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talents and disinterested zeal of the above distinguished authors, could not have been undertaken, had it not been for the liberality of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, who, through the representation of the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been pleased to grant a sum of one thousand pounds towards defraying part of the expelises of publication.

I have myself published separate volumes on the Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs ;' on the Volcanic Islands visited during the Voyage of the Beagle;' and on the 'Geology of South America. The sixth volume of the Geological Transactions contains two papers of mine on the Erratic Boulders and Volcanic Phenomena of South America. Messrs. Waterhouse, Walker, Newman, and White, have published several able papers on the Insects which were collected, and I trust that many others will hereafter follow. The plants from the southern parts of America will be given by Dr. J. Hooker, in his great work on the Botany of the Southern Hemisphere. The Flora of the Galapagos Archipelago is the subject of a separate memoir by him, in the Linnean Transactions. The Reverend Professor Henslow has published a list of the plants collected by me at the Keeling Islands; and the Reverend J. M. Berkeley has .described my cryptogamic plants.

I shall have the pleasure of acknowledging the great assistance which I have received from several other naturalists, in the course of this and my other works; but I must be here allowed to return my most sincere thanks to the Reverend Professor Henslow, who, when I was an under-graduate at Cambridge, was one chief means of giving me a taste for Natural History, -who, during my absence, took charge of the collections I sent home, and by his correspondence directed my endeavours,-and who, since my return, has constantly rendered me every assistance which the kindest friend could offer.

Down, Bromley, Kent.

June, 1845.

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I TAKE the opportunity of a new edition of my Journal to correct a few errors. At page 83 I have stated that the majority of the shells which were embedded with the extinct mammals at Punta Alta, in Bahia Blanca, were still living species. These shells have since been examined (see Geological Observations in South America,' p. 83) by M. Alcide d’Orbigny, and he pronounces them all to be recent. M. Aug. Bravard has lately described, in a Spanish work (Observaciones Geologicas, 1857), this district, and he believes that the bones of the extinct mammals were washed out of the underlying Pampean deposit, and subsequently became embedded with the still existing shells; but I am not convinced by his remarks. M. Bravard believes that the whole enormous Pampean deposit is a sub-aërial formation, like sand-dunes : this seems to me to be an untenable doctrine.

At page 378 I give a list of the birds inhabiting the Galapagos Archipelago.

The progress of research has shown that some of these birds, which were then thought to be confined to the islands, occur on the American continent. The eminent ornithologist, Mr. Sclater, informs me that this is the case with the Strix punctatissima and Pyrocephalus nanus; and probably with the Otus galapagoensis and Zenaida galapagoensis : so that the number of endemic birds is reduced to twenty-three, or probably to twenty

Mr. Sclater thinks that one or two of these endemic forms should be ranked rather as varieties than species, which always seemed to me probable.

The snake mentioned at page 381, as being, on the authority of M. Bibron, the same with a Chilian species, is stated by Dr. Günter (Zoolog. Soc., Jan. 24th, 1859) to be a peculiar species, not known to inhabit any other country.

one.

Feb. 1st, 1860.

CONTENTS.

..39

CHAPTER I.

CHAPTER VII.

Porto Praya - Ribeira Grande --- Atmospheric Excursion to St. Fé--Thistle-Beds---Habits of

Dust with Infusoria--Habits of a Sea-slug and

the Bizcacha- Little Owl-Saline Streams

Cuttle-fish--St. Paul's Rocks, non-volcanic--

Level Plains-Mastodon--St. Fé-Change in

Singular incrustations-Insects the first Colo- Landscape-Geology-Tooth of extinct Horse

nists of Islands Fernando Noronha-Bahia Relation of the Fossil and recentQuadrupeds

-Burnished Rocks-Habits of a Diodon-

of North and South America-Effects of a

Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria-Causes of great Drought-Parana---Habits of the Jaguar

discoloured Sea..........

..Page 1

Scissor-beak - King-fisher, Parrot, and

Scissor-tail - Revolution - Buenos Ayres --

CHAPTER II.

State of Government ...,

123

Rio de Janeiro-Excursion north of Cape Frio

CHAPTER VIII.

-Great Evaporation - Slavery - Botofogo Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento-Value

Bay-Terrestrial Planariæ-Clouds on the

Corcovado-Heavy Rain--Musical Frogs-

of an Estancia-Cattle, how countedSin-

gular Breed of Oxen-Perforated Pebbles-

Phosphorescent Insects - Elater, springing

Shepherd-Dogs-Horses broken-in, Gauchos

powers of-Blue Haze-Noise made by a

Butterfly- Entomology-Ants-Wasp kill-

Riding--Character of Inhabitants-- Rio Plata

-Flocks of Butterflies--Aēronaut Spiders

ing a Spider-Parasitical Spider-Artifices of

an Epeira--Gregarious Spider-Spider with

Phosphorescence of the Sea-Port Desire

Guanaco-Port St. Julian-Geology of Pata-

an unsymmetrical Web....

