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of nature ? John Locke had furnished them with the solution-bard and the soft parts. These observations will shortly be true civitas Deiin which every man's faculty was such as to published. allow him to control all those desires which ran counter to the The genera Antedon and Pentacrinus resemble one another in good of mankind, and cherish those only which would benefit all essential particulars of internal structure. The great distincthe welfare of the whole of society, and which every man selt tion between them is, that while Antedon swims freely in the as sufficiently true to enable him to know what he ought to do. water, and anchors itself at will by means of a set of dorsal Society as now constituted consisted of a considerable number cirri," Pentacrinus is attached to a jointed stem, which is either of the foolish and the ignorant-a small proportion of good permanently fixed to some foreign body, or, as in the case of a genuine knaves and a sprinkling of capable and honest men, by fine species procured off the coast of Portugal during the cruise whose efforts the former were kept in a reasonable restraint of the Porcupine in the summer of 1870, loosely rooted by a whorl Such being the case, he could not see how the limit could of terminal cirri in soft mud. Setting aside the stalk, in Antedon be laid down as to the question which, under some circum- and Pentacrinus the body consists of a rounded central disc and stances, the action of Government might be rightsully carried on, ten or more pinnated arms. A ciliated groove runs along the The question was where they ought to draw the line between “oral” or “ventral” surface of the pinnules and arms, and these those things which a State ought to do, and which they ought tributary brachial grooves gradually coalescing. terminate in five not to do. The difficulty which met the statesmen was the same radial grooves, which end in an oral opening, usually subcentral, as that which met all of them in individual lise. Moore and sometimes very excentric. The æsophagus, stomach, and intesOwen, and all the great modern Socialists, bear witness that tine coil round a central axis, formed of dense connective tissue, Government might attain its end for the good of the people apparently continuous with the stroma of the ovary, and of invoby some more effectual process than the very simple and easy lutions of the perivisceral membrane ; and the intestine ends in one of letting all matters of enterprise alone. He thought that an anal tube, which opens excentrically in one of the inter-radial the science of politics was but imperfectly known ; and that spaces, and usually projects considerably above the surface of the perhaps they would be able to get clearer notions of what a disc. The contents of the stomach are found uniformly to conState might or might not do, if they estimated the truth of the sist of a pulp composed of particles of organic matter, the shields proposition, that the end of government is the good of mankind. of diatoms, and the shells of minute foraminisera. The mode of It was necessary to consider a little what the good of mankind nutrition may be readily observed in Antedon, which will live for really was. The good of mankind meant the admission of every months in a tank. The animal rests attached by its dorsal c'rri. man to all the happiness which he could enjoy without diminish. with its arms expanded like the petals of a full-blown flower. A ing the happiness of his fellow men. Having dwelt at some current of sea water, bearing organic particles, is carried by the length on this point, Mr. Huxley went on to say that it was uni. cilia along the brachial grooves into the mouth, the water is exversally agreed that it would be useless to admit the freedom of hausted of its assimilable matter in the alimentary canal, and is sympathy between man and man directly ; but he could see no finally ejected at the anal orifice. The length and direction of reason why the State might not do many things towards that end the anal tube prevent the exhausted water and the scecal matter indirectly. He was not going to argue that there should be a from returning at once into the ciliated passages. State science, or a State organisation, such as they had seen in In the probably extinct family Cyathocrinidæ, and notably in France, by which all scientific teaching was to be properly regu- the genus Cyathocrinus, which the author took as the type of the lated. On the contrary, the State had lest local enterprise to Palæozoic group, the so-called Crinoidea Tessellata, the arrangework out its own ends as soon as local intelligence and energy ment, up to a certain point, is much the same. There is a proved itself equal to the task. These local efforts not only widely-expanded crown of branching arms, deeply grooved, benefited the localities; but every means of teaching, every which doubtless performed the same functions as the grooved arms stimulus given to intellectual lile was so much positively added to of Pentacrinus ; but the grooves stop short at the edge of the the wealth and welfare of the nation, and as such deserved some disc, and there is no central opening, the only visible aper: ures equivalent modicum of support from the general purse. But if being a tube, sometimes of extreme length, rising from the the positive advancement of the peace, wealth, and intellectual surface of the disc in one of the inter-radial spaces, which is and moral development of its members were ihe objects which usually greatly enlarged for its accommodation by the intercathe representative of the corporate authority of society, the lation of additional perisomatic plates, and a small tunnel-like Government, might justly strive after in the ful6lment of its end, opening through the perisom of the edge of the disc opposite the which was the good of mankind, then it was clear that the base of each of the arms, in continuation of the groove of the Government might undertake the education of the people, for The functions of these openings, and the mode of nutrition education promoted peace by teaching men the realities of life, of the crinoid having this structure, have been the subject of much and the obligations which were involved in the very existence of controversy. society; and promoted the intellectual development, not only by The author had lately had an opportunity of examining some training the individual intellect, but by sitting out from the mass very remarkable specimens of Cyathocrinus arthriticus, procured of ordinary or inferior capacities those which were competent to by Mr. Charles Ketley from the upper Silurians of Wenlock, increase the general welfare by occupying higher positions; and and a number of wondersully perfect examples of species of the lastly, it promoted morality and refinement by teaching men to genera Actinocrinus, Platycrinus, and others, for which he was discipline themselves, and leading them to see that the highest, indebted to the liberality of Mr. Charles Wachsmuth, of Bur. as it was the only permanent, content was to be attained not by lington, Ohio, and Mr. Sidney Lyon, of Jeffersonville, Indiana ; groveling in the rank stream of the foulest sense, but by con- and he had also had the advantage of studying photographs of tinually striving towards those higher peaks where, resting in plates, showing the internal structure of fossil crinoids, about to eternal calm, reason discerned the undefined but bright ideal be published by Messrs. Meek and Worthen, State Geologists for of the highest good, “a cloud by day, a pillar of fire by night." | Illinois. A careful examination of all these, taken in connection

