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which he gnaws as he runs. Beyond him is a roebuck, attacked by other wolves or dogs, the traces of the rope by which it had been tied being still distinguishable. The third figure is extremely curious, as showing the way in which the young Bestiarius was familiarized to the sight and the roaring of the wild beasts, as well as the manner in which they were taught to encounter them. By means of a collar and rope the panther is fastened to the girth that cinctures an enormous bull, an ingenious contrivance, which, giving a partial liberty to the animal, renders the combat much more equal and interesting than if it were tied to any fixed point. "Behind the bull is another Bestiarius, who seems to be goading it on, that the panther may have a greater length of tether for engaging its assailant. In the fourth figure a man attacks a bear with a sword in one hand and a veil in the other, from which latter circumstance (the veil being a recent introduction), we are enabled with some plausibility to fix the epoch of the games given at the funeral of Scaurus to the latter years of the reign of Claudius, or the beginning of that of Nero, when the passion for these exhibitions was at its height.

The bas-reliefs of the base, also executed in stucco, are divided into two zones, the figures being attached to the plaster as is still practised, by pins of bronze or iron ; but the latter, which are unfortunately the most numerous, having become oxidated, have accelerated the decomposition of that which they were intended to preserve. Previously to the disaster that destroyed Pompeii, in the year 79, this tomb seems to have already suffered, since under most of the actual figures we find others of an infinitely better and more graceful workmanship, and sometimes armed in a different manner. From the following inscription on one of the walls of Pornpeii, we learn that the same troop of gladiators, belonging to Numerius Festus Ampliatus, which fought at the funeral of Scaurus, exhibited a second time in the amphitheatre, the 16th of the calendar of June.



“ The troop of gladiators of Numerius Festus Ampliatus

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will fight, for the second time, 16th June. Combat, chases, awnings” (in the amphitheatre).

The names of the combatants, the number of their vic. tories, and even their condemnation, are written above the figures, as well as the name of the proprietor of the troop (see the upper part of the plate). In the first zone (fig. 5) we distinguish eight couples of combatants. The first pair, beginning at the left, presents two equestrian gladiators. The first is named Bebrix, a barbarous word, which seems to announce a foreign origin; he has already conquered in several other engagements; the numerals appear to represent XII., but they are partly obliterated. His adversary bears the name of Nobilior, and reckons eleven victories. Each is armed with a light lance, a round shield elegantly ornamented, and a bronze helmet with a visor, entirely Povering the face, like those of our ancient knights. The leg and thigh are naked. Bebrix has shoes, such as are now worn : Nobilior has a species of half-boot tied round the leg. The former has made a turust with his lance, which the latter has parried, and is charging his antagonist.

The next group consists of two gladiators whose names are effaced. In the first light-armed figure we recognise one of the Velites, and in the other a Samnite. The former, sixteen times victor in former games, has at length encountered a more fortunate or more skilful combatant than himself. Wounded in the breast, he has lowered his buckler in confession of his defeat, and raised his finger towards the people, for it was thus that the gladiators implored mercy. Behind him the Samnite awaits the answer of the spectators, ready to spare or to despatch him according to their orders.

In the third pair we behold the combat of a Thracian and a Myrmillo. The swords have mostly disappeared, or were never sculptured by the artist, otherwise the former would have been represented with a crooked scimitar. We do not find on the helmet of the Myrmillo the fish with which they were accustomed to adorn their crest; but he is character.. ized by his Gaulish arms, whence the whole class acquired their nickname, and we may perceive at his foot the Gaulish half-pike, which he has thrown away at the moment of his defeat. Although conqueror upon äfteen other occasions,



he is at length defeated, and the Thracian, his adversary, gains a thirty-fifth victory. The Myrmillo, wounded in the breast, implores the clemency of the people; but the letter theta, placed at the end of the inscription above him, announces that he was put to death.*

The four following persons, consisting of two Secutores and two Retiarii, offer a still more cruel spectacle. Nepimus, a Retiarius, five times victorious, has fought with a Secutor, whose name is effaced ; but who was no unworthy adversary, since he had triumphed six times in different engage

