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He studied law under Governor Sullivan, and was three years a teacher in Exeter Academy.

Mr. Thacher visited Savannah, Ga., Nov. 2, 1802, in company with his father, Rev. Peter Thacher, for the purpose of relief in pulmonary consumption, where they arrived Dec. 3 of that date, and his father expired on the 16th of that month. Mr. Thacher recorded an account of the voyage from Boston, and of the last hours of his father. One incident is related, for the reason that it illustrates the influence and shows the importance of early religious culture. On laying down for the last time, in the early part of the evening, a few hours before his death, he repeated the nursery prayer:

"Now I lay me down to sleep,

I pray the Lord my soul to keep;
If I should die before I wake,

I pray the Lord my soul to take;"

and, turning to his son, said, "My son, this little prayer I have not omitted to repeat, on going to bed, for forty years. This may be the last time; I charge you never to omit it."

In 1805 Mr. Thacher pronounced the oration for the Phi Beta Kappa Society. He became a counsellor-at-law, and married Charlotte I., daughter of Thomas MacDonough, a British consul. He was Town Advocate for Boston in 1807, and was judge of the Municipal Court for Suffolk from 1823 to the year 1843. He was a member of the Literary Anthology Club, on its institution, in 1805; and a director of the Boston Athenæum, on its institution, in 1807.

Judge Thacher was endowed with great integrity, and firm decision of character, and often stigmatized as a very severe judge; but he was not more rigid than just. He was peculiarly qualified for the period and station, and wisely effected more in the restraint of crime among us than any other man on the bench. He was compelled to deal with the worst passions of men, says the Law Reporter, but there is no act of his life which has left any stain on his character.

The Criminal Cases of Judge Thacher, edited by Woodman, in 1845, is a standard text-book for the bar and the bench. Several of his charges were published, and a copy of them is in the library of the Historical Society. In 1883 the Trial of Ebenezer Clough, for Embracery, was published, with the arguments of Thacher on the





ANDREW RITCHIE was born in Boston, and graduated at Harvard College in 1802, when he gave an oration on "Innovation." He read law with Rufus G. Amory, and married a daughter of Cornelius Durant, a West India planter. He married a second time, Sophia Harrison, a daughter of the Hon. H. G. Otis, and settled on his plantation in St. Croix. He was early a counsellor-at-law in Boston, of which town he was a representative in 1816.

In 1805 Mr. Ritchie gave an oration on the Ancient and Modern Eloquence of Poetry; and in 1818 an address for the Massachusetts Peace Society. He was a tasteful and effective writer, and says, in the oration at the head of this article: "We are not required, like young Hannibal, to approach the altar and vow eternal hatred to a rival nation; but we will repair to the neighboring heights, at once the tombs and everlasting monuments of our heroes, and swear that, as they did, so would we, rather sacrifice our lives than our country."



BORN at Milton, Jan 20, 1776; graduated at Harvard College, 1796. He was the only child of Maj. Job Sumner, of the continental army in the Revolution, whose ancestry may be traced to 1637. His father was a native of Milton. He entered Harvard College in 1774; but when, after the Battle of Lexington, the students were dispersed, and the college edifice converted into barracks, he joined the army, in which he continued until the peace. He was second in command of the American troops who took possession of New York, on its evacuation by the British, Nov. 25, 1783; and was also second in command of the battalion of light infantry which rendered to Gen. Washington

the last military respects of the Revolutionary army, when, in Dec. 4, 1783, at Francis' Tavern, New York city, he took leave of his brother officers and comrades in arms in terms of warm affection.

After the close of the war, Maj. Sumner was appointed commissioner to settle the accounts between the United States and Georgia; and in this capacity, for several successive winters, visited that State. On the voyage, upon his return from one of these visits, he was taken ill, after eating of a dolphin caught off the copper banks of Cape Hatteras; and, though his vessel made a rapid passage to New York, and he landed without delay, he died on the day after his arrival, Sept. 16, 1789. He was buried with distinguished military honors. Among the pall-bearers at his funeral was Alexander Hamilton. His remains were interred near the middle of St. Paul's church-yard, in New York; and, about one month afterwards, Maj. Lucas, of Georgia, was buried by his side. One monumental stone covers them both, with an appropriate inscription over the body of each. That over Maj. Sumner is as follows: "This tomb contains the remains of Maj. Job Sumner, of the Massachusetts line of the army of the Revolution; who, having supported an unblemished character through life, as the soldier, citizen and friend, died in this city, after a short illness, universally regretted by his acquaintance, on the 16th day of September, 1789, aged 33 [35] years."