with the description by Prof. Lovén, of Hyponome Sarsii, a recent

crinoid lately procured from Torres Strait, had led him to the ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE PALÆOZOIC following general conclusions. CRINOIDS *

In accordance with the views of Dr. Schultze, Dr. Lütken, and

Messrs. Meek and Worthen, he regarded the proboscis of the THE best known living representatives of the Echinoderm tesselated crinoids as the anal tube, corresponding in every

class Crinoidea are the genera Antedon and Pentacrinus respect with the anal tube in Antedon and Pentacrinus, and he the former the seather stars, tolerably common in all seas ; the maintained the opinion which he formerly published (Edin. New latter the stalked sea-lilies, whose only ascertained habitat, until Phil. Jour. Jan. 1861), that the valvular "pyramid” of the lately, was the deeper portion of the sea of the Antilles, whence Cystideans is also the anus. The true mouth in the tesselated they were rarely recovered by being accidentally entangled on crinoids is an internal opening vaulted over by the plates of the fishing-lines. Within the last few years Mr. Robert Damon, the perisom, and situated in the axis of the radial system more or well-known dealer in natural history objects in Weymouth, has less in advance of the anal tube, in the position assigned by Mr. procured a considerable number of specimens of the two West | Billings to his “ambulacral opening, Five, ten, or more Indian Pentacrini, and Dr. Carpenter and the author had an openings round the edge of the disc lead into channels continuous opportunity of making very detailed observations both on the with the grooves on the ventral surface of the arms, either covered * Abstract of a paper read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, by

over like the mouth by perisomatic plates, the inner surface of Prof. Wyville Thomson, April 3, 1871.

which they more or less impress, and supported beneath by chains

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of ossicles ; or, in rare cases (Amphoracrinus), tunnelled in the one who has not made a special study of the causes of resem. substance of the greatly thickened walls of the vault. These blance and difference. But, as I have repeatedly urged, currents internal passages, usually reduced in number to five by uniting are subject to an increased number of disguising disturbances, in with one another, pass into the internal mouth, into which proportion to the sluggishness of their motion, and the time they doubtless lead the current from the ciliated brachial which is consequently required for their formation and change. grooves.

We may very reasonably look for analogies between the daily In connection with different species of Platyceras with various and the annual auroral or magnetic curves, of a character for crinoids, over whose anal openings they fix themselves, moulding which we could hope to find no parallel in wind, rain, or ocean the edges of their shells to the form of shell of the crinoid, is a current curves. case of "commensalism,” in which the mollusc takes advantage If we desire, therefore, to find evidence of the joint influence sor nutrition and respiration of the current passing through the of solar expansion and gravitating equilibrium, we should look alimentary canal of the echinoderm. Hyponome Sarsii appears, where it is most likely to be found, and to the best of the obser. from Prof. Lovén's description, to be a true crinoid, closely allied vations which may be supposed to be fairly comparable. There 'to Antedon, and does not seem in any way to resemble the Cysti- are similar variations of solar attitude, and consequently increasdeans. It has, however, precisely the same arrangement as to ing and diminishing solar force, in the day and in the year, but its internal radial vessels and mouth which we find in the older the effects of these variations upon the precipitation of vapour are crinoids. It bears the same structural relation to Antalon which more likely to be shown in their greatest simplicity by the means Extracrinus bears to Pentacrinus.

