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received from his holiness was his sending a nuncio into England, in return for the einbassy that was sent to him.

This failed not to add to the general discontent; and people supposed that he never could be so rasb as, contrary to express act of parliament, to admit of a communication with the pope. But what was their surprise when they saw the nuncio make his public and solemn entry into Windsor; and because the duke of Somerset refused to attend the ceremony, he was dismissed from his employment of one of the lords of the bed chamber.

But this was but the beginning of his attempis. The Jesuits soon after were permitted to erect colleges in different parts of the kingdom ; they exercised the catholic worship in the most public manner; and four catholic bishops, consecrated in the king's chapel,were sent through the kingdom to exercise their episcopal functions, under the title of apostolic vicars. Their pastoral letters were printed by the king's printer, and distributed through all parts of the kingdom. The monks appeared at court in the habits of their orders, and a great number of priests and friars arrived in England. Every great office the crown had to bestow, was gradually transferred from the protestants; Rochester and Clarendon, the King's brothers-in-law, though they had been ever faithful to his interests, were, because protestants, dismissed from their employments. Nothing now remained, but to open the door of the church and universities to the intrusion of the catholics, and this effort was soon after begun.

Father Francis, a Benedictine monk, was recommended by the king to the university of Cambridge, for the degree of master of arts. But his religion was a stumbling block which the university could not get over; and they presented a peti

tion, beseeching the king to recall his mandate. Their petition was disregarded, their deputies denied an hearing: The vice-chancellor himself was summoned to appear before the high commission court, and deprived of his office; yet the university persisted, and father Francis was refused. The king thus foiled, thought proper at that time to drop his pretensions, but he carried on his attempts upon the university of Oxford with still greater vigour.

The place of president of Magdalen college, one of the richest foundations in Europe, being vacant, the king sent a mandate in favour of one Farmer, a new convert, and a man of bad character in other respects. The fellows of the college made very submissive applications to the king for recalling his mandate; but before they received an answer, the day came, on which, by their statutes, they were required to proceed to an election. They therefore chose Dr. Hough, a man of learning, integrity and resolution. The king was incensed at their presumption; and in order to punish them, an inferior ecclesiastical court was sent down, who finding Farmer a man of scandalous character, issued a mandate for a new election The person now recommended by the king, was doctor Parker, lately created bishop of Oxford, a man of prostitute character; but who atoned for all his vices, by his willingness to embrace the catholic religion. The fellows refused to comply with this injunction, which so incensed the king that he repaired in person to Oxford, and ordered the fellows to be brought before him. He reproached them with their insolence and disobedience in the most imperious terms; and commanded them to choose Parker without delay. Another refusal on their side served still more to exasperate him; and finding them resolute in the defence

fence of their privileges, he ejected them all, except two, from their benefices, and Parker was put in possession of the place. Upon this, the college was filled with catholics; and Charnock, who was one of the two that remained, was made vice-president.


Every invasion of the ecclesiastical and civil privileges of the nation only seemed to encrease the A. D. king's ardour for more. A'second decła→ ration for liberty of conscience was published almost in the same terms with the former; but with this peculiar injunction, that alk divines should read it after service in their churches. As he thus put it in the power of thousands to refuse, he armed against himself the whole body of the nation. The clergy were known universally to disapprove of the suspending power; and they were now resolved to disobey an order dictated by the most bigoted motives. They weredetermined to trust their cause to the favour of the people, and that universal jealousy which prevailed against the encroachments of the crown. The first champions on this service of danger were Lloyde, bishop of St. Asaph, Ken of Bath and Wells, Turner of Ely, Lake of Chichester, White of Peterborough, and Trelawney of Bristol; these together with Sancroft the primate, concerted an address, in the form of a petition, to the king, which, with the warmest expressions of zeal and submission, remonstrated that they could not read his declaration consistent with their consciences, or the respect they owed the protestant religion. This modest address only served still more to inflame the king's resentment. Former opposition only served to hurry him on in councils as precipitate as they were tyrannical. He was resolved not to let the slightest and most respectful contradiction pass unpunished. He received their petition

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with marks of surprise and displeasure. He said, he did not expect such an address from the English church, particularly from some among them, and persisted in their obeying his mandate. The bishops left his presence under some apprehensions from his fury; but secure in the favour of the people, and the rectitude of their intentions.

The king's measures were now become so odious to the people, that, although the bishops of Durham and Rochester, who were members of the ecclesiastical court, ordered the declaration to be read in the churches of their respective districts, the audience could not hear them with any patience. One minister told his congregation, that though he had positive orders to read the declaration, they had none to hear it, and therefore they might leave the church; an hint which the congregation quickly obeyed. It may easily, therefore, be supposed that the petitioning bishops had little to dread from the utmost efforts of royal resentment.

As the petition was delivered in private, the king summoned the bishops before the couneit, and there questioned them whether they would acknowledge it? They declined for some time giving an answer; but being urged by the chancellor, they at last owned the petition. On their refusal to give bail, an order was immediately drawn for their commitment to the Tower, and the crown-lawyers received directions to prosecute them for a seditious libel.

The king gave orders that they should be conveyed to the Tower by water, as the whole city was in commotion in their favour. The people were no sooner informed of their danger, than they ran to the river side, which was lined with incredible multitudes. As the reverend prisoners passed, the populace fell upon their knees; and great

great numbers ran into the water, craving their blessing, calling upon heaven to protect them, and encouraging them to suffer nobiy in the cause of religion. The bishops were not wanting, by their submissive and humble behaviour, to raise the pity of the spectators; and they still exhorted them to fear God, honour the king, and maintain their loyalty. The very soldiers, by whom they were guarded, kneeled down before them, and implored their forgiveness. Upon landing, the bishops went immediately to the Tower-chapel to render thanks for those afflictions which they suffered in the cause of truth.

The twenty-ninth day of June was fixed for their trial; and their return was still more splendilly attended than their imprisonment. Twentynine peers, a great number of gentlemen and an immense crowd of people, waited upon them to Westminster-hall. The cause was looked upon as involving the fate of the nation, and future freedom, or future slavery awaited the decision. The dispute was learnedly managed by the lawyers on both sides. Holloway and Powel, two of the judges, declared themselves in favour of the bishops. The jury withdrew into a chamber, where they passed the whole night; but next morning they returned into court, and pronounced the bishops, Not guilty. Westminster-hall instantly rang with loud acclamations, which were communicated to the whole extent of the city. They even reached the camp at Hounslow, where the king was at dinner, in lord Feversham's tent. His majesty demanding the cause of those rejoic ings, and being informed that it was nothing but the soldiers shouting at the delivery of the bishops, "Call you that nothing," cried he; "but so much the worse for them."


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