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and the field of combat was in Rhode Island. One of the parties, Mr. Austin, was slightly wounded by a pistol-shot. Mr. Sumner deeply regretted having taken a part in this conflict, and the subject was unknown to his children until after his decease.

Mr. Sumner early attached himself to the Democratic party. He was a constant and tenacious advocate of the administration of Jefferson. His name appears on important local committees during this period. He wrote in the Republican newspapers, and took part in public meetings. He delivered a public address on the second inauguration of Thomas Jefferson, and also an oration on the 4th of July, 1808, as named at the head of this article. It was published in a newspaper of the period. We find in this production a passage as well adapted to the present political excitement as it was to the fever of embargo and non-intercourse, forty-two years ago: "There is, indeed, no diversity of interest between the people of the north and the people of the south; and they are no friends to either who endeavor to stimulate and embitter the one against the other. What if the sons of Massachusetts rank high on the roll of Revolutionary fame? The wisdom and heroism for which they have been distinguished will never permit them to indulge an inglorious boast. The independence and liberty we possess are the result of joint counsels and joint efforts,—of common dangers, sufferings and successes;' and God forbid that those who have every motive of sympathy and interest to act in concert should ever become the prey of party bickerings among themselves."

For several years during the period of 1806, and excepting one year, until 1813, Mr. Sumner was clerk of the House of Representatives, when Perez Morton and Joseph Story were speakers, and Marcus Morton, afterwards governor, was clerk of the Senate. In 1810 Mr. Sumner was a lieutenant in the Boston regiment, and his punctilious observance of military etiquette is in the memory of old men among us. Mr. Sumner did not long actively engage in political matters. The care of a large family occupied much of his time. He was married, April 25, 1810, to Miss Relief Jacob, of a respectable family, in Hanover, Plymouth county, and had nine children; of these, only five survive. Mrs. Sumner has been a lovely, devoted mother, who has largely contributed to the formation of their character. Mr. Sumner was a well-read lawyer, and faithful in all that he undertook. He was peculiarly fortunate in the intimate regard of the members of the bar,

and especially that of Chief Justice Parker; but he never engaged in extensive practice.

In 1825 Mr. Sumner was appointed by Gov. Lincoln to the elevated station of sheriff of the county of Suffolk. This office he retained, by successive appointments, down to the time of his decease, in April 24, 1839. Perhaps no incumbent has ever filled that office in this county who made its duties the subject of more careful study. He explored the history and origin of the office in the English law, and its introduction into Massachusetts. Peculiar evidence of this appears in the discourse which he delivered before the court and bar, in the courthouse, Boston, June, 1829, on some points of difference between the sheriff's office in Massachusetts and in England. This was published in the American Jurist for July, 1829, vol. 2. It was also published in a pamphlet. It is a valuable production, both in a historical and judicial point. It concludes with personal sketches of his predecessors in office. He relates of Jeremiah Allen, the earliest sheriff whom he ever saw, that he was a rich and a moral old bachelor, of whom it was once jocularly said, in his presence and hearing, that "the sheriff knew very well how to arrest men and to attach women;" a piece of humor well intended and well received, and

“Praise enough

To fill the ambition of a private man."

Mr. Sumner, through life, was remarkable for his strict and most conscientious integrity. More than one person remarked of him, that he would trust his whole fortune to him, without bond or security of any kind. He felt keenly the responsibilities of his office; and, at times, to such a degree, that he talked of resigning, that he might be relieved from their anxieties. He always preserved his interest in literature, especially in history and poetry; and, in advanced life, he joined in the classical studies of his children. Though at times austere and reserved, his general manners were simple, easy, flowing, and affable. He has been characterized as "the best-mannered man in Boston;" and, to show how near his heart was such a habit, we will cite the sentiment given in Faneuil Hall, August, 1827, at the festival after the annual exhibition of the public schools: "Good learning and good manners: Two good companions. Happy when they meet, they ought never to part." Sheriff Sumner was small of stature, an emaciated, attenuated figure, and a remarkable contrast to Samuel Badlam,

the jailer of Suffolk, the most rotund, ponderous man in Boston, and the Lambert of New England.

There are several occasional poems of his which are still preserved, particularly odes and songs for charitable and political festivals. Among his publications was a letter in reply to one from the Anti-masonic committee for the county of Suffolk, dated Oct. 19, 1829, in which he exposed, in temperate language, the character and pretensions of the Masonic institution. This was published in a pamphlet, and extensively circulated. It is a document marked by great gentleness and forbearance, and some refinement of taste. A published collection of his fugitive pieces would be a memorial of his patriotic spirit.

