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high temperature of the attenuated matter of which it is tion will show that the energy thereby established is too composed exercises any marked influence on the sun's insignificant to exercise any appreciable influence on the radiant energy, may unquestionably be answered practi sun's radiant power. Theoretically, the temperature transcally. An investigation, based on the expedient of con- mitted to the bulb of the focal thermometer by the rays centrating the heat rays of the chromosphere by means off and o, Fig. 4, is inversely as the foreshortened illumi. a parabolic reflector, has been conducted by the writer 'nated area of the reflector to the zone of light produced for some time. The method adopted is such that only on the bulb. Obviously these areas bear nearly the same the heat rays, if such there be, from the chromosphere relation to each other as the squares of l' ord to the and exterior solar envelope, are reflected ; while the rays square of the radius of the bulb Þ. The length of t being from the photosphere are effectuolly shut out. Fig. 1 4.77in., while the radius of the bulb is o‘125in. ; calculashows the general arrangement ; ' a' represents the tion shows that the temperature transmitted by the rays photosphere, and g'h the boundary of the surrounding would be increased 1,456 times if the reflector did not atmosphere; klis a circular screen exactly 10 inches absorb any heat. Allowing that 0-72 of the heat is rein diameter, placed 53676 inches above the base line a o. flected, the augmentation of intensity by concentration This distance obviously varies considerably with the will amount to 072 X 1,456 1,048 times the tempera
Assuming that the investigation takes place ture transmitted by the rays f and 0. The records of the when the sun subtends an angle of 32' 1", the screen kl, if oscillations of the mercurial column during the experiplaced at the distance mentioned, will throw a shadow, ments show, as stated, that the temperature resulting from fo, exactly 9.5 inches diameter; hence objects in the concentration cannot exceed 0'5', hence the temperature plane ao placed within fo, will be effectually shut out transmitted by the rays emanating from the heated matter from the rays projected by the photosphere,
while they will of the solar envelope will only amount to, be fully exposed to the rays, if any, emanating from the
2 X 1084 chromosphere and outer strata of the solar envelope. It should be observed that, owing to diffraction in con
o'00047° Fah. The observations having been made when nection with the extreme feebleness of the sun's rays
the sun's zenith distance was 32° 15', a correction for loss projected from the border, the shadow thrown by the
occasioned by retardation amounting to o‘26 will, however,
be necessary. This correction being made, it will be screen k l extends considerably beyond the circular area
found that the heat actually transmitted by the rays from defined by fo. Fig. 3 exhibits a full size segment of this
the solar envelope during the experiment of August 29, shadow as it appears round f o, the section coloured black
did not exceed 0'00059° Fah., a fact which completely disin Fig. 2 being a photometric representation of the strength of the said shadow from s to a. Special attention is called
poses of Secchi's remarkable assumption that the high to this photometric representation, as it shows that ob
temperature of the photosphere is owing to the “radia
tion received from all the transparent strata of the solar jects placed within the circular area defined by fo are absolutely screened from the rays of the photosphere. It envelope” (see his letter to NATURE, published June 1, is evident that a parabolic reflector of proper
size placed 1871). But we are not discussing the cause : the degree immediately below fo, will concentrate the radiant heat, of temperature at the surface of the photosphere is the if any, transmitted by the rays f' f and gʻg and the inter: problem to be solved. mediate rays. Fig. 4 represents a section of the parabolic
It was stated in the previous article that the radiant reflector which has been employed during the investiga- power of incandescent metals and metals coated with tion. It consists of a solid wrought-iron ring lined with lamp-black and maintained at boiling heat, is directly silver on the inside, turned to exact form and highly proportional to the temperature of the radiator. A series polished. An annular plate 9+5 inches internal diameter: tively that under similar conditions a given area of flame
of experiments with flames just concluded, proves posiis secured to the top of the wrought iron ring to prevent of uniform intensity transmits the same temperature as effectually any rays from the photosphere reaching the
incandescent cast-iron. Secchi's assertion, therefore, reflector. The prolongation of the rays f' f-g's and h n - a' o are shown by dotted lines f, g and n, 0; also
that the photosphere, if composed of incandescent gases, the reflected rays direcied towards the bulb of the focal
may have a very high temperature and yet radiate but thermometer, marked respectively I', o' and g', u'. The
very little,” is wholly untenable. The diminution of ininvestigation not being yet concluded, the following brief tensity attending the passage of the heat rays from the account is deemed sufficient at present. Turning the photosphere through the surrounding atmosphere, is the reflector towards the sun, without applying the screen
only point which can materially affect the question
of temperature. We have shown that on a given kl, a narrow zone of dazzling white light is produced on the black bulb of the focal thermometer, the mercurial
area, the quantity of matter (contained in the solar atcolumn commencing to rise the moment the rays mosphere cannot greatly exceed that of the terrestrial strike the reflecting surface. With a perfectly clear atmosphere; hence the retardation cannot be great. sky, the column during an experiment on August 29, True, the depth of the solar envelope is vast compared
The 1871, reached 320° Fab. in thirty-five seconds.
