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Poetry,-"the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge.”

Wordsworth. “intellect colored by the feelings.”Prof. Wilson. “the spontaneous overflow of powerful emotion.”

Wordsworth. “ Thoughts that voluntary move Harmonious numbers.” -Milton.

“The suggestion, by means of the imagination, of noble grounds for noble emotions."- Ruskin.

Poetry,-“the utterance of a passion for truth, beauty, and power, embodying and illustrating its convictions by imagination and fancy, and modulating its language on the principle of variety in uniformity.Leigh Hunt.

Poetry,—“the eldest voice of time, the undying melody of the heart; poetry - the language of the spirit, the inward sense of history, of eloquence, of fiction, and of philosophy, united to the harmony of sound.”- H. Giles.

A poetical line or verse consists of a certain number of accented and unaccented syllables, arranged according to fixed rules. It was originally called verse, (from the Latin verto, to turn,) because when we have finished one line, we turn back to commence the other; as,

" To suffer well is well to serve.” – Whittier. Versification is the harmonious arrangement of a certain number and variety of accented and unaccented syllables, according to particular laws.

Poetical feet are divisions of a line of poetry, each consisting of two or three syllables, regularly accented.

They are called feet, because it is by their aid that the voice steps through the verse in a measured pace.

The feet of two syllables are the
Iambus (u-), accented on the second syllable ; as, cõn-tēnt,
Trochee (-u), accented on the first syllable; as, pārt-ing.
Spondee (--), with both syllables long; as, A-mēn.

Pyrrhic (uu), with both syllables short ; as pi-lg-in hap-pily.
The feet of three syllables are the
Anapæst (uu-), accented on the third syllable; as, nõn-con-cūr.
Dactyl (-uu), accented on the first syllable; as, love-li-něss.
Amphibrach (u-u), accented on the second syllable; as, rě-lūct-

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"Tribrach (uuu), with all short; as, | it-à-blě | in illimitable. Imphimacer (-u-), with the first and third long; as, | winding

et. 1

lacchus (u--), with the second and third long; as, | thể dūll :1

.ntibacchus (---), with the first and second long: as, | dēerstēaling. 1 Molossus (---), all long; as, | Stītch! stītch! stītch! | “Tröchặe | trips fröm | lông tỏ | short; From long to long in solemn sort. Slow Spon | dēe stālks; | strong fõot! | yet ill able Evăn tỏ | cõme up with | Dactyl tri | syllable. | Tām | bics mārch | from short | tỏ lòng | With a lẽap | Ănd a böund | thẻ swift Ăn | ip&sts thrõng, | õne sõllă | blě long, with | õne short ăt | each side Ămphibrăch I ýs hāstes with | ă stātelý | stride. First ănd lāst | bēing lõng | middlě short | āmphìmā | cer, Strikes hřs thūn | dēring hõofs like ă proud | bigh-brěd Rā | cer.”

METRICAL FEET.- Coleridge.


Rhyme is the correspondence in sound of the last accented syllable of one line of poetry, with that of the last accented syllable of another; as, “Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers, and he bears a laden breast, Full of sad experience moving toward the stillness of his rest."

Tennyson. A Stanza is a combination of several verses varying in number according to the poet's fancy, and constituting a regular division of a poem or song; as,

“Rejoice in hope! The day and night

Are one with God, and one with them

Who see by faith the cloudy hem
Of Judgment fringed with Mercy's light."- Whittier.

Blank Verse is the expression of poetical thoughts in regular numbers, but without rhyme, each verse being composed of five iambic feet; thus,

If thõu | bẻ ốne | whöse hẽart | thể hỗ | lý förms |
of young | imāg | inā | tiön hāve | kėpt pūre, |

-Henceforth be warned; and know that Pride,
Howe'er disguised in its own majesty,
Is littleness; that he who feels contempt
For any living thing, hath faculties
Which he has never used; that thought with him,
Is in its infancy. The man whose eye
Is ever on himself doth look on one,
The least of Nature's works, -one who might move
The wise man to that scorn which wisdom holds
Unlawful ever. Oh! be wiser thou;
Instructed that true knowledge leads to love,
True dignity abides with him alone
Who, in the silent hour of inward thought,
Can still suspect, and still revere himself,
In lowliness of heart.”— Wordsworth.