In giving toasts at public festivals, he was often called upon, and not unfrequently expressed himself in verse. Some of these are very felicitous. The Hon. Josiah Quincy, our model mayor, in calling upon him once, gave as a toast: "The Sheriff of Suffolk: The only sheriff, except Walter Scott, born on Parnassus." The following toasts, given July 4, 1826, might well vindicate this compliment: "The United States: One and indivisible.

"Firm like the oak may our blest Union rise,

No less distinguished for its strength and size;
The unequal branches emulous unite

To shield and grace the trunk's majestic height;
Through long succeeding years and centuries live,
No vigor losing from the aid they give."

We cite another toast, given July 4, 1828, which gives a just tribute to agriculture, and a skilful compliment to Gov. Lincoln, who, like Cincinnatus, though at the head of the commonwealth, was a practical farmer: "Agriculture :

"In China's realms, from earliest days till now,
The well-loved emperor annual holds the plough;
Here, too, our worthiest candidates for fame,
With unsoiled honor, sometimes do the same.
Upholding such, our yeomen's generous hearts
Show a just reverence to the first of arts."

In the latter days of his life he rarely voted, and was reluctant to be called of any particular party; but he always remembered, with satisfaction, his early connection with the old Republican party, and with many of the leaders of the old Federal party he was on

friendly terms. He was invited to be the Anti-masonic candidate for Governor of the State, which he declined. He was also urged to be a candidate for the mayoralty of Boston, at the time when Quincy finally lost his election. But he resolutely declined, preferring the office he held; but adding, with expressive warmth, that he could never consent to be a candidate against his early friend.

His memory will be venerated, in his descendants, long as eloquence, literature, science and purity, are recognized in sons such as Charles, George and Horace Sumner, the second of whom is widely known as a traveller, and by the accuracy and extent of his attainments. He was born Feb. 5, 1817. He was educated in the Boston High School; visited Europe in 1838, and has remained there to this period. While in Russia he enjoyed the peculiar favor of the Emperor Nicholas, and has travelled some time as his guest. Nicholas reposed more confidence in him, for information on this country, than on any other American. He made a voyage round the Black Sea. with the Russian fleet, and also an excursion to the Caucasus. Here he visited and made observations on mud volcanoes, not described before since Marco Polo; visited Constantinople, Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and Greece. In the latter country he wrote an elaborate letter on its condition, which was published in the Democratic Review. He then passed a year in Italy, Sicily,-ascending Mount Etna,—and next visited Germany, Hungary, Holland, Belgium, and France. At Leyden he made curious investigations into the history of the Pilgrim Fathers, especially of John Robinson, published in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. He then proceeded to England, and from thence to Spain, where he passed a year. Since his return from Spain, he has resided in Paris, with an occasional visit to England and Germany. In all these countries he has become personally acquainted with those who are most eminent in science, literature, and politics. In Hungary, several years before its unsuccessful attempts at revolution, he formed a personal acquaintance with Kossuth. He has for years enjoyed an intimacy with the great Humboldt, who has expressed a great interest in his conversation and opinions. He was familiarly acquainted with Lamartine and De Tocqueville, in France. The latter, in a recent letter to Gen. Cavaignac, has characterized him as follows: "Mr. Sumner is a man of superior intelligence, very accomplished, perfectly familiar with all European affairs, and knowing

the different parties and politics of Europe much better than any European." He is a member of several learned societies of Europe.

The youngest son of Mr. Sumner, Horace, born Dec. 25, 1824, and educated in the Boston High School, perished in the wreck of the ship Elizabeth, on Fire Island, near New York city, July 18, 1850. He was an invalid, returning from a year in Italy, whither he had been in pursuit of health. Among his companions in misfortune was the Marchioness Fuller Ossoli, her husband and child; but her lofty intellectual character did not excite a stronger interest than the moral excellences of young Sumner. This lady was the daughter of Hon. Timothy Fuller, whom we have sketched as an orator for July, 1831. The Christian Register for July 27, 1850, states that "In the same ship was a young man of the most pure, unambitious, loving and gentle life, whose quiet virtues had singularly endeared him to the few who knew him, and whose death at any time could only be regarded as a blessed dispensation to him, however severe it might be to his friends." Horace Sumner, says the Register, was retiring in his habits and tastes, but his memory will long be cherished by his friends with peculiar interest and affection.



Was born in Boston, Jan. 28, 1779, and was the son of Hon. Judge Tudor; was educated at Phillips' Academy, Andover; and graduated at Harvard College in 1796, at which time he engaged in a dialogue on the Advantages of Public Education. Having an ambition for mercantile pursuits, he entered the counting-room of John Codman, an eminent merchant, who early sent him to Paris as his confidential agent; and, after his return to Boston, he sailed for Leghorn, and made the tour of Europe, cultivating his natural taste for literature and literary men wherever he went. In 1805 he was one of the founders of the Literary Anthology Club, the most delightful literary and social institution ever formed in Boston; and in November of this

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