with that of ihe earth's atmosphere, but distance per se screen k l being applied, after cooling the thermo
does not affect the propagation of radiant heat. Admitting, meter, a zone of feeble grey light appeared on the black however, the retardation to be as the cube root of the bulb nearly as wide as the one produced by the rays from depth--the
ratio observed in the terrestrial atmosphere---the photosphere, but situated somewhat lower. The
it will be found that the loss of energy produced by recolumn of the focal thermometer, however, remained tardation of the heat rays is not important. The solar stationary, excepting the oscillation which always takes
atmosphere being = 2381 times deeper than the place when a thermometer is subjected to the influence of
42 the currents of air unavoidable in a place exposed to a earth's atmosphere, the retardation caused by the former powerful sun. It is proper to remark that owing will be 13:3 times greater than that of the terrestrial atto the stated oscillation, it cannot be positively mosphere, which, as we know, diminishes the radiant in, asserted that there was no heating whatever pro- tensity 17'64' on the ecliptic. Accordingly we are justified duced by the reflection and concentration of the rays in asserting that 13-3. * 176.4° = 234 6 Fah. will be the which formed the zone of grey light adverted to. But the greatest possible diminution of temperature caused by recorded oscillations prove absolutely that the heating did ihe retarding influence of the matter composing the solar not exceed 0'5° Fah. Assuming that such a temperature envelope. The admission in the previous article, that the was actually produced by the reflected concentrated heat retardation under consideration might be oʻol, was based emanating from the solar envelope, the following calcula- on the extreme assumption that the obstruction is directly
proportional to the depth of the sun's atmosphere. At The Managers of the London Institution, Finsbury Circus, first sight the loss of 2346° appears to be a trifling announce the following programme of lecture arrangements for reduction of energy; yet if we consider the mechanical the coming season. The courses of educational lectures will be equivalent which it represents, we cannot doubt its
as follows :-First course, commencing Monday, October 30 : adequacy to supply the motive force expended in pro- Eight lectures “On Elementary Physiology,” by Prof. Huxley. ducing the observed movement of the attenuated matter within the solar atmosphere. Dividing the temperature Lectures "On Elementary Chemistry,” by Prof. Odling. Third
Second Course, commencing Monday, January 15, 1872 : Eight of the photosphere, 4,035,000°, by 234'6, it will be found that the computed, apparently insignificant, retardation Course, commencing Monday, March 11, 1872: Six lectures
“On Elementary Music,” by Prof. Ella, director of the Musical exceeds of the entire dynamic energy developed by Union. Fourth Course, commencing Monday, April 29, 1872:
17,000 the sun-an amount fully 15,500 times greater than the Six Lectures “On Elementary Botany ; with special reference solar energy transmitted to all the planets of our system !
to the Classification of Plants,” by Prof. Bentley. A Course Making due allowance for the extreme attenuation, and of Four Lectures, adapted to a juvenile auditory, “On the the small quantity of matter to be moved, the most ex- Philosophy of Magic," by Mr. J. C. Brough, principal librarian aggerated computation of the probable expenditure of in the London Institution, will be commenced on Thursday, mechanical energy called for in keeping up the currents December 21. A Course of Two Lectures “On Science and of the solar atmosphere, fails to establish an amount at
Commerce ; illustrated by the Raw Materials of our Manufacall equal to that capable of being generated by utilising 234° of the radiant heat emanating from the photosphere. tures,” by Mr. P. L. Simmonds, will be commenced on Thursday
, In view of the foregoing statements and the demonstra
November 23. This course will be illustrated by a large collections contained in the previous article on solar heat, we
tion of beautiful and interesting specimens of animal and vege. cannot consistently resuse to accept the conclusion, that table products. The following lectures will probably be de. the temperature at the surface of the photosphere is very
livered at the Conversazioni of the coming season :- “The nearly 4,036,000° Fah.
