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thus opposed to the air is very great. The body of the frog is about four inches in length, while the web of each hind foot covers a space of four square inches, and if the webs of all four feet be put together, they will be seen to equal a space of twelve square inches. It is evident enough, therefore, that a creature which is only four inches in length, and which is able to spread a flat membrane of twelve square inches, would be upborne for some distance through the air, if it only projected itself with some force.

Wings and Feet Combined. Except that the limbs do not seem to be moved when the frog passes through the air, there is but little difference between the structure of the bat's wing and the membrane of the flying frog, each being nothing but an existing membrane developed and expanded by being attached to the lengthened toes. In order, also, to assist in the buoyancy of the creature, the body is capable of considerable inflation. In life it is a very handsome species. The back is a rich deep green, and the under surface yellow. The webs are black, adorned with streaks of yellow.

Probably these enormously developed feet are used for swimming as well as for flight, and in that case they will form a remarkable analogy with the wings of the extinct pterodactyls, which are proved with tolerable certainty to be organs adapted to the water as well as to the air.

The body of the edible frog, sometimes attains a length, from the extremity of the muzzle to the end of the hind feet, of six to eight inches. The muzzle terminates in a point; the eyes are large, brilliant, and surrounded with a circle of gold color. The mouth is large; the body, which is contracted behind, presents a tubercular and rugged back. It is of a more or less decided green color on the upper, and whitish on the under parts. These two colors, which harmonize well, are relieved by three yellow lines, which extend the whole length of the back, and by scattered black marblings. It is, therefore, much to be regretted that prejudice should cause some at least of us to dislike this pretty little creature.

CHAPTER VIII.

WILD ANIMALS OF THE FOREST AND JUNGLE.

Old Classic Tales Concerning the Lion-His Majesty Once a Native of Europe,

Leaping the Hedge Into the Trap-Captured by Stratagem-Boundaries of the Lion's Kingdom-A Human Head in a Lion's Mouth-A Roar Like the Sound of an Earthquake-Alarm of the Inhabitants of Plain and Forest-Massive Muscles and Immense Shoulders-A Singular Encounter-Shocking Scene- A HeartRending Cry for Help-Brute Affection—The Sailor and Baboon-Livingstone's Adventure With a Lion- The Royal Tiger-Tamed for a Pet - Dreadful Ferocity -A Guide Killed by a Blow-Excitin 5 Episodes in Tiger Hunting-Carrying Off a Buffalo-Savage Courts Entertained by Brutal Sport-Elephants Hunting the Tiger – The American Black Bear—The Labiated Bear—The Bear's Song-Ludi. crous Antics—The Celebrated “Martin ”—The Gigantic Hippopotamus-Description of the Animal-Arrival of a River-Horse in Europe-Strange Actions and Crowds of Curious Spectators.

HE true lions belong exclusively to the Old World, and they were

formerly plentifully and widely diffused, but confined at present to Africa and Asia, they are daily becoming more scarce in

those parts of the earth. There can be no doubt that lions were once found in Europe. Herodotus records that the baggage camels of the army of Xerxes were attacked by lions, the other beasts and the men remaining untouched. Pausanias tells the same tale, and also states that lions often descended into the plains at the foot of Olympus, which separates Macedonia from Thessaly; and that a celebrated athlete slew one of them, though he was unarmed. Pliny affirms that the lions of Europe were stronger than those of Africa and Syria. Lions have disappeared from other parts of the world, as Egypt, Palestine, and Syria where they once were evidently far from unconimon.

Ezekiel speaks of a lion-an animal with which his people must have been acquainted: “Then the nations set against him on every side from the provinces, and spread their net over him; he was taken in their pit.” Thus, there is an allusion to the practice of the Arabians and of other people. They dug a large circular pit, and at night introduced into it a goat, which they bound to a stake or pillar of earth at the bottom, and then so inclosed the pit with a hedge of branches, that it could not be seen, leaving no entrance. The lion, hearing in the night the voice of the goat, prowled around the hedge, and, finding no opening, leaped over, and was taken.

When the hunter proposed to catch him in his toils, he stretched a series of nets in a semicircular form, by means of long poles fixed in the ground; three men were placed in ambush, among the nets, one in the middle, and one at each extremity. The toils being disposed in this manner, some waved flaming torches, others made a noise by beating their shields, thinking that lions were not less terrified by loud sounds than by fire. The men on foot and horseback, skilfully combining their movements, and raising a great bustle and clamor, rushed in upon them, and drove them towards the nets, till, intimidated by the shouts of the hunters and the glare of torches, they approached the snares of their own accord, and became entangled in the folds.

In the sandy deserts of 'Arabia, in some of the wild districts of Persia, and in the vast jungles of India, the lion still maintains a precarious footing; but from the classic soil of Greece, as well as from the whole of Asia Minor, both of which were once exposed to his ravages, he has been utterly dislodged and extirpated. In the vast and untrodden solitudes of Africa, from the immense deserts of the north to the trackless forests of the south, he reigns supreme and uncontrolled. From the Cape of Good Hope, however, he is annually retiring farther and farther before the persecution of man.