19

gonia -- Fossil gigantic Animal - Types of

CHAPTER III. .

Organization constant-Change in the Zoo-

logy of America-Causes of Extinction, 142

Monte Video-MaldonadoExcursion to R.

Polanco-Lazo and Bolas-Partridges--Ab-

CHAPTER IX.

sence of Trees--Deer-Capybara, or River Santa Cruz-Expedition up the River--Indians

Hog Tucutico Molothrus, cuckoo-like -Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava-Frag-

habits-Tyrant Flycatcher--Mocking-bird- ments not transported by the River-Exca-

Carrion Hawks--Tubes formed by Lightning vation of the Valley-Condor, habits of

House struck

Cordillera-Erratic Boulders of great size-

Indian Relics-Return to the Ship-Falk-

CHAPTER IV.

land Islands-Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits

Rio Negro-Estancias attacked by the Indians

Wolf-like Fox-Fire made of Bones-Man-

--Salt Lakes-Flamingoes-R. Negro to R.

ner of hunting Wild Cattle --Geology

Colorado-Sacred Tree-Patagonian Hare-

Streams of Stones---Scenes of Violence

Indian Families—General Rosas-Proceed to Penguin--Geese-Eggs of Doris --Compound

Bahia Blanca--Sand Dunes-Negro Lieute-

Animals..

177

nant-Bahia Blanca--Saline Incrustations-

CHAPTER X..

Punta Alta-Zorillo...

63

Tierra del Fuego, first arrival-Good Success

CHAPTER V.

Bay-Ari Account of the Fuegians on board

-Interview with the Savages-Scenery of

Bahia Blanca-Geology- Numerous gigantic the Forests-Cape. Horn-Wigwam Cove-

extinct Quadrupeds - Recent Extinction Miserable Condition of the Savages-Famines

Longevity of Species--Large Animals do not -Cannibals--Matricide-Religious Feelings

require a luxuriant Vegetation Southern -Great Gale-Beagle Channel.Ponsonby

Africa --Siberian Fossils - Two Species of Sound-Build Wigwams and settle the Fue-

Ostrich-Habits of Oven-bird-Armadilloes

gians--Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel

-Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard--Hyberna- Glaciers--Return to the Ship-Second Visit

tion of Animals_Habits of Sea-Pen Indian

in the Ship to the Settlement-Equality of

Wars and Massacres-- Arrow-head-Antiqua- Condition amongst the Natives

204

rian Relic.

81

CHAPTER XI.

CHAPTER VI.

Strait of Magellan-Port Famine-Ascent of

Set out for Buenos Ayres Rio Sauce-Sierra Mount Tarn --- Forests -- Exlible Fungus-

Ventana - Third Posta -- Driving Horses -- Zoology-Great Sea-weed-Leave Tierra del

Bolas--Partridges and Foxes-Features of the Fuego--Climate-Fruit Trees and Produc-

Country--Long-legged Plover-Teru-tero- tions of the Southern Coasts--Height of

Hailstorm-Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Snow-line on the Cordillera - Descent of

mapalguen-Flesh of Puma-Meat Diet- Glaciers to the Sea-Icebergs formed-Trans-

Guardia del Monte-Effects of Cattle on the portal of Boulders - Climate and Produc-

Vegetation-Cardoon–Buenus Ayres--Cor- tions of the Antarctic Islands Preservation

zal where Cattle are slaughtered.

106 of Frozen Carcasses-Recapitulation.. 231

CHAPTER XII.

CHAPTER XVII.

Valparaiso--Excursion to the Foot of the Andes Galapagos Archipelago–The whole group volo

Structure of the Land-Ascend the Bell of

canic Number of craters--Leafless bv.shes-

Quillota-Shattered Masses of Greenstone,

Colony at Charles Island James Island

Immense Valleys-Mines-State ct Miners

Salt-lake in crater-Natural History of the

--Santiago-Hot-baths of Cauquenes-Guld- group--Ornithology, curious finches-Rep-

mines--Grinding-mills--Perforated Stones tiles-Great tortoises, habits of-Marine li.