J. ERICSSON Teachings of the Spectroscope,” by Dr. William Huggins ;
“The Homing, or Carrier Pigeon : its Natural History, Train
ing, and Exploits,” by Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier ; “The Sun," by NOTES
Mr. J. Norman Lockyer ; “Two Years' Gleanings in Syria and The Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge (Dr. Bond) has Palestine,” by Captain Richard F. Burton ; “The Haunts of issued a schedule of lectures on subjects connected with the study Old Londoners,” by Mr. Thomas Archer ; “On Colour," by of medicine which will be delivered during the Academical Prof. Barff. The evening class for elementary chemical analysis year 1871-2. The following are the arrangements for this Term : will commence work, under the direction of Prof. H. E. Arm. Prof. Liveing will lecture on practical chemistry on Tuesdays, strong, on Tuesday, November 7. Thursdays, and Saturdays, at i P.M., commencing October 10. The Linacre lecturer will deliver a course of medical clinical
In his address at the recent opening of the new Mechanics' lectures on Fridays, at 10 A.M., commencing October 13. The
Institute at Bradford, Mr. W. E. Forster, M.P., remarked that Professor of Anatomy (Dr. Humphry) will lecture on practical when institutions of this kind were first established they were anatomy on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 6 p.m, intended to give to mechanics scientific knowledge ; but it was commencing October 16. Mr. C. Lestourgeon, M. 4., will on
discovered that that was impossible, except in rare cases, because October 19 commence a course of surgical clinical leciures, and
mechanics had no elementrary teaching on which could be will continue the same on each Thursday during Term, at 11 A.M.
grounded scientific knowledge, and consequently these institutes Anatomy and Physiology will be the subject of a course by the
were obliged to be turned very much into elementary schools Professor of Anatomy, commencing October 21, at i P.m., and
and night schools, rather than into the teaching of science and continued on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays at the same
higher literature, which we had hoped to give to our mechanics. hour. The Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy | A conviction, however, is now gaining ground that an essential (Mr. A. Newton) will lecture on those subjects on Mondays, portion of this elementary teaching consists of instruction in the Wednesdays, and Fridays, at i P.M., commencing October 23.
rudiments of science, which would be of material advantage to Special departments in chemistry will be the subject of lectures
none more than to the working classes. by the professor of that faculty on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and The open Scholarship in Natural Science, established this Saturdays at noon, commencing October 26. Practical histology year at St. Mary's Hospital, has been gained by Mr. E. J. Ed. will form a separate course under the superintendence of Dr. wards. This Scholarship is worth 40!. a year for three years. Humphry, commencing October 28 at 11.30 A. M., and continued The Exhibition of 201., awarded at the same time, has been each succeeding Saturday until its completion.
gained by Mr. Giles. Both gentlemen are students at the The Franklin Institute of Philadelphia announces the follow- University of London. ing synopsis of lectures for 1871-72. The regular course will The Ettles Scholarship at the University of Edinburgh, which comprise a series of forty lectures, divided as follows :--). "On is annually awarded to the most distinguished graduate, has been Physics and Mechanics," by John G. Moore, M.S. 2. “On given to Dr. Urban Pritchard, a student of King's College, General Physics and Acoustics,” by Prof. Edwin J. Houston. London. Dr. Pritchard also gained a gold medal for original 3. “On Guns, Gunpowder, and Projectiles,” by Lieut. C. E. researches on the structure of the organ of Corti, conducted by atton. 4. “On the Chemistry of the Earth and of the Vital
him in the physiological laboratory of King's College. Process in Animals and Plants," by Prof. Samuel B. Howell, M.D. 5. “On the History of Alchemy,” by William H. Wahl,
The vacancy in the Botanical Department of the British Ph.D. 6. “On the Metallurgy of Iron and Steel,” by Thos.