At the time of Maj. Sumner's decease, his son was a student at Andover Academy, under Mr. Pemberton, where he was prepared for college. He entered Harvard College in 1792, and received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1796. Among his classmates with whom he was on terms of friendship was John Pickering, the eminent Greek lexicographer, James Jackson, the head of the medical profession in Boston, Leonard Woods, of Andover, the profound divine. With the latter Mr. Sumner was ever on terms of affectionate intimacy. While in college he developed poetical talents which were then highly favored. He delivered a “Valedictory Poem" before the Speaking Club, when his classmates left that society at the end of the junior year; also, at one of the college exhibitions, a poem entitled "The Compass," which was much admired, and was shortly afterwards printed in a pamphlet. There is now in the possession of his family a copy of Shakspeare and Young's Night Thoughts, inscribed in each as follows, in the beautiful and distinct handwriting of the Rev. Dr. Jenks, a fellow-student and friend of Mr. Sumner, though two years after him in college:

"These volumes are presented to C. P. Summer, by several members of Harvard University, who are desirous of expressing their acknowledgments for the pleasure afforded by his poem entitled 'The Compass,' and for the honor which it confers upon the literary character of the University." The same poem prompted from another friend, Joseph Story, afterwards the illustrious judge, a few poetical lines, expressive of warm approval of the production, and lively anticipation of his future success. We here transcribe the apostrophe from the autograph of Justice Story, very neatly inscribed on the back of the title-page of a printed copy of this poem, in the possession of Charles Sumner, our Senator to Congress, which may be viewed as a valuable part of his patrimony:

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On commencement-day, when he took his degree, Mr. Sumner delivered a poem on "Time." He also pronounced the valedictory poem before his classmates, when they completed their studies. The verses herewith, from the valedictory, in apt words picture the kindred friendship among his fellow-classmates:

"From this loved spot to festal-board we go,
And give the cordial hand to friend and foe ;

One firm alliance, one enduring peace,
From this time forth, shall never cease;
Each shall to each a cheering wish extend,

And live through life befriended and a friend."

All his productions at this early period, as through life, indicate a philanthropic spirit. The happiness of mankind was his controlling passion. Shortly after he left college an incident occurred expressive of this character. He passed a winter in the West Indies. The vessel in which he was a passenger happened to stop at the Island of Hayti, which was then rejoicing in its independence; and the officers and passengers, with other American citizens there, were invited to a public entertainment on the anniversary of the birth-day of Washington, at which Gen. Boyer, afterwards president of that republic, presided. Mr. Sumner, when called upon for a toast, gave the following: "Liberty, Equality and Happiness, to all men;" which so much pleased Boyer, that he sent one of his aids-de-camp to invite the young American to take the seat of honor by his side at the feast.

Mr. Sumner was early associated, as a private teacher, under the Rev. Henry Ware, pastor of the first church in Hingham, and Professor of Divinity in Harvard College, 1805, towards whom he ever sustained relations of friendship. He shortly made a visit to Georgia, partly to settle the estate of his father, and journeyed home by land through the Southern States. On his return, he devoted himself to the study of the law, in the office of Hon. George Richards Minot; and, on the decease of that ornament of Suffolk bar, he finished his initiation under the guidance of Hon. Josiah Quincy, with whom, though differing in politics, he always sustained the relations of warm regard. In 1798 Mr. Sumner delivered the poem before the Phi Beta Kappa of Harvard College, and the oration on this occasion was delivered by Rev. John T. Kirkland. On Feb. 22, 1800, Mr. Sumner delivered at Milton a eulogy on Washington, which was published at Dedham, and was afterwards embodied in the octavo volume entitled Eulogies and Orations on Washington," as being one of the best pronounced on the virtues of that illustrious father of the Union.

About the year 1805, when political excitement was warm, William Austin, of the Democratic party, author of Letters from London, in consequence of political differences with Gen. Simon Elliott, in the Chronicle, over "Decius," was challenged by James H., son of the general. Mr. Sumner was the second for Mr. Austin,

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