. Reich. of fresh water, in the later centuries of its existence, was deposited the Löes or “Bluff” which I have elsewhere designated as the later lacustrine, non-glacial drift. During the deposition
PAMPHLETS RECEIVED of the Löes the interior sea was already narrowing and growing
ENGLISH.- Journal of the Chemical Society, second series, vol. ix shallower by the cutting down of its outlets, or by continental The Seat of the Soul Discovered : 1J. Gillingham (F. Pitman).-Notes on elevation, or both. The descent of the water-level and decrease the Antechamber of the Great Pyramid : Capt Tracy, R.A.- Proceedings of water-surface have been going on perhaps constantly, but not
of the Essex Institute, vols. i to ví -- Bulletin of the Essex Institute from
the commencement to August 17, 1870.-Instructions for the Prompt Treatuniformly, to the present time, when the area of the great lakes
inent of Accidents, &c. : A. Smee. - Accident Insurance Company, a Year's is the insignificant 85,000 square miles it now is. In the descent Claims, 1870.- Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, No. 3, vol. ii.-The of the water-level, retarded at certain periods, terraces and Manufacture of Russian Sheet Iron : Dr J. Percy (John Murray). beach lines were formed at various places by the shore waves. AMERICAN AND COLONIAL — Transactions of the Entomological Scciety of With these history ends. This then is the classification I would
New South Wales pt. 2, vol. ii.- The Amer'can Gaslight Journal — Transac
tions of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, parts 9 and 10. — suggest of the drist deposits as they occur in the valley of the
Proceedings of the Albany Institute, vol. i., part 1.-Nemoirs of the Boston Mississippi, premising that here, as in other geological periods, Society of Natural History, 1868-69.-Memoirs of the Peabody Academy of the column is nowhere absolutely complete :
Science, vol. i., No. 2.
FOREIGN -Les Mondes, Nos 14 and 16.- Journal de Medicine et de
Chirurgie, Nos. 3 to 6, 1871.- Giornale di Sicilia, No. 173 -Rendiconti, vol. PERIOD. EPOCHS. STRATA. Notes.
iv., No. 14. Astronomische Nachtichten, No. 1856.--L'Institut, No. 1920.
--Annals de Chimie et de Physique, vol. xxii., Jan. 1871.-Bulletin HebdoTerraces, \ Sand and gravel beaches with logs,
madaire, 192 La Revue Scientifique. No. 8 - Allgemeine Bibliographie, Beaches, leaves, and fresh-water shells. Löes
&c., No. 32.--Sitzunsgberichte Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Prag, for Löes. with fresh-water and sand shells. 1870.--Zu Anatomie der Elephanten Schilderkrote: Dr. A. Fritsch.-Uber
die Anzietung : Dr. A. von Waltenhofen
tecth and bones.
mostly red cedar. Elephas, masto-
Cooke's HANDBOOK OF BRITISH FUNGI
OUR BOOK SHELF
Neclogisms.-R. G. LATHAM
THE GOVERNMENT AND PROF. SYLVESTER
NEXT. By A C. RANYARD
NOTES ON ECLIPSE PHOTOGRAPHY. By A. Brothers, F.R.A.S.
(Hith Diagram) elephant, mastodon, and the gigantic beaver, occur in the forest
CLIFTON COLLEGE SCHOOL OF NATURAL Science. (With Illustration.) 329 bed and in all the succeeding drift deposits. It should also be THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.-EDINBURGH MEETING, 1871. said that they are found in still greater abundance in peat-bogs
331-338 and alluvial deposits which belong to the present epoch. We
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES have seen that ihe submergence of the later drist epoch, thoug! BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS RECEIVED
323 224 324