Mseuum, caused by the promotion of Mr. Carruthers, has been M. Brown, Ph.D. Besides the lectures enumerated, the Insti
filled by the appointment of Mr. James Britten, late assistant in tute has arranged with a number of eminent lecturers for the
the Royal Herbarium, Kew. delivery of a popular course of scientific subjects, and it is Mr. Robert ROUTLEDGE, a scientific graduate in honours of believed that the plan here indicated, of offering a series of lec- the University of London, has been appointed conductor of the tures brilliantly and largely illustrated, will go far towards attract- classes in Chemistry and Physical Science at the Manchester ing the attention and interest of the public to these most im. Mechanics’ Institute. These classes are intended to encourage portant subjects.
technical education among the working classes, and consist of
courses on applied mechanics, steam and the steam-engines, ing population of Continental Europe ; to specify which of such acoustics, light and heat, magnetism and electricity, inorganic industries are most suitable to the soil, climate, and circumchemistry, and practical chemistry, held in the evening, and fully stances; to report on the best means of promoting their introillustrated by experiments, diagrams, and models. The fees duction into Victoria; to report how far the labour of persons at for members of the institution are, with the exception of the the disposal of the State may be advantageously used for that class of Practical Chemistry, one shilling per session.
purpose ; to further consider and report on the best means of We regret to hear from German advices, of the death of promoting the culture, extension, and preservation of State Prof. Schweigger-Seidel, of Leipzig, assistant Professor in Histo
forests in Victoria ; and to report on the introduction of such logy to Prof. Ludwig. Prof. Schweigger-Seidel was well known foreign trees as may be suitable to the climate and useful for in.
dustrial for his careful and accurate researches on several difficult points
purposes. of histology, especially connected with nerve-endings in the The Government of India have resolved to organise a statissalivary glands, the lymphatic system, and the cornea.
tical department for the purpose of ascertaining and conserving The Geological Magazine records the death, at the age of thirty,
the internal resources of India. Dr. Hunter will be the first of Dr. Georg Justin Carl Urbar. Schloenbach, Professor of Geology
Director General of this new department. of the Polytechnic Institute of Prague. Previously to receiving
It seems hardly credible that no public monument exists in this appointment, Dr. Schloenbach had resided in Vienna, where he was an active and energetic member of the k. k. Geol. Reich
this country to the discoverer of the circulation of the blood
This defect is now likely to be remedied, and preliminary steps sanstalt. It was whilst engaged for this Institute, travelling in have been taken at Fulkestone, Harvey's birthplace, to mark the Servia, that his constitution broke down, under the tremendous tercentenary of his birth by the erection of a suitable public fatigue which geologists in these parts have sometimes to undergo. Camping out in what is by no means a tropical latitude brought the Mayor of Folkestone in the chair-Mr. George Eastes, M.B.,
monument. At a meeting convened by influential requisitionon rheumatism, and shortly afterwards congestion of the lungs with whom the movement originates, read an interesting sketch ended his life, after a painful but short illness.
of his life, labour, and character. Dr. Bateman, Dr. Bowles, GOOD is reported from the Hartley Institute,
and other local gentlemen, moved resolutions appointing a progress Southampton, both the day and evening classes being in a very
numerous committee, nominating Dr. Bence Jones, F.R.S., flourishing condition. During the past year as many as 420
treasurer, the Town Clerk of Folkestone and Mr. George Eastes, students attended these classes. As Science forms a large pro
M.B., London, as honorary secretaries. portion of the instruction given, there can be but little doubt At the last sitting of the French Academy, an important paper that the value of the technical knowledge so disseminated will was read on the results of M. Pasteur's long and patient researches be very great.
into the causes and the best mode of extirpating that terrible The next Actonian Prize or prizes offered by the Royal Insti
disease of the silkworm, the pébrine. His efforts appear to have tution, will be awarded in the year 1872 to an essay or essays
been eminently successful in checking the epidemic, by the simple illustrative of the wisdom and beneficence of the Almighty. The
means of destroying the eggs from all moths which can by any subject is “The Theory of the Evolution of Living Things." possibility have become tainted. The yield of healthy eggs is The prize fund is two hundred guineas, and it will be awarded
now again increasing rapidly in the south of France ; and as a single prize, or in sums of not less than one hundred guineas
in a few years the disease will probably be all but exterminated. each, or withheld altogether, as the managers in their judgment
It is hoped that when the National Assembly again meets, some shall think proper. Competitors for the prize are requested to public recognition will be made of M. Pasteur's eminent services. send their essays to the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, on
The Observer comments with great justice on the dispropor. or before June 30, 1872, addressed to the secretary, and the
tion between the emoluments for divinity, and for legal, mathe. adjudication will be made by the managers in December 1872.