On the present occasion he has been less fortunate. Nepimus has struck him on the leg, the thigh, the left arm, and the right side, from all of which the blood flows: in vain has he implored mercy; the spectators have condemned him to death! But as the trident is not a proper weapon for inflicting a sure and speedy death, it is the Secutor Hippolytus who renders to his comrade this last service. The wretched victim bends his knee, and throws himself upon the fatal sword, while Nepimus, his conqueror, spurns him with his foot and hand, as if he were ferociously insulting him in his last moments. In the distance is seen the Retiarius who is to fight against Hippolytus. The armour of the Secutores was light, for nothing but their agility could afford them a chance of escape and victory. On the head of the Retiarii we perceive no other defence than a bandage: the nets with which they sought to entangle their adversaries are not apparent. This portion of the basrelief is terminated by the combat of a Velite and a Samnite. The latter implores the spectators to grant him his dismissal, which apparently is refused; his adversary looks towards the steps of the amphitheatre; he has seen the fatal signal, and seems preparing to strike.

Figure 6 forms part of the upper zone, from which, however, it is separated by the pilasters of the gate. In the first combat a Samnite has been conquered by a Myrmillo, who wishes to immolate his antagonist without waiting the decision of the people, to whom the latter has appealed; but the Lanista or master of the gladiators restrains his fury The 'ext pair offers a similar combat, in which the Myr

* M. Millin, in describing this tomb, proves from several authorities that the 0 was thus placed, because it was the initial of the word davwy --dying.


millo, having received his death-wound, is falling stiffened to the ground.

A less inhuman, but not less sanguinary, spectacle forms the subject of the lower zone (fig. 7). In the upper portion we see a dog chasing hares, a timid animal that would seem scarcely worthy the honour of the circus; but the cruelty of the Romans was ingenious, and by some of Martial's epigrams (lib. i. epig. 15, 23, 53, 71) know that in certain games hares and lions were turned into the arena at the same time. Further on a wounded stag is pursued by dogs. In the lower part a wild boar is seized by a formidable dog, who has already torn its flank. In the middle of the composition a Bestiarius overthrows a bear by a thrust of his lance. The second Bestiarius has driven his enormous spear entirely through a bull, who, though he still flies, turns his head as if he would renew the attack upon his adversary. The latter testifies the greatest surprise at the inefficacy of this terrible wound, and at finding himself disarmed, and in the power of the infuriated animal.

In dismissing this subject we may remark, in proof of the inordinate extent to which the appetite for human blood was finally carried by the Romans, that, according to Josephus, seven hundred Jewish prisoners of war were at one time set to fight in the arena. Among other imperial freaks,

Caligula took sometimes delight, when the sun was most intensely hot, to order the covering of the amphitheatre to be drawn back, and removed of a sudden; prohibiting any one whomsoever from going away from his place.”* Nor did the spectators always escape so cheaply, for, upon one occasion, there being no more condemned criminals, he ordered several lookers-on of the lower rank to be seized and thrown to the wild beasts. Of the invincible attachment of the Romans to these games we may form some opinion from the following circumstance, related by Theodoret in his Ecclesiastical History: “A certain person called Telemachus, by profession a monk, who came from the East, happened on some solemn day to go into the amphitheatre, where he used his utmost endeavours to hinder the combatants from fighting. This unexpected incident so enraged the spectators, that without further ado


* Maffei on Amphitheatres.

they rushed upon him, and tore him to pieces ; for which, says our author (and Sozomen also relates the same), the Romans were for the first time forbidden such games."* It appears to have been only a temporary interdiction, and to have occurred in the reign of Constantine. There is no mention of games of any sort after the sixth century, at which time the great amphitheatre of Titus was abandoned to the spoliations of man, and the dilapidation of time and the elements. This enormous pile, which from its vast proportions and marvellous height well merited the name of the Colosseum,t contained, according to Publius Victor, eighty-seven thousand places; it was small, however, compared with the prodigious extent of the Circus Maximus of Cæsar, the great length of which, stretching out to threeeighths of a mile, enabled it, says Pliny, to accommodate two hundred and forty thousand spectators. As illustrating the combined superstition and rudeness of the Roman character, we may mention, before we quit the subject of their amphitheatres, that while the lowest and best seats were reserved for the Vestal virgins, and the ladies of the imperial family, all other females were obliged to toil up to the top of the theatre, where they were not only surrounded by the plebeians and the rabble, but could hear nothing and see little of what was going forward in the arena below.

* Maffei on Amphitheatres, cap. 6.

† That the amphitheatre took its title from its magnitude, and not from the Colossus of Nero in its vicinity, is satisfactorily established hy Maffei, cap. 4.

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