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its ground in some cases. Deprivation of civil rights is a species of penal infliction, and has been so considered in all systems of criminal law. The objection to its use for the purpose of repressing religious error, though less in degree, is therefore the same in principle.

§ 5. Penal measures for enforcing religious truth are, from their nature, directed exclusively against those who are without the pale of the orthodox church; they are intended partly, by their direct operation, to reduce the obstinate heretic to a right course-and partly, by their example, to deter those who are within the pale from straying out of it. Remuneratory measures, on the other hand, tending in the same direction, leave the obstinate heretic in his error, but seek to allure the more flexible, or more interested, adherent of heterodoxy to the adoption of the true faith, by the attraction of temporal advantage. Such, for instance, would be pecuniary rewards to any member of an erroneous faith who adopted the orthodox faith; or an offer of employment in the public service on the same terms. Of this nature were some of the measures in the penal laws against the Irish catholics; such as that which enabled a son who changed his creed to take possession of his father's property. Measures of this sort are, however, considered as a sort of seduction, or tampering with a man's conscience; the witnesses to the truth so obtained are regarded as purchased by a species of subornation, and their testimony is not of much weight. As it has always been thought the part of a courageous and conscientious man, not to surrender his religious opinions at the dictation of superior force, so it has always been considered disgraceful for a man to become an apostate from his religion for pecuniary gain. Martyrdom for opinion's sake has ever been accounted honourable; and proselytism effected by bribery is rarely eulogised, even by those who are members of the church into which the convert has been received. Hence the sense of honour, operating in a proscribed sect, holds its members together, and restrains them from swallowing the tempting baits held out to their cupidity by the State. The attempt to draw away persons from the camp of error by direct reward, and to induce them by a bounty to enlist under the banners of truth, obtains, therefore, only a limited and partial success. So far, however, as pecuniary temptations connected with the transmission of property, and rewards offered by a government in the way of

official emolument and public honours, exercise any proselytising influence, the proselytes are chiefly to be found among the wealthier classes. If James II. had succeeded in giving the Roman-catholics of England a monopoly of all public employments and distinctions, he would doubtless have gained over many converts in the upper ranks of society; but the body of the people (as in Ireland, under a similar system) would have retained their religious convictions unchanged.

§ 6. But, besides punishment and reward, the State can likewise employ Endowment as a means of encouraging religious truth. The endowment of the clergy, the provision of funds for the building and maintenance of churches, or for the support of ecclesiastical seminaries, and other similar applications of the national property or income, may be considered as serving the double purpose of consolidating and confirming the religious community which is thus exclusively assisted by the State, and of attracting into it the members of the other unendowed churches.

That an ecclesiastical endowment will diffuse religious truth, where apathy and indifference on religious matters exist, and where religion is untaught because there is no provision for teaching it, cannot be doubted. Where the ground is unoccupied, the endowed teacher will step into possession, and cultivate his allotted district. If he be industrious and skilful, his seed, being thrown into a field ready to receive it, will take root, and spring up and bear fruit. But it will be otherwise if the ground be already occupied by others, who contest the possession with him. In this case, his seed will be scattered to the winds, and there will be little or no harvest to gather into his garner.

When an endowed clergyman supplies a void which otherwise would remain unfilled-when he affords religious instruction to persons who would otherwise be uninstructed-when he preaches religious doctrine to persons who would otherwise hear no religious doctrine, his influence in the propagation of the opinions of his confession cannot fail to be felt, provided that he addresses persons of the requisite amount of intelligence and information. But if he comes into conflict with unendowed clergymen-if he addresses persons who already receive religious instruction from others, whose minds are preoccupied with the doctrines of a different sect, and whose conscience is bound to the practice of other religious rites and observances-his influence becomes less important, and may

perhaps be nearly imperceptible. If religion was a subject on which all men were agreed, or if there was any one living authority on religious questions to which they were willing to defer-if religious opinions were not a matter of conscientious conviction, and maintained from a sense of moral obligation-if, when religious instruction and the means of religious worship were provided gratuitously by the State, every person might be expected to use them, rather than incur the expense of providing them for himself -if people flocked to the lessons of the endowed clergyman, as they would flock to the distribution of relief by the State, or as the Romans went to the public games-if men looked upon religion as an article to be procured at the cheapest cost, and for which they would make no pecuniary sacrifice-then the influence of Endowment, in propagating the peculiar religious opinions of the endowed sect, would be decisive. But these necessary conditions for its success, as a means of gaining over converts from other confessions, are wanting; and we accordingly find that it has failed, as an engine of proselytism. The most striking and decisive example is the case of the Irish Established Church- a complete system of exclusive endowment, founded on a territorial division of parishes, furnishing Protestant Episcopalian clergymen and churches, gratuitously, over the whole of Ireland, and intended to bring over the entire population to its creed. And yet, although it has existed since the Reformation, and has been assisted by active persecution and penal laws, it has never made any sensible impression upon the Presbyterian and Roman-catholic portions of the community, and it cannot, even at present, reckon among its adherents a ninth part of the population.