of observations at different hours of the day than at different Some examples of different tesselated crinoids from the Burling- seasons of the year. I know of no published observations of ton limestone, most of them procured by Mr. Wachsmuth, and this character at New Haven, but there are some extending over described by Messrs. Meek and Worthen, show a very remark. a long series of years at Philadelphia and at Greenwich, the able convoluted plate, somewhat in form like the shell of a curves at each station indicating minima of rainfall at noon and Scaphander, placed vertically in the centre of the cup, in the midnight, and maxima in the morning and evening. The differposition occupied by the fibrous axis or columella in Pentacrinus ence of longitude between Philadelphia and New Haven being and Antedon. Mr. Billings, the distinguished palæontologist to less than 2, it is not likely that there is any material difference the Survey of Canada, in a very valuable paper on the structure in the daily rain.curves at the two places. of the Crinoidea, Cystidea, and Blastoidea (Silliman's Journal, January 1870), advocates the view that the plate is connected with the apparatus of respiration, and that it is homologous with the pectinated rhombs of Cystideans, the tube apparatus of Pen. . tremites, and the sand-canal of Asterids. Messrs. Meek and

Worthen and Dr. Lütken, on the other hand, regard it as asso-
ciated in some way with the alimentary canal and the function of

The author strongly supported the latter opinion. The peri-
visceral membrane in Antedon and Pentacrinus already alluded
to, which lines the whole calyx, and whose involutions, support.
ing the coils of the alimentary canal, contribute to the formation
of the central columella, is crowded with miliary grains and
small plates of carbonate of line ; and a very slight modification
would convert the whole into a delicate fenestrated calcareous
plate. Some of the specimens in Mr. Wachsmuth's collection
show the open reticulated tissue of the central coil continuous
over the whole of the interior of the calyx, and rising on the
walls of the vault, thus following almost exactly the course of
the perivisceral membrane in the recent forms. In all likelihood,
therefore, the internal calcareous network in the crinoids, whether
rising into a convoluted plate or lining the cavity of the crinoid
head, is simply a calcified condition of the perivisceral sac. In order to make the curves fairly comparable, both in regard

The author was inclined to agree with Mr. Rofe and Mr. Bil- to the times and the magnitudes of deviation, I treated the aurolings in attributing the functions of respiration to the pectinatedral observations in the same manner as those of rainfall (Proc. rhombs of the Cystideans and the tube apparatus of the Blastoids. A. P. S, X. 526). Both in the magnetic and in the hyetal pheHe did not see, however, that any equivalent arrangement was nomena, the greatest effects accompany the grea'est atmospheric either necessary or probable in the crinoids with expanded arms, changes. But in the magnetic disturbances the principal maxima in which the provisions for respiration, in the form of tubular occur in the spring of the year and the morning of the day, while tentacles and respiratory films and lobes over the whole extent of the general evaporation is increasing ; whereas, in the daily rains the arins and pinnules, are so elaborate and complete.

at Philadelphia, the principal maximum occurs in the afternoon, when evaporation is diminishing. I have, therefore, compared

the midwinter ordinate of the auroral with the noon ordinate of ON THE RELATION OF AURORAS TO

the rain curve, and the midsummer auroral with the midnight

hyetal ordinate. GRAVITATING CURRENTS*

The auroral observations and the normal ordinates of the acPROF. LOOMIS'S observations of the number of Auroras in companying curves are given in the following table

. I presume each month of 1869 and 1870 (American Journal of Science,

no one will doubt that the condensation of vapour, which is re3rd S., i. 309) are specially noteworthy, both because of the presented by the rain.curve, is occasioned by the simple operation careful accuracy of the observer, and because they are the first of gravitation in blending currents of different temperatures, published observations which furnish satisfactory data for an ap- and I see no reason for postulating any different law for the de. proximate determination of the laws of auroral distribution. velopment of electricity and magnetism in the aurora.

If the auroras are, as is now generally believed, luminous manifestations of terrestrial magnetism, it seems reasonable to

Comparative Table of Auroras and Rainfalls

No. of look to them for some additional evidence upon the question of


Normals. Hours. the relation between magnetic and gravitating currents. Messrs.


91 Baxendeli and Bloxam have already pointed out some resem.

32 90

91 blances between hyetal and magnetic curves (see Proc. A. P. S.,


93 X. 368) and if analogous resemblances can be traced between


31 98

3 98 hyetal and auroral curves, they will be interesting and suggestive.


105 I have not found the similarity between the annual distribu


107 tion of rainfalls and auroras sufficiently striking to impress any


113 * Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 5, 1871, by Pliny April

44 109 Earle Chase.


Normals of Rain.