Scanning is the dividing of verse into feet, in order to ascertain whether the number and arrangement of the syllables are according to the laws of versification. A line in which a syllable is wanting is said to be catalectic; one which is complete, acatalectic; one in which there is a redundant syllable, hypercatalectic, or hypermeter.

The Iambus, Trochee, Anapæst, and Dactyl are the principal feet. Only of these may a poem be wholly or in great part formed. According as each may prevail in a poem, the verse is called Iambic, Trochaic, Anapæstic, or Dactylic.

A line that consists wholly of but one kind of foot is called pure; as,

“Thěy āl | să sērve | whỏ ön | lý stānd | ănd wāit :' Milton.

Verses not consisting exclusively of one kind of foot are called mixed; as, • Dõubt | thất Thỹ põw | Ăn căn fll | tlẽ hếart | thắt Thỹ pẽw | er

ěxpands ? |”- Robert Browning.

A line consisting of one foot is called Monometer; as

. “Work! work! wõrk! | "Hood. Of two feet, Dimeter; as,

“Slāckěn | not sāil yệt |
At inlet | or island; |
Straight for the beacon steer, I

Straight for the high land. I ”—Mrs. Southey.
Of three feet, Trimeter; as,

“ Bēar through | sõrrów | wrong ănd | rūth

1 In thy | heart the dew of | youth,

On thy | lips the / smile of truth.”— - Longfellow.
Of four feet, Tetrameter; as,

“Sublime / signīf | icānce 1 of mouth, |
Dilat | ed nos , tril full of youth, |
And fore head roy | al with | the truth. I


Mrs. Browning. Of five feet, Pentameter; as, “Nỉght rēads | in sī | lēnce hēr l ětēr | năl psālm, |

The gos | pel of the dark | ness, penned | in light, I

The starred | evan gel of | infin | ity! |” – Stoddard. Of six feet, Hexameter; as,


“ A needless Alexandrine ends the song Thăt līke | ă wound | ēd snāil | drāgs its | slow lēngth | ălõng. I


This measure is sometimes written in two lines, the first containing four the second, two feet; thus,

“ Thěn of whāt | is tõ hē | ănd of whāt | is done |

Whỹ qūer | iest thou ? |
The past and the time to be | are one |

And both | are now! |” — Whittier. Of seven feet, Heptameter; as, “Õnwărd | În thē pāth of dutý, s mindful only of the right.'

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This form is usually written in two lines, the first ejntaining four feet, the second, three; thus, “I'vě hēard / of hēarts | ủnkind ; | kind dēeds 1

With cold | něss still | rētūrning: 1
Alas! | the grat | itude of man |

Has oftener left | me mourning. I - Wordsworth.

“Hě prāy | ěth bēst, | whỏ lõv ěth bēst |

All things | both grēat | ănd smāll; |
For the dear God | who lov | eth us, I

He made and lov | eth all. ” — Coleridge.
Sở Nā | tūre kēeps | thě rēv | erěnt frāme |

With which her years | began, |
And all | her signs | and voic | es shame |

The prayer | less heart | of man. " - W er. Of eight feet, Octameter; as, “Pẽace at | läst! of | pēace ě | tērnăl | is hěr | cālm, swēet |

smīle ă | tõken.” — Miss Procter.

This measure is generally divided into two lines; thus,
“No pāth | wě shūn, | no dārk | nėss drēad, I
Our hearts | still whis | pering, Thou | art near! | Holmes.
“Oŭr mid | night is | Thý smīle | withdrāwn; |

Our noon | tide is | Thy gra | cious dawn; |
Our rain | bow arch | Thy mer | cy's sign; |
All, save | the clouds of sin, I are Thine! |” Ibid.


Besides the Sentential and Rhetorical Pauses, before noticed, we have also the Poetical or Harmonic, which are those used to show the harmony of versification.

They are divided into three classes; viz. :

The Final Pause, a short pause often used at the end of a line of poetry to mark the rhyme; as, “Diverse | as their varied labours || the rewards | to each that


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