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best use on a basis of personal observational work by the student in laboratory and field. Without independent personal work of the student little can be learned about animals and their life that will remain fixed. But presentday teachers of biology are too well informed to make a discussion of the methods of their work necessary here. As a matter of fact, the methods of the teacher depend so absolutely on his training and individual initiative that it is not worth while for the authors to point out the place of this book in elementary zoological teaching. That the phase of study it attempts to represent should have a place in such teaching is, of course, their firm belief.

The obligations of the authors for the use of certain illustrations are acknowledged in proper place. Where no credit is otherwise given, the drawings have been made by Miss Mary H. Wellman or by Mr. James Carter Beard, and the photographs have been made by the authors or under their direction.

DAVID STARR JORDAN,
VERNON LYMAN KELLOGG.

NOTE.—After the pages of the book were cast, it was thought that a transposition of Chapters III and IV would present a more logical arrangement, and teachers are advised to omit in their study scheme Chapter III until Chapter IV is completed.

D. S. J.
V. L. K.

CONTENTS

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CHAPTER

1.—THE LIFE OF THE SIMPLEST ANIMALS

The simplest animals, or Protozoa, 1.-The animal cell, 2.-

What the primitive cell can do, 5.— Ameba, 5.–Paramecium, 9.

-Vorticella, 12.-Marine Protozoa, 15.-Globigerinæ and Radio-

laria, 16.— Antiquity of the Protozoa, 20.—The primitive form,

20.—The primitive but successful life, 21.

II.—THE LIFE OF THE SLIGHTLY COMPLEX ANIMALS

Colonial Protozoa, 24.-Gonium, 25.—Pandorina, 26.-Eudo-

rina, 27.-Volvox, 28.—Steps toward complexity, 30.-Individual

or colony, 31.—Sponges, 32.—Polyps, corals, and jelly-fishes, 37.

-Hydra, 37.—Differentiation of the body cells, 41.-Medusæ or

jelly-fishes, 41.-Corals, 43.—Colonial jelly-fishes, 45.— Increase

in the degree of complexity, 48.

III.—THE MULTIPLICATION OF ANIMALS AND SEX

All life from life, 50.-Spontaneous generation, 51.—The

simplest method of multiplication, 53.—Slightly complex methods

of multiplication, 54.—Differentiation of the reproductive cells, 55.

-Sex, or male and female, 57.—The object of sex, 57.-Sex di-

morphism, 58.—The number of young, 61.

IV.-FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE

Organs and functions, 63.—Differentiation of structure, 64.—

Anatomy and physiology, 64.—The animal body a machine, 65.

- The specialization of organs, 66.—The alimentary canal, 66.-

Stable and variable characteristics of an organ, 73.—Stable and

variable characteristics of the alimentary canal, 73.—The mutual

relation of function and structure, 77.

V.—THE LIFE CYCLE

Birth, growth and development, and death, 78.—Life cycle of

simplest animals, 78.—The egg, 79.-Embryonic and post-em-
bryonic development, 80.—Continuity of development, 83.—De-
velopment after the gastrula stage, 84.-Divergence of develop-

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The crowd of animals, 114.—The struggle for existence, 116.

-Selection by Nature, 117.- Adjustment to surroundings a re-

sult of natural selection, 120.- Artificial selection, 120.—Depend-

ence of species on species, 121.

VIII.-ADAPTATIONS .

Origin of adaptations, 123.—Classification of adaptations, 123.

-Adaptations for securing food, 125.— Adaptations for self-de-

fense, 128.—Adaptations for rivalry, 135.- Adaptations for the

defense of the young, 137.-Adaptations concerned with sur-

roundings in life, 143.—Degree of structural change in adapta-

tions, 146.—Vestigial organs, 147.

IX.-ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AND SOCIAL LIFE

Man not the only social animal, 149.—The ho y-bee, 149.-

The ants, 155.—Other communal insects, 158.—Gregariousness

and mutual aid, 163.—Division of labor and basis of communal

life, 168.—Advantages of communal life, 170.

X.-COMMENSALISM AND SYMBIOSIS

Association between animals of different species, 172.--Com-

mensalism, 173.–Symbiosis, 175.

XI.-PARASITISM AND DEGENERATION

Relation of parasite and host, 179.—Kinds of parasitism, 180.

—The simple structure of parasites, 181.—Gregarina, 182.—The

tape-worm and other flat-worms, 183.—Trichina and other round-

wurms, 184.--Sacculina, 187.—Parasitic insects, 188.-Parasitic

vertebrates, 193.—Degeneration through quiescence, 193.—De-

generation through other causes, 197.—Immediate causes of de-

generation, 198.—Advantages and disadvantages of parasitism

and degeneration, 198.—Human degeneration, 200.

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CHAPTER

PAGE

XII.-PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCES AND MIMICRY

201

Protective resemblance defined, 201.—General protective or

aggressive resemblance, 202.—Special protective resemblance,

207.— Warning colors and terrifying appearances, 212.-Alluring

coloration, 216.—Mimicry, 218.—Protective resemblances and

mimicry most common among insects, 221.—No volition in mim-

icry, 222.-Color: its utility and beauty, 222.

XIII.—THE SPECIAL SENSES

224

Importance of the special senses, 224.—Difficulty of the study

of the special senses, 224.—Special senses of the simplest ani-

mals, 225.—The sense of touch, 226.—The sense of taste, 228.-

The sense of smell, 229.— The sense of hearing, 232.–Sound-mak-

ing, 235 — The sense of sight, 237.

XIV.-INSTINCT AND REASON

240

Irritability, 240.—Nerve cells and fibers, 240.—The brain or

sensorium, 241.- Reflex action, 241.-Instinct, 242.—Classifica-

tion of instincts, 243.-Feeding, 244.—Self-defense, 245.—Play,

247.–Climate, 248.—Environment, 248.—Courtship, 248.-Repro-

duction, 249.—Care of the young, 250.— Variability of instincts,

251.- Reason, 251.—Mind, 255.

XV.-HOMES AND DOMESTIC HABITS

257

Importance of care of the young, 257.–Care of the young and

communal life, 257.—The invertebrates (except spiders and in-

sects), 258.-Spiders, 259.-Insects, 262.—Thé vertebrates, 264.

XVI.-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS

272

Geographical distribution, 272.-Laws of distribution, 274.-

Species debarred by barriers, 274.—Species debarred by inability

to maintain their ground, 275.-Species altered by adaptation to

new conditions, 276.—Effect of barriers, 283.–Relation of species

to habitat, 283.—Character of barriers to distribution, 288.- Bar-

riers affecting fresh-water animals, 294.—Modes of distribution,

296.-Fauna and faunal areas, 296.- Realms of animal life, 297.-

Subordinate realms or provinces, 303.–Faunal areas of the sea,

304.

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