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No. of

Normals. Hours.

a minute account of the structure and mode of formation of the Aurorals.

of Rain.

sperm-ropes of the river Annelids.—In the July number an exMay • 36 106 9 109

ceedingly valuable memoir by Dr. Van Beneden appears “On 103


the Development of a Species of Gregarina,” which he deJune 31

scribed last year (also in the Journal). It appears that the 103

Gregarinæ exhibit a young stage when they are devoid of nuclens, July


and have great activity and worm-like form ; to this stage Dr. 103 14 109

Van Beneden applies the name pseudo-filarian.- In the same August 34 105 15


number Mr. Sorby gives an elaborate paper on the colouring 107


matters of leaves, which has an appropriate place in a journal September

106 17

devoted to microscopy, since it is only by the micro-spectroscope 103 18 92

that many of those colouring matters can be studied on account October


of their small quantity, and, further, since the application of such 95

methods of analysis to histology as the micro-spectroscope affords November 27 91

is of the very highest importance.- Various points relating to the 89

instrument itself are discussed in these three parts by Dr. Royston December

23 91

Pigott, who figures his aplanatic searcher and its results on the
Podura scale ; by Messrs. Dudgeon, Newton, aud others, who


describe new apparatus.—Mr. Moseley gives accounts of how to SCIENTIFIC SERIALS

use gold chloride and silver nitrate in histological research, and

how best to prepare and cut sections of the frog's egg for embryoJahrbuch der kaiserlich-königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt

. logical study. -The original paper by Dr. Nitzsche, of Leipzig Vol. xvi. No. 1. (Vienna.) The first paper in this part of the (illustrated), on the reproduction of the Bryozoa, and the reply Jahrbuch is one by Prof. Kreuz, “Das Vihorlat-Gutin-Tra

to Mr. Hincks, are important, and on a very curious point. It chytgebirge." This is one of those painstaking lithological is, however, to the chronicles and notes which we would espe. papers which are less commonly met with in our own scientific cially call attention as of service to biological students. Long journals than one could wish. The author has carefully ex- abstracts of all the important papers published in the German amined under the microscope the trachytic rocks of the Vihorlat periodicals are to be found-in some cases illustrated by woodGutin mountains of North-eastern Hungary, a range which cuts ; thus we have Neuman on the origin of the red blood corstretches from north-west to south-east in the same direction as pucles, Kranse on connective tissue, Flemming on fatty tissue, the Carpathian Sandstones. He groups the rocks under three Schöbl on the bat's wing and mouse's ear, Pfüger on the method. divisions :-(1) Augite andesite; (2) Sanidine-oligoclase-trachyte; of demonstrating nerve-endings in the liver and other glands, (3) Breccias and Tuffs; and his descriptions of the two Exner on the Schneiderian membrane, Cienkowski on the sporoformer are particularly full and interesting. The breccias and gonia of Noctiluca, and many other such. tuffs are necessarily less susceptible of clear concise description ; they appear to vary as much and in as short a space as similar tinues his Recent Additions to our Moss Flora. Mr. R. Tucker

In the Journal of Botany for October, Dr. Braithwaite convolcanic accumulations elsewhere.-Prof. Koch, of Ofen, con

gives some Notes on the now well-defined Flora of the Isle of tributes “ Beitrag zur Kentniss der geognostischen Beschaffenheit

Wight ; and Dr. Moore Notes on some Irish Plants. Mr. F. des Urdniker Gebirges,” an isulated little mountain range, which

Stratton contributes an article on Monotropa hypopitys, confirming stretches between the Danube and the Save in East Sclavonia. He describes the Tertiary strata he examined in his last visit to parasitic. The remainder of the number is occupied by short

the statement of other recent observers that this plant is not truly that district as being grouped round the foot of the hills. The beds are of marine, fresh, and brackish-water origin,

notes, reviews, reports, and reprints.

He does not determine their exact geological horizon, but gives print

of an extract from Mr. Patrick Matthew's work on Naval

The Scottish Naturalist for October opens with a timely relists of the fossils he obtained. The paper concludes with an account of a mass of sanidine-trachyte, which the author believes Timber, published in 1831, and referred to in Darwin's "Origin to be of Tertiary age. --A paper on Aulococeras Fr. V. Hauer, by of Species,” in which he distinctly enunciates the theory that Dr. Edm. von Mosjsisores, is illustrated with four lithographic "circumstance and species have grown up together," or that plates. This and the following paper “On the Tertiary Forma- new species have arisen from old species adapting themselves to tion of the Vienna Basin,” by Theodor Fuchs and Felix Karrer altered circumstances. The most important original articles in we recommend to the attention of our palæontologists. Fuchs' the number are : The Baleens, or Whalebone Whales of the and Karrer's paper is most elaborate, and contains copious lists North-east of Scotland, by Mr. R. Walker ; Notes on the of fossils which, besides being interesting in themselves, are use- Tetraonidæ of Perthshire, by Mr. R. Paton; On the Altitudes ful for purposes of comparison. . The Jahrbuch concludes with attained by Certain Plants (varying from those already recorded), “Studien aus dem Salinargebiete Siebenbürgens,” by F.

by Dr. F. Buchanan White ; and On Scottish Galls, by Mr. J. Posepny; this, however, is only the second part of the paper,

W. H. Traill. the first part having been published so far back as 1867. These saliserous regions are described in considerable detail, and numerous chemical analyses are given. A map, and sections. &c.,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES accompany the paper. We should mention that the Jahrbuch includes obituary notices of two former members of the Institute,

Paris the well-known Wilhelm Haidinger, and Urban Schloenbach, an

Academy of Sciences, October 2.--M. C. Jorden read a enthusiastic palæontologist and geologist who was cut off at the

mathematical paper “On the Classification of Primary Groups." early age of thirty-one.