matical, and classical instruction at Oxford—“While the salaries The First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings an. of five legal professors, in the aggregate, reach 2,000l., those of nounces that he intends again to distribute this autumn, among the Latin and Greek professors reach 1,100l.; those of three the working classes and the poor inhabitants of London, the professors of metaphysics, &c., reach 1, 100l.; and those of three surplus bedding-out plants in Battersea, Hyde, the Regent's, and mathematical professors reach 1,4001.-showing an average of Victoria Parks, and in the Royal Gardens, Kew. If the clergy, about 480l. for each professor ; the six professors of divinity enjoy school committees, and others interested, will make application the munificent income of upwards of 1,000l. a year each, with houses to the superintendents of the parks nearest to their respective into the bargain.” It adds, “That Oxford should pay 6,300l. a parishes, or to the director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, in the year for doctrinal divinity, and only 500l. a year for Greek, is a cases of persons residing in that neighbourhood, they will re. quaint anomaly, to say the least.” If, however, our contem. ceive early intimation of the number of plants that can be porary had included statistics of the remuneration for science, it allotted to each applicant, and of the time and manner of their would have strengthened its case considerably. distribution.
The Journal of Botany states that a great desideratum in A Royal Commission has been appointed at Melbourne for botanical literature is shortly to be supplied. Considerable pro. Foreign Industries and Forests, the members being the Hon. S. gress has been made in printing a second edition of Pritzel's H. Bindon, Chairman; the Hon. G. W. Cole, M.L.C.; the Hon. “Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanică," a catalogue of all works ever R. Hope, M.D., M.L.C.; Mr. R. Ramsay, M.P.; Mr. J. F. published in all departments of botanical literature, now twenty Levien, M.P.; Mr. W. Witt, M.P.; Mr. T. M. B. Phillips, M.P.; years old. Mr. F. Von Mueller, C.M.G., F.R.S; Mr. Thos. Black, Presi.
We have received from Mr. Marshall Hall a history of the cruise dent of the Acclimatisation Society, M.D.; the Rev. J. I. Bleas. dale, D.D.; Mr. Paul de Castella ; Mr. C. Hodgkinson; Mr.
of the Norna, giving in a pleasant chatty form the main results of R. Brough Smith, F.G.S.; Mr. John Hood. The objects of the expedition as they would interest the public at large. The the Commission are to consider and report how far it may be more important zoological details will be found in another
column. practicable to introduce into that country branches of industry which are known to be common and profitable among the farm. i We are glad to observe that the conductors of the Scottish Naturalist are able to announce that with the next number the On the uth of July a strong shock of earthquake was felt size of the magazine will be increased to 40 pages. Several im- at Valparaiso in Chile, preceded by a loud rumbling noise. On the portant and interesting contributions are announced for 1872 ; 20th, at 11 P.M., a very severe shock was selt at Santiago de and we hope that this useful magazine will meet with the support Chile. and circulation that it deserves.
THE following account of a hairy family appears in the Indian Prof. J. LAWRENCE Smith, in the September number of Daily News :-"The hairy family of Mandalay consists of a the Aincrican Journal of Science, gives the following analysis of
woman of about forty-tive years of age, a man of twenty, and a the meteorite stone which fell near Searsmont, Maine, on the girl of eleven, with hair over every part of their faces, forehead, 21st of May of this year
nose, and chin, varying in length from three inches to a foot, Nickeliferous Iron
and exactly the colour and texture of that on a skye-terrier. The Magnetic Pyrites.
hair of their heads, on the contrary, is just the same as on any Olivine
43'04 ordinary Burman ; they appear to be quite as intelligent as the Bronzite, a hornblende with a little albite or
ordinary Burmans. The father of the woman was the first of the orthoclase and chrome iron
39'27 hairy progeny. He married an ordinary Burman woman, and It is stated that a crater of a new volcano has been formed
the issue of the union was the present hairy head of the family. on the mountain near Bivoria in the province of Girgenti in She married an ordinary Burman, and has issue, a son about Sicily.
twenty-three years of age, not hairy, and the boy and girl
alluded to. The Burmese explanation of the phenomenon is, to The cyclone which visited St. Thomas and Antigua on the
say the least, curious, and might possibly possess a special 21st of August, continued its course towards the Bahamas, and
interest for Mr. Darwin. These hairy people would be worth a reached Turks Island on the 22nd. The storm occupied about
fortune to the enterprising Barnum if he could get hold of them, eight hours in travelling from St. Kitts to St. Thomas, 150 miles, but the King will not allow them to go out of his dominions." and so had a rate of progress of about 184 miles per hour, but from St. Thomas to Turks Island the velocity decreased to about 12 miles per hour, taking about 31 hours to travel 380 SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE FROM miles.