---Habits of the Puma--El Turco and Tapa-

zard, feeds on sea-weed-Terrestrial lizard,

colo--Humming-birds

252

burrowing habits, herbivorous-Importance

of reptiles in the ArchipelagoFish, shells,

CHAPTER XIII.

insects - Botany-American type of organi-

zationDifferences in the species or races on

Chiloe -- General Aspect--Boat Excursion-

different islands- Tameness of the birds

Native Indians-Castro-Tame Fox-Ascend

San Pedro--Chonos Archipelago-Peninsula

Fear of man, an acquired instinct...... 372

of Tres Montes --Granitic Range -Boat-

CHAPTER XVIII.

wrecked Sailors--Low's Harbour Wild Po- Pass through the Low Archipelago-Tahiti

tato Formation of Peat- Myopotamus, Aspec:- Vegetation on the Mountains_View

Otter and Mice--Cheucau and Barking-bird of Eimeo-Excursion into the Interior Pro-

--Opetiorhynchus--Singular Character of Or- found Ravines Succession of Waterfalls-

nithology-Petrels..

273 Number of wild useful Plants-Temperance

of the Inhabitants-Their moral state-Par-

CHAPTER XIV.

liament convened-New Zealand-Bay of

San Carlos, Chiloe-Osorno in eruption, con-

Islands Hippahs---Excursion to Waimate-

temporaneously with Aconcagua and Cose-

Missionary Establishment English Weeds

now run willWaiomio Funeral of a New

guina-Ride to Cucao-Impenetrable forests

Valdivia--Indians-Earthquake-Concep-

Zealand Woman Sail for Australia.... 402

cion-Great earthquake-Rocks fissured

CHAPTER XIX.

Appearance of the former towns-The sea

SydneyExcursion to Bathurst-Aspect of the

black and boiling-Direction of the vibra-

Woods--Party of Natives-Gradual extinc-

tions-Stones twisted round-Great Wave

tion of the Aborigines Infection generated

Permanent elevation of the land-Area of

by associated men in health-Blue Moun-

volcanic phenomena—The connexion be-

tains-- View of the grand gulf-like Valleys

tween the elevatory and eruptive forces-

Their origin and formation-Bathurst, gene-

Cause of earthquakes--Slow elevation of

ral civility of the lower orders-State of So-

Mountain-chains .

ciety-Van Diemen's Land-Hobart Town

CHAPTER XV.

--Aborigines all banished-Mount Welling-

ton--King George's Sound-Cheerless aspect

Valparaiso --Portillo pass--Sagacity of mules-

of the Country-Bald Head, calcareous casts

Mountain torrents--Mines, how discovered of branches of trees-Party of Natives--Leave

-Proofs of the gradual elevation of the Cor- Australia

431

dillera--Effect of snow on rocks-Geological

CHAPTER XX.

structure of the two main ranges-Their dis-

tinct origin and upheaval-Great subsidence Keeling Island-Singular appearance--Scanty

Red snow-Winds.Pinnacles of snow-

Flora-Transport of Seeds--Birds and Insects

Dry and clear atmosphere---Electricity

Ebbing and flowing Wells -- Fields of

Pampas-Zoology of the opposite sides of the

dead Coral-Stones transported in the roots

Andes - Locusts -- Great bugs---Mendoza

of trees --Great Crab - Stinging Corals -

Uspallata Pass-Silicified trees buried as

Coral-eating Fish – Coral Formations- La-

they grew-Incas Bridge-Badness of the

goon Islands, or Atolls-Depth at which reef-

passes exaggerated - Cumbre - Casuchas

building Corals can live-Vast Areas inter-

Valparaiso

spersed with low Coral Islands–Subsidence

313

of their foundations—Barrier Reefs-Fring

CHAPTER XVI.

ing Reels-Conversion of Fringing Reefs into

Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls-Evidence of

Coast-road to Coquimbo-Great loads carried

by the miners--Coquimbo-Earthquake

changes in LevelBreaches in Barrier Reefs

--Maldiva Atolls; their peculiar structure-

Step-formed terraces---Absence of recent de.

Dead and submerged Reefs-Areas of subsi.

posits-Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary

denceand elevation-Distribution of Volcanos

formations- Excursion up the valley Road

Subsidence slow, and vast in amount..452

to Guascon-Deserts-Valley of Copiapó-

Rain and earthquakes--Hydrophobia-The

CHAPTER XXI.

Despoblado-Indian Ruins-Probable change Mauritius, beautiful appearance of Great cra-

of climate-River-bed arched by an earth- teriform ring of Mountains--Hindoos-St.

quakeCold gales of wind-Noises from a Helena-History of the changes in the vegen

hill-Iquique - Salt alluvium - Nitrate of tation Cause of the extinction of land-shells

soda-Lima-Unhealthy country-Ruins of --Ascension-Variation in the imported rats

Callao, overthgown by an earthquake--Recent -Volcanic Bombs Beds of infusoria-Bahia

subsidence-Elevated shells on San Lorenzo, Brazil-Splendour of tropical scenery-Per-

their decomposition-Plain with embedded nambuco-Singular Reef-Slavery Return

shells and fragments of pottery--Antiquity to England-Retrospect on our voyage.. 483

of the Indian Race .....

337

507

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