Two papers on subjects connected with physics were read, one by The three numbers of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical M. A. Cornu, “On the Determination of the Velocity of Light," Science of the present year contain a number of valuable original in which he suggests an improvement in the method proposed by contributions to science, besides transactions, chronicles of the Fizeau for this purpose, and a note by M. G. Salet on the Spectra progress of histology and micro-zoology, and various reviews and of Tin and its components, which he describes as the most short notes and memoranda. In the January number Prof. singular he has ever seen. - On astronomical subjects several comAllman describes a new mode of reproduction by fission in a munications were made.-- M. Chasles replied to a statement made new hydroid polyp, which he figures in a plate. --Haeckel's by M. Bertrand at a previous meeting with regard to Aboul researches on the nature of Coccoliths and Bathybius are Wéfa's method of calculating the position of the moon.

M. noticed at length, and the remarkable Radiolarian Myxo- Yvon Villareau communicated a long paper, full of mathematibrachia is figured in tinted plate.- Mr. Archer, of Dublin, to cal formula, “On the Determination of the true Figure of the whose re-earches published in the same journal in 1869 we owe Earth, without the necessity of actual levellings.”—M. D. launay our knowledge of a most beautiful and interesting group of fresh read a note on the two recently discovered planets, Nos. 116 and water Protista—the Heliozoa-contributes to the April number 117, in which he indicated that the planet discovered at Vera further account of new fresh water rhizopods, illustrated with sailles by M. Borelly, and named Lomia, must be numbered 117, two coloured plates.- In the same number Mr. Moseley figures as the planet discovered by M. Luther two days afterwards had and describes the nerves of the cornea, and Mr. Lankester gives been previously detected in America by Mr. Ć. H. F. Peters.



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Letters on these planets by MM. Luther and Peters were also nerve than in the motor nerve of a muscle.-M. H. Sainte-Claire communicated by M. Leverrier, and M. Delaunay presented a Deville communicated a note by M. A. Sanson on the theory of de:ermination of the or'it of Lomia by M. Tisserand.—The the early completion of the bones, in which the author replied to same gentleman a note on the nebulæ discovered by M. an objection to his theory made by a German writer. Stephan at Marseilles, and a note by M. Loewy on a new equatorial instrument. The latter is mounted like a transit instru

PHILADELPHIA ment, but its body is bent at a right angle, and the images are

Academy of Natural Sciences, February 6.-The Presi. carried to the eye of the observer by means of prisms or mirrors.

dent, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair. Prof. Leidy stated The advantage, according to the author, is that the observer can

that he had recently received a small collection of fossils for carry on his investigations without changing his place, and that examination from Prof. J. D. Whitney, who obtained them the necessity for an expensive revolving dome is done away with. from California. - A fourth letter from Father Secchi, on the protuberances and ment of an inferior molar, apparently of Mastodon ameri

The specimens are as follows:- A frag. other remarkable portions of the surface of the sun, was read. It contains a classification of the phenomena in question, and obtained from a depth of 80 feet beneath the basaltic lava of

Of this specimen Prof. Whitney remarks that it was notices the chromosphere, protuberances, and clouds. Of the Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, Cal., where it was found in second several kinds are described.-M. de Fonvielle presented association with remains of human art. A much worn lower the programme of an intended balloon-ascent for the purpose of molar of a large horse, probably the Equus pacificus, from 16 noticing the meteors of November 1871, and MM. Regnault and feet on Gorden Gulch. The triturating surface of the crown Elie de Beaumont made some remarks upon the same subject. -

measures 13! lines fore and aft, and to lines transversely, incluA letter was read from M. A. Poëy on the law of similar evolution

sive of the cementum. Two equine molar teeth, which, accordof meteorological phenomena, in which he indicates the existence ing to the accompanying label, were obtained 350 feet below the of a connection between the periodicity of meteorological phe surface, at Soulsbyville, Tuolumne County, Cal. One is an nomena and the diumal and annual movements of the earth.M. G. Lemoine presented a second part of his investigation of It is moderately curved from behind forward and downward, but

unworn upper back molar, apparently of a species of Protohippus. the reciprocal transformation of the two allotropic states of only slightly from within outward. It is 21 lines long in a phosphoruz, and M. Berthelot a second part of his researches straight line. Its greatest breadth above the middle, sore and aft, upon ammoniacal salts. In the latter the author treats of the 'is nearly 9 lines; its thickness about 7 lines. The other tooth compounds of ammonia with boracic and carbonic acids. - A

is a lower molar, about one-third worn, probably of the same paper was read by M. C. Mène, giving numerous analyses of species. The triturating surface is 10 lines fore and aft, and clays belonging to the carboniserous formation.-The tables of nearly 7 transversely. Two teeth labelled "Found ten feet bemeteorological observations made at the Paris Observatory low the surface at Dry Creek, near Bear Creek, Mercer County, during the month of September was also communicated to the