AMERICA * A slight shock of earthquake was felt at Kingston, Jamaica, THE fourth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody at 4 P.M. on the 3rd of September.
Museum of American Archäology and Ethnology has
made its appearance, and presents a gratifying picture of the The star showers of the roth and uth of August last were progress of this great establishment. The most important addi. attentively watched in America as in Europe. At Sherburne, tions during the year have been a collection of stone implements New York, according to the American Journal of Science, a
from Cape Cod presented by Mr. Samuel H. Russell, a series of party of six persons watched between 11.40 and 12, and saw 48 obtained from explorations in Tennessee by Mr. Þunning, and in
duplicates from the Christie collection of London, and specimens meteors. In the next hour 143 were seen, and in the first
Central America by Dr. Berendt. These are supplemented by eighteen minutes of the next hour 32. The latitude of the
numerous single donations of greater or less value. "In the course radiant point was 1° less than that of the nebula in Perseus. of some critical observations upon the specimens received by the
Museum, attention is called to the great value of a collection of Les Mondes gives the particulars of a remarkable meteorite ob- crania and human bones obtained from certain mounds in Kenserved at Marseilles by M. Coggia, on the ist of August. It tucky by Mr. S. S. Lyon, in the course of explorations made made its appearance at 10h. 43m., Marseilles mean time, at a
under the combined auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and point situated near the centre of the triangle formed by Serpen of the Peabody Museum. The peculiarities of the crania of the tis and 0 and Ophiuchi. The course was remarkably slow, in writers, but some curious facts are detailed in the report in regard
American Indians have already been referred to by various an casterly direction; at roh. 45m. 3os. it passed between My to other portions of the skeleton. Thus the ulna and radius, as and M. Sagittarii, and at noh. 46m. 355. it almost occulted compared with the humerus, were found to be much larger in Saturn. The course became then still slower; at ioh. 49m. 50s. the mound Indians, while the length of the tibia, as compared it passed a little below o Sagittarii, and at noh. 50m. 40s. south
with the femur, is longer in the whites. In quite an unusual of the star fof the same constellation. At ich. 52m. 3os. it passed humerus were found to communicate, producing a perforation.
number of Indian skeletons the two fosse at the lower end of the between i and e Capricorni, where it remained for a moment This feature, rarely met with in the white races, occurs quite stationary, then changing its course, it took a northerly direc- frequently in the mound remains, while in the black race it aplion, leaving at 10h. 57m. 50s. the star v Aquarii 1° 30' to the pears to be still more frequent. An additional peculiarity of the west, and again stopping, at ioh. 59m. 30s., a little south-west mound bones consists in the flattening of the tibia, which, until of B Aquarii. Regaining its original easterly direction, it then occurring in America, although remains from the dolmens of
the date of the present publication, has not been recorded as passed B Aquarii, stopping again near Ś Aquarii, and then France, the quaternary drift of Clichy, and the burial caves of sell rapidly in a perpendicular direction near 8 Capricorni, Cro-Magnon and Gibraltar, exhibit this in a very marked degree. and leaving to the east the almost full moon. It finally disap- As regards the pelvis, the breadth in ihe Indian races is found to peared a little north of 0 Pisc. austral. at uh. 3m. 28s. The be less than in the whites, while the three diameters of the brim diameter, which was at first about 15', diminished rapidly, was
of the true pelvis are greatest in the Indians. The transverse a little over 4 when it approached Saturn, and finally had largest in the Indian, while the
diameter and the size of the outlet of the pelvis are much the
sacrum is less curved, scarcely more than the apparent size of Venus. During its supplying conditions which in the process of parturition perpendicular sall to the horizon, it gave out vivid scintillations.