An Enormous Mouth. The opening of the lion's mouth is of great extent in proportion to the size of the animal. In travelling menageries it has long been the custom, "more honored in the breach than the observance," however, for a keeper to thrust his head into a lion's mouth—a practical proof of its capacity—to the no small amusement of some, and the equal terror of others, among the gaping spectators. The muscles which move the lower jaw are also of great bulk, and the point on which they immediately act is brought so far forwards, in consequence of the breadth and shortness of the muzzle, as to give them the highest degree of attainable force.

There is yet one peculiar distinction of the lion, as well as of all animals of the same family, which deserves particular attention. The most obtuse of their senses is that of taste. According to Desmoulins, the lingual nerve of the lion is not larger than that of a middle-sized dog. The tongue of all animals of the cat kind is an organ of mastication, a well as of taste. Whatever flesh a lion's teeth may leave on a bone i: i scraped away by the sharp and horny points, inclining backwards, of his tongue.

The roar of a lion sometimes resembles the sound which is heard at

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the moment of an earthquake; and is produced by laying his head on the ground, and uttering a half-stified growl, by which means the sound is conveyed along the earth. The instant it is heard by the animals reposing in the plains, they start up in alarm, fly in all directions, and even rush into the danger they wish to avoid. This fearful sound is produced by the great comparative size of the larynx—the part of the throat that forms the upper part of the windpipe.

Terrible Roar of the Forest King. The roaring of the lion has always been a proverb. When heard within a distance of a mile or two during the silence of the night, it awes all living creatures. When this great voice echoes over the plain the cattle tremble in the farms, and follow with anxiety its various modulations, in order to inform themselves of the direction in which the enemy is approaching. If the lion comes to prowl around the inclosure in which they are sheltered they exhibit symptoms of the most intense fear. Their sense of smell alone suffices to indicate, even at a considerable distance, the dreaded presence.

It is in spring that the lion seeks a mate, and when an alliance is formed they show themselves most devoted to one another. Until the female has young, the lioness follows her lord everywhere, and most frequently the male is charged with providing the common subsistence. It is said that he pushes his gallantry so far as to refuse to eat first, and that he does not approach the prey captured by himself until the lioness is satisfied; and, on the other hand, the latter defends him with energetic fury if he be attacked.

The immense masses of muscle around the lion's jaws, shoulders, and fore arms, says Livingstone. proclaim tremendous force. They would seem, however, to be inferior in power to those of the Indian tiger. Most of these prodigious feats of strength, that I have seen performed by lions -such as the taking away of an ox-were not carrying, but dragging, or trailing the carcass along the ground. They have sprung, on some occasions, on to the hind quarters of a horse. They do not mount on the withers of an eland, but try to tear him down with their claws.

A Ferocious Struggle. Livingstone gives a singular encounter, as described to him in a letter from Mr. Frank Vardon; Oswell and I were riding along the banks of the Leinpopo, when a water-buck started in front of us. I dismounted, and was following it through the jungle, when three buffaloes got up, and, after going a little distance, stood still, and the nearest bull turned round and looked at me. A ball from the two-ouncer crashed into his shoulder

and they all three made off. Oswell and I followed as soon as I had reloaded, and when we were in sight of the buffalo, and gaining on him at every stride, three lions leaped on the unfortunate brute; he bellowed most lustily as he kept up a kind of running fight; but he was, cf course, soon overpowered and pulled down.

We had a fine view of the struggle, and saw the lions on their hind legs tearing away with teeth and claws in most ferocious style. We crept up within thirty yards, and, kneeling down, blazed away at the lions. My rifle was a single barrel, and I had no spare gun. One lion fell dead almost on the buffalo; he had merely time to turn towards us, seize a bush with his teeth, and drop dead with the stick in his jaws. The second made off immediately; and the third raised his head, coolly looked round for a moment, then went on tearing and biting at the carcass as hard as ever. We retired a short distance to load, then again advanced and fired. The lion made off, but a ball that he received ought to have stopped him, as it went clear through his shoulder-blade. He was followed up and killed, after having charged several times. Both lions were males. It is not often that one bags a brace of lions and a bull buffalo in about ten minutes. It was an exciting adventure, and I shall never forget it. Such, my dear Livingstone, is the plain, unvarnished account. The buffalo had, of course, gone close to where the lions were lying down, and they, thought the opportunity too good a one to be lost.

Safety only in Distance. When encountered in the daytime, says Livingstone, the lion stands a second or two gazing, then turns slowly round, and walks as slowly away for a dozen paces, looking over his shoulder; then begins to trot, and, when he thinks himself out of sight, bounds off like a greyhound. By day there is not, as a rule, the smallest danger of lions, which are not molested, attacking man, nor even on a clear, moonlight night, except when they have young; this makes them brave almost any danger; and if a man happens to cross to the windward of them, both lion and lioness will rush at him. This does not often happen, as I became aware of two or three instances of it. In one case a man, passing when the wind blew from him to the animals, was bitten before he could climb a tree; and, occasionally, a man on horseback has been caught by the leg under the same circumstances. So general, however, is the sense of security on moonlight nights, that we seldom tied up our oxen, but let them lie loose by the wagons; while on a dark, rainy night, if a lion is ir. the neighborhood, he is almost sure to venture to kill an ox. His approach is always stealthy, except when wounded; and any appearance of a trap is enough

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