Cal.” One of the specimens appears to be the portion of a canine meeting.

tooth, and the other is an incisor. They resemble in form the. October 9.-M. Bertrand presented a note by M. Painvin

corresponding teeth of the lama, and probably belong to a species on the determination of the rays of a curve at any point

of the same genus. The incisor is about if inch in length; the of a sursace defined by its tangential equation.-M. P. A.

crown externally is 11 lines long and 44 lines wide. Favre read a continuation of his thermic investigations upon March 7.-The President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chai“. voltaic energy, in which he gives the results obtained by him Mr. Thomas Meehan referred to some observations he made by. in experiments with batteries containing fuming nitric acid, sore the Academy last autumn in regard to a peculiar storing up permanganic and sulphuric acids mixed, and hypochlorous acid. of turpentine in the common insect, Rouvius noz'enarius. Since In connection with this subject, M. F. Le Blanc also presented a then entomologists had been investigating the use for which this note on the energy of piles with two liquids. In a note on the turpentine was employed, without success. He was now able to most economical arrangements of voltaic batteries with regard to report that it was for the purpose of fastening its eggs on the their polar electrodes, M. T. Du Moncel discusses the question branches of trees, and for st cking them together; also, in proba. of the desirability of reducing the size of the positive electrode. - bility, as a means of protection against enemies and the weather. M. Ruhnkorff described an arrangement for obtaining an ex• The eggs of the Reduvius were inserted in groups, and each set ceedingly intense induced magneto-electric current. — Several | upright one against another wiih the turpentine, like the cell in a astronomical papers were read, and among them a notice by honeycomb. It had hitherto been supposed by entomologists M, Faye of the history and present state of the theory of comets, that the matter used for this purpose was a secretion of the insect in which he contends for the existence of a repulsive force (solar itself; but so far as he could judge by the senses, the matter used repulsion) manifested in the phenomena of comets.-M. Delaunay was merely turpentine, and no doubt the turpentine he had ole announced that M. Stephan had observed Encke's comet at Mar- served the insect storing up in the fall.-Mr. Meehan exhibited seilles on the night of the 8-9th October. In searching for this some flowers of the common Boutardia leiantha of the green. comet M. Stephan had: discovered some new nebulæ.-M. houses, and of the hardy Deutzia gracilis, and referred to his Bertrand presented a reply to the remarks made by M. Chasles papers, published a few years ago in the Proceedings of the at the last meeting of the Academy on the determination of the Academy, on practical diæcism in the trailing Arbutus (Epigen position of the moon by Aboul Wéfa, and MM. Leverrier and repens) and Mitchella repens, in which he pointed out that these Chasles remarked upon the desirability of searching the Oriental plants, though apparently hermaphrodite, had the siamens and libraries for the astronomical writings of that author. — M. pistils of different characters in separate plants, and were, thereDelaunay communicated a note by M. Tisserand containing the fore, subject to the laws of cross-seruilisation as indicated by determination of the orbit of the planet No. 116 (discovered by Darwin. He had had his attention called to the Bouardia by Mr. C. H. F. Peters) — M. Laugier presented a paper by M. Pagel, Mr. Tatpall, of Wilmington, Del , as furnishing a similar instance containing observations of the determination of the magnetic needle to that of Epigaa and Mitchella, to the same natural order os made at the Observatory of Toulon since the year 1866.-M. Roux which, the Cinchoneous division of Rubiacer, the Boutardia bepresented an investigation of the artesian water of Rochefort, longed. These had some plants with the pistils exserted, while which comes up from a depth of nearly 857 metres. He gave a in others only the stamens were visible at the mouth of the corolla detailed analysis of the mineral contents of this water, and tube. Mr. Tatnall had not had the matter suggested to him early noticed the temperatures observed at various depths during the enough to say that it was so in all cases; but he believed that boring, which were considerably in excess of those recorded at these flowers, which practically might be termed pistillate and Grenelle.-M. Billebault forwarded a note on the employment of staminate, were found entirely on separate plants. This is a very gas-tar in the treatment of diseases of the vine, and especially important fact, as the Bouvardia is not raised from seeds in greenagainst Phylloxera t'astatrix. The destruction of this insect was houses, but from cuttings of the roots, and, therefore, all these plants also the subject of notes by MM. Peyrat and Deleuze.-M. E. with separate sexes must have been produced from one original Duclaux presented a note on a means of causing at will the individual, without the intervention of seed, and thus confirm the hatching of silkworm eggs, which consists in exposing the eggs for position advanced in a previous paper of the speaker on "Bud a certain time to the action of cold.-In a note on the time which Variations," namely, that variations in form, and, by logical in. elapses between the excitation of the electric nerve of the torpedo ference, new species, may arise without seminal intervention. In and the discharge of its apparatus, M. Marey described some the specimens of Deutzia gracilis were two forms of flowers on the experiments made by him, from which it would appear that the same plant. Besides the large ones with stamens and pistils appa. nervous action is transmitted rather more slowly in the electric rently perfect, there were numerous small flowers in which the