favourable to the Indian women.- We have
already referred at various times to enterprises on the part of The Times of India gives the following story :--Advices from the Peruvian Government in exploring the less-known por Ihangara state that at a place about forty miles distant on the tions of that country, and we find in late South American hills, a thunderbolt fell on the 22nd of August after a heavy journals details of a movement looking toward the examination downpour of rain. The ground was literally cut up in conse
of the regions of the Ucayale and Urubamba. The object of
the expedition is to find a port which will open up to the Departquence, and the whole of the huts standing there as well as their ment of Cuzco a communication with the main branch of the inmates were swallowed up in the chasm. Such a catastrophe Amazon, and thence to the Atlantic. The work is to be under has never been known in Sind. Some fisty or sixty persons the direction of Mr. Tucker, favourably known in similar enterperished.
* Communicated by the Scientific Editor of Harper's Weekly.
prises before. The present plan is for Don Raymundo Estrella count of an encounter with a dragon in one of the passes of and another commissioner to start from the port of Illapani in the Alps, and illustrates his assertion by an exceedingly bold and two large canoes, and make their way by the Urubamba to imaginative woodcut. Metals were believed to be generated in Iquitos, which is the Peruvian naval station on the Amazon. the earth by the action of the sun. Gold had a large proportion This is for the purpose of obtaining such a knowledge of the of condensed sunbeams. A mine when exhausted was closed, rivers as may fit them to serve as pilots to the steamer which is and re-opened after some years in the hope that the metal would to ascend the Ucayale and explore the Urubamba. They are have been produced in the meanwhile. Many-among them to make their way back about thirty leagues froin Cuzco.- Cardanus-believed that metals and minerals possessed a kind of The daily papers of August 29 contain the latest reports from life, and that certain changes in them, such as conversion into Captain Hall and his steamer Polaris, in the form of a tele. cals, were the result of their death. The air was peopled with graphic despatch from the United States ship Congress, dated at invisible demons, who wrought all kinds of mischief, raised St. John's, Newsoundland, August 28. It will be remembered storms and whirlwinds, and warred against the works of man. that this vessel was detailed by the Secretary of the Navy to Witches and wizards were in league with them, and could influ. carry supplies of provisions and coal to be stored in Greenland ence them, and were hence treated with extreme severity. In for the use of the Arctic expedition. She left St. John's on her 1487 there was an unusually devastating storm in Switzerland, outward trip on the 3rd of August, reaching Disco on the soth, and two old women, who were believed to be witches, were passing hundreds of immense icebergs on the way. The Polaris arrested on the charge of having caused it. They of course dewas found at Disco, having reached that place only six days in nied the charge, but during the torment of the rack they con. advance, although she started long before the Congress. Captain sesssed they had raised the tempest. They were forthwith Hall and his party were in good spirits, and sanguine of success. executed—“Convicta et combusta.” These cases were by no The Congress reports that Captain Hall lest Disco on the 17th of
Witches were believed to exist by the hundred and August for the north, where communication with him will
, of thousand, and to produce all kinds of supernatural effects. Pope course, be uncertain for some time to come, unless the object of Innocent VIII, issued a manifesto against them in 1488, and the expedition in reaching the north pole can be accomplished in appointed inquisitors in all countries, armed with powers of artime to return during the present year. It is understood that resting and punishing suspected sorcerors. In Geneva alone, no instead of going by way of Jones Sound, as was the original in less than 500 persons were burned in 1515 and 1516. So late as tention, Captain Hall will proceed along the eastern side of the year 1716, two persons were executed in England for the Smith Sound. By all accounts the water is much more open practice of witchcraft. We can understand all this better if we than for many years past, there being comparatively little drift. bear in mind how much superstition still exists in the ice to bar progress.