Dr. Chalmers has pointed out, with great clearness, the error of supposing that, if religious instruction be left to the natural laws of demand and supply, it will be obtained like any other marketable commodity. He remarks that, in the case of food or clothing, or any other article of necessity or comfort, the want is felt the more keenly the longer it remains unsatisfied; but that if a person has received no religious instruction, and is not in the habit of attending a place of religious worship, he does not require the services of any minister of religion, or seek to provide them for himself, if not provided for him by a public endowment. Hence, Dr. Chalmers speaks of the aggressive influence of an endowed clergy: he says that they must, by their teaching, create the very want which they satisfy; and he adverts to the efforts of

missionaries, who are paid by the country which sends them out, not by the country which receives them.1

The arguments of Dr. Chalmers on this subject are undoubtedly sound, so far as an opening to the labours of an endowed clergy is afforded by religious indifference, or the absence of other religious teachers. But if the endowed ministers are of a creed different from that of the people among whom they are planted, their aggressive efforts will probably not produce conversions to their own faith, but will merely irritate their hearers by the revival of slumbering controversies, and create divisions and discord, without increasing the numbers of their own flock. The same remark applies to Christian missionaries in a heathen country. Without an endowment, temporary or permanent, they cannot exist; but it is by no means certain that their efforts will be successful, or that their aggressions, even on the most mischievous and degrading forms of superstition, will be successful."

More may be said in favour of the influence of endowment in imparting solidity and coherence to a religious body, in maintaining the consistency and purity of its doctrine, and in preventing defections from its ranks. Even in this respect, however, its efficacy is probably less than is often supposed. There is, in general, a tendency to overrate the influence of wealth and power in giving currency to opinions.3 Reasoning and new doctrines have a sort of electric force; they penetrate unseen from mind to mind, and give a shock to intelligences far removed from the origin of impulse. This subtle influence not only despises the seductions


1 See his Lectures on National Churches, pp. 50-2, 72; On Endowments, pp. 113,

2 According to Warburton, Alliance of Church and State, b. II., c. 3, the reasons of a public endowment for the ministers of a church are as follows:

1. To render the religious society, whose assistance the State so much wants, more firm and durable.

2. To invite and encourage the clergy's best service to the State, in rendering those committed to their care, virtuous.

3. And principally, in order to destroy that mutual dependency between the clergy and people, which arises from the former's being maintained by the voluntary

contributions of the latter.'

Warburton does not appear to consider the propagation of religious truth, by conversion, as one of the ends of a church endowment.

Thus Pius VI., when he visited the Emperor Joseph at Vienna, in remonstrating against his measures of ecclesiastical reform, is reported by Botta to have used (among others) the following argument: 'Altra dover esser la condizione della chiesa ristretta, povera, e perseguitata, altra quella della chiesa estesa quanto il mondo, ricca, e trionfante.'-Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814, tom. I. p. 11.

of wealth and station, but even defies the threats of power. It is therefore dangerous for any church to rely on the mere agency of endowment, in maintaining it against adverse forces. Unless the lives and doctrines of its clergy are such as would influence the minds of their hearers, supposing the church were unendowed, it runs the risk of seeing its sphere of action curtailed. Up to the Revolution of 1789, the French Catholic Church had every advantage which could be derived from the countenance, assistance, protection, and favour of the State. It was established by law; it was exclusively and richly endowed; its clergy were numerous, held a high social position, and enjoyed important political privileges. Dissidents were discountenanced, oppressed, and scarcely tolerated. Everything that the State could do, or could give-exclusive favour, rank, wealth, consideration, political power, persecution of rivals and enemies-was done for and given to the French Church. Yet we know what was the result. It nursed up within its bosom a body of writers, who attacked not only Catholicism, but Christianity, with every weapon of argument, irony, ridicule and invective, and whose attacks circulated throughout Europe, and gave the tone to all aristocratic society and literature. And when the Revolution broke out, and the old French government was destroyed, the whole ecclesiastical system of France-establishment, endowment, and all their appendages— was swept away, as being a part of the political abuses against which the popular frenzy was directed; and it was found that whatever religious feeling survived, owed its continuance to causes wholly independent of the State endowment. Even in England, during the last century, much apathy and neglect of duty pervaded the Established Church, notwithstanding its endowed clergy; and their exertions were much stimulated by the disinterested efforts of the unendowed preachers called into action by Wesley and Whitefield.1

In fine, where there is a large body of people hesitating which

1 'In general, every religious sect, when it has once enjoyed for a century or two the security of a legal establishment, has found itself incapable of making any vigorous defence against any new sect which chose to attack its doctrine or discipline. Upon such occasions, the advantage in point of learning and good writing may sometimes be on the side of the Established Church; but the arts of popularity, all the arts of gaining proselytes, are constantly on the side of its adversaries. In England, those arts have been long neglected by the well-endowed clergy of the Established Church, and are at present chiefly cultivated by the dissenters and by the methodists.'-SMITH, Wealth of Nations, b. I. ch. 1, art. 3. The example of the Church of Rome might

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