So on.

was seen,


petals were only partially developed. The filaments were entirely

The ovaries are opaque white, and exhibit numerous wanting, but the anthers were as perfect, if not larger than in what closely crowded lateral branches. In the absence of pigmentwe should call the perfect flowers. Any one could see that these granules to the head, and in the less robust character of the worm, small flowers were the result of deficient nutriment, and would be the specimen differs from T. mediocanellala as described by apt to pass the matter over with this simple reflection ; but he Küchenmeister. The minute acetabular pit or fovea at the wished to emphasise the fact that this defective nutrition rendered summit of the head is not mentioned by Küchenmeister and the female organs inoperative, while the male organs were still subsequent observers as a character of that species. It is a point, able to exercise their functions ; thus affording another instance, if however, that might be readily overlooked, especially if the parts any more be needed, of the truth of his theory of sex, namely, of the head are obscured by the presence of pigment-granules.that with defective nutrition, the female sex is the first to disap- Prof. Cope exhibited a number of fishes from the Amazon above pear, and that only under the highest conditions of vitality is the the mouth of the Rio Negro, which included some new and rare female sex formed. In the case of the Bouvardia a similar law forms. Some of the latter were Dorus brachiatus, Plecostomus

The most vigorous stems, or, as they would techni- scopularius, Roeboides rubriverter, Myletes albiscopus, &c. He cally be called, woody axes, produced the female flowers. -- Prof. exhibited a specimen of Pariodon microps, Kner, describing Cope made some observations on a Batrachian of the coal mea. the parasitic habits of Stegophilus and those ascribed to Vandellia. sures, Sauropleura remex, Cope. A specimen more perfect than He thought the structure and colouration of the Pariodon indithe type recently obtained by Prof. Newberry exhibited posterior cated similar habits, and that it would be found to be an inlimbs such as has been ascribed to the S. pectinata. The ver- habitant, at times at least, of the cavity of the body of some tebra posterior to this point were perfectly preserved, and other animal. supported the remarkable processes to the end.

March 21.--Dr. Carson, vice-president, in the chair.—Prof. Leidy made the following remarks on Tania mediocanellata.

BOOKS RECEIVED Recently, one of our ablest and most respected practitioners of ENGLISH.-Contributions to the Flora of Mentone, Part 4: J. T Moggridge medicine submitted to my examination a tapeworm which had

(L. Reeve and Co.). - Words from a Layman's Ministry at Barr.ard Castle. been discharged from a young man, after the use of the Aspidium

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. vi.,

Parts 1, 2; Vol. ix., Parts 1, 2. filix-mas. The physician, in giving an account of the case,

Foreign.-Nachtrag zum 6 u. 7 Jahresbericht des Vereins für Erdkunde stated that he had previously treated the patient for another zu Dresden. (Through Williams and Norgat : )Die feierliche Sitzung der affection, in which raw-beef sandwiches had been prescribed for

kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, 30 Mai, 1871 --Almanach

der k Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien.-Oefversigt af k. Vetenskaps food. After looking at the worm, I remarked that it appeared

Akademiens Förhandlingar. to be the Tænia mediocanellata, a species which I had not before seen, and added that the patient had probably become infected

PAMPHLETS RECEIVED from a larva swallowed with the raw-beef sandwiches. The

ENGLISH.-Darwinism : Chauncey Wright.-The Cruise of the Norna : specimen consisted of the greater part of the worm, broken into

Marshal Hall. - The University of Durham College of Medicine, Syllabus several pieces. Including some lost portions, it was estimated for 1871-72.- The College of Physical Science. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Syllabus to have been upwards of thirty feet in length. Unfortunately, for 1871-72.-Observations on the Corona : Hercules Ellis. - Flint: M. H. the head proved to be absent; but, so far as characters could be

Johnson. --The Scotti-h Naturalist October - Proceedings of the Meteoroobtained from the specimen, in the form of the segments, posi

logical Society, No. 56.-The Portfolio, No 27.-Quarterly Weather Report

of the Meteorological Office.- Journal of the Statistical Society for Seption of the genital orifices, and the condition of the ovaries, it tember.-On the Faults in Ironstone Seams : R. L. Jack.---The Phønix, agreed with the description given of T. mediocanellata, rather

Vol. ii , No. 14. - Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, Vol. ii., No. 3 than with T. solium. From a want of acquaintance with the

Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society, No. 31.—The Quarterly

Journal for Microscopical science, October. former, I did not feel entirely satisfied that the specimen actually AMERICAN AND COLONIAL.-On the Influence of the Blue Colour of the belonged to that species. Subsequently, my friend brought to Sky in developiog Animal and Vegetable Life : Philadelphia.--On the me the anterior part of the body, probably, of the same indi. E-zöonal Limestones of Eastern Massachusetts : L. S. Burbank.-On the vidual tapeworm. He observed that his patient continuing to

Caracteristics of the Primary Groups of the Class of Mammals : Dr. Th.