To the surprise of the officers of world. Not to mention those things which appear under the Congress, the summer temperature of Greenland was pseudo-scientific names, we find in many out-of-the-way found to be quite elevated, and there a luxuriant villages, specially in Ireland, a very firm belief among vegetation to be seen around the settlement of Disco. – the uneducated in the power of chirms, and the existence The Panama papers speak of the great success which several of witches. In a village not far removed from the outer whaling ships are now meeting with in the Bay of Panama, world, a witch has been pointed out to me, and the laming quite a number of whales having been killed there every day for of a horse and other disasters seriously attributed to her charge. some time past. It is stated that at the time the steamship Chile Gaule, in his “Magastromancer," gives a list of fifty-two forms passed Payta, a school of small whales had been there in such of divination, and he has omitted at least six which are found in abundance that the boats were afraid to leave the harbour. - We the works of other writers. Among other forms we have divining have already referred to the hydrographical and other explora- by ashes, by smoke, by the lees of wine, by cheese, by figs, by tions in Alaska by Mr. William H. Dall, under the patronage of knives and saws ; you will remember also some of the forms of the Coast Survey; and we now learn that he lest San Fran. divination practised by the Romans. But perhaps the delusion cisco for the north at the end of August, bound direct to Iliuliuk which has most militated against the growth and progress of true Harbour, Oonalaska, there to go into winter-quarters. It was natural science has been alchemy-a false science which flourished his intention, according to his instructions, to make use of every for more than 800 years, and which was firmly believed in by favourable opportunity to survey the vicinity of that port, and in thousands. The alchemists devoted their lives mainly to the March to proceed westward, sounding and surveying as far as search for two palpable impossibilities ; the Elixir Vita., which Kamtchatka, and then turning north and eastward to Cape was believed to possess the power of conferring perpetual youth, Romanzoff, to return to Oonalaska, and thence proceed home. and the Philosopher's Stone, which was believed to transmute ward. The vessel obtained for the expedition, although small, everything that it touched into gold. The search for this sub. is conveniently adapted for its purpose, and can carry pro stance, and the endeavours to make it by artificial means, occu. visions for six months; and it is expected that fresh supplies will pied the attention of many notorious and eminent men. Albertus be forwarded from San Francisco in March next.
Magnus, who became Bishop of Ratisbon in 1259, and S. besides Mr. Dall, consists of Prof. Harrington, the astronomer, Thomas Aquinas, were particularly addicted to alchemy and Captain W. G. Hall, sailing-master, with two mates and five men. magic. We hear most of their magical powers, although their
writings on alchemy still remain. Between them they made a brazen statue and endowed it with the faculty of speech; but it
was so garrulous that one day Thomas Aquinas, who was in ON THE STUDY OF SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS *
vain trying to work out a mathematical problem, seized a hammer II.
and destroyed it-at least, so say contemporary writers. Albertus
Magnus once changed a severe winter into a most splendid now come to the second heading of our discourse, viz., the
summer within the space of his garden. Detailed accounts exist objects and aims of the experimental sciences, and the reason
of the transmutation of lead and tin into gold. Raymond why we study them. Now the main object of science is the
Lully states in one of his works that he converted 50,000 lbs. discovery of new truths, and the destruction of oid errors. The human mind, much as it loves truth, has in the course of ages
weight of quicksilver, lead, and pewter into gold. Pope John given birth to an infinite number of fallacies, specially in regard
XXII. was a great alchemist, and had a laboratory at Avignon. to the operations of Nature. Fallacies handed down by tradition; left a sum of eighteen millions of florins, the existence of which
He wrote a work on the transmutation of metals, and at his death fallacies elaborated in the mind of dreamers, and theorists, and believers in magic; fallacies founded upon inaccurate observation,
according to contemporary alchemists, proved the possibility of
transmutation. And thus one might continue to give a long list false experiment, perverted reasoning; these have ever been the of known men who devoted themselves to these useless pursuits ; barriers which have most retarded the progress of true science ; ) and the unknown men could be counted by thousands. Here, and the earlier natural philosophers had to contend against a mass of such pre-existent opinion and superstition.
then, we have some of the fallacies which it has been the object scarcely realise in the present day the amount of superstition
of science to disprove, and which, so long as they existed in full which existed among all classes even two hundred years ago, and
vigour, effectually prevented the progress of science. The disat an earlier period it was far more prevalent. That same Atha.
proval of these could only result in the discovery of new truths.
There is an intense satisfaction in the discovery of absolute nasius Kircher, who was before mentioned as the author of a book
truth; truth which stands every opposition, which has been on light, and who also wrote on magnetism, gives a detailed ac
weighed in many balances and not found wanting ; which has • Conclusion of a Lecture delivered at Marlborough College as an intro been submitted to every process of reasoning and of experiment, tion to the commençment of Science teaching, by G. F. Rodwell. and has come out uninjured. Taking this discovery of new