Gill. -The Canadian Naturalist, Vol. v., No. 4; Vol. vi., No. 1 -Proceedcomplain, he had administered another dose of the male-fern, ings of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Jan.-June. — which was followed by the expulsion of the portion of the worm Extracts from the Proceedings of the Lyceum of Natural History, New now presented. The head of the parasite was included, and it

York. -Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 7.-The Canadian

Entomologist.–The Rural New Yorker, Vol. xxi., Nos. 21-24. confirmed the view that it sertained to the Tienia mediocanellata.

Foreign.- Jahrbuch der k. k. geologischen Reichsanstalt zu Wien, 1871, The case serves as another caution against the use of raw flesh

April-June.-Georg Gottfried Gervinus : Emil Lehm inn.-Magazine d'Eduas food. The description of the worm, as derived from the cation et de Recreation, No. 162.-Sur la loi de l'Evolution similaire des specimen, is as follows :- The head is white, without pigment.

Phénomènes Météorologiques : M. A. Pocy. granules, obtusely rounded, unarmed with hooks, and unprovided with a rostellum, but furnished with a minute acetabuliform fovea


PAGB at the summit. The four acetabula are spherical, and opaque

HELMHOLTZ ON THE AXIOMS OF GEOMETRY. By Prof. W. STANLEY white. The diameter of the head is three-fourths of a line. The JEVONS : neck, or unsegmented portion of the body immediately succeed. Leighton's Lichen-FLORA OF Great Britain. By Dr. W. LAUDER ing the head, is about four lines long by half a line in breadth. LINDSAY, F.R.S. E.


OUR BOOK SHELF The most anterior indistinctly defined segments of the body, and


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: those inmediately succeeding them, but more distinctly separated, Geometry at Oxford. -Prof. W.T. ThiselTON DYER

485 are about one fifth of a line long by two-fifths of a line broad. Elementarv Geometry.-W. D. Cooley; THOMAS JONES. (with In a more posterior fragment of the body, the flat and nearly



The Coming Eclipse. -Col j T. TENNANT, F.R.S. square segments measure half a line long and one line broad, to

British Mosses - D. MOORE, F.L.S. one-third line long and two-and-a-half lines broad. A succeed- Corrections - RICHARD A PROCTOR, FRA's.

487 ing fragment exhibits segments three-and-a-half lines long by

A Universal Atmosphere. -JOHN BROWNING, F.R.A.S.

487 four lines broad, and two lines long by five lines broad. Many

The l'emperature of the Sun.-- JOHN Ball

487 Flight of Butterflies.

487 of the seginents in this piece are irregularly separated laterally Velocity of Sound in Coal.-D. Joseph

487 by deep, wide notches. In a succeeding long portion of the Prof. Newcomb and Mr. Stone. --R. A. PROCTOR, F.R.A.S.


SCIENCE AT THE UNIVERSITIES. worm, the segments are wider behind than in front, and measure


489 two, five, and three lines long by five lines broad. In a long THE KEA-PROGRESS OF DEVELOPMENT. By THOMAS H. Potts

489 piece of the posterior part of the worm, the segments are first ON A New Form of Cloud. (With Illustration.) By Prof. ANDRE four lines long and broad ; and in the last four feet of the same


489 piece, the segments are clavate in outline, from six to ten lines

SURES. (With Illustrations.) By Prof. W. C. WILLIAMSON, F.R.S. long, and two and three lioes broad. The genital apertures are NOTES conspicuous, and are situated behind the middle of the segments.


PROF. HUXLEY ON THE DUTIES OF THE STATE They alternate irregularly. Thus, in the last two feet of the

ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE PALÆOZOIC CRINOIDS. posterior fragment of the worm, the first two segments exhibit

By Prati

WYVILLE THOM:ON, F.R.S. the aperture on the left margin ; the succeeding segment presents ON THE RELATION OF AURORAS TO Gravitating Currents. '(With the anomaly of an aperture on both margins; then follow three


SCIENTIFIC SERIALS apertures on the right, next two on the left, then four on the

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES right, then eight alternating in pairs, then one on the left, and BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS RECEIVED


486 487


490 492 495 495


497 498 498 500

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