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in this brief notice. In the shallow waters many interesting spe cies were obtained. Among these was a new species of Crangonyx, a genus closely allied to Gammarus, and heretofore known only from a few species found in the fresh waters of the old world, which occurred in 8 to 13 fathoms; and at the same depth, species of Lumbricus, Nephelis, Procotyla, Gammarus, Asellus, Limnæa, Physa, Planorbis, Valvata, Spharium, Pisidium, etc. A full report will soon be published.

S. I. Smith in Silliman's Journal,


AWARD OF THE WOLLASTON MEDAL TO PROF. J. D. DANA, -Geological Society, February 16.—Mr. Joseph Prestwich, F. R.S., president, in the chair.—The Secretary read the reports of the council, of the Library and Museum Committee, and of the auditors. The general position of the society was decribed as satisfactory, although, owing to the number of deaths which had taken place among the fellows during the year 1871, the society did not show the same increase which has characterised former years. In presenting the Wollaston gold medal to the Secretary, Mr. David Forbes, for transmission to Prof. Dana, of Yale college, Connecticut, the President said :-"I have the pleasure to announce that the Wollaston Medal has been conferred on Prof. Dana, of Yale College, Newhaven, U.S.; and in handing it to you for transmission to our Foreign Member, I beg to express the great gratification it affords me that the award of the Council ha fullen on so distingnished and veteran a geologist. Prof. Dana's works have a world-wide reputation. Few branches of geology but have received his attention. An able naturalist and a skilsul mineralogist, he has studied our science with advantages of which few of us can boast. His contributions to our science embrace cosmical questions of primary importance--palæontological ques. tions of special interest-recent phenomena in their bearings on geology, and mineralogical investigations so essential to the right study of rocks, especially of volcanic phenomena. The wide range of knowledge he brought to bear in the production of his excellent treatise on Geology, one of the best of our class books, embracing the elements as well as the principles of geology, is well known. His treatise on Mineralogy exhibits a like skill in arrangement and knowledge in selection. In conveying this testimonial of the high estimationin which we hold his researches to Prof. Dapa, may I beg also that it may be accompanied by an expression how strongly we feel that the bonds of friendship and brotherhood are connected amongst all civilised nations of the world by the one common, the one universal, and the one kindred pursuit of truth in the various branches of science.”—Mr. David Forbes, in reply, said that it was to him a great pleasure to have, in the name of Prof. Dana, to return thanks to the society for their highest honour, and for this mark of the appreciation in which his labours are held in England. It had rarely if ever occurred in the history of the society that the Wollaston medal had been awarded to any geologist who had made himself so well known in such widely different departments of the science, for not only was Prof. Dana preeminent as a mineralogist, but his numerous memoirs on the Crustaceans, Zoophytes, coral islands, volcanic formations, and other allied subjects, as well as his admirable treatise on general Geology, fully testify to the extensive range and great depth of his scientific researches.—The President then presented the balance of the proceeds of the Wollaston donation fund to Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., for transmission to Mr. James Croll, and addressed him as follows:- The Wollaston fund has been awarded to Mr. James Croll, of Edinburgh, for his many valuable researches on the glacial phenomena of Scotland, and to aid in the prosecution of the same.

Mr. Croll is also well known to all of us by his investigation of oceanic currents and their bearing on geological questions, and of many questions of great theoretical interest connected with some of the great problems in Geology. Will you, Prof. Ramsay, in handing this token of the interest with which we follow his researches, inform Mr. Croll of the additional value his labours have in our estimation, from the difficulties under which they have been pursued, and the limited time and opportu. nities he has had at his command.”—Prof. Ramsay thanked the president and council in the name of Mr. Croll for the honour bestowed on him. He remarked that Mr. Croll's merits as an original thinker are of a very high kind, and that he is all the more deserving of this honour from the circumstance that he has risen to have a well-recognised place among men of science without any of the advantages of early scientific training; and the position he now occupies has been won by his own unassisted exertions. The President then proceeded to read his Anniversary Address, in which he discussed the bearings upon theoretical Geology of the results obtained by the Royal Commision on Water-Supply and the Royal Coal Commission. The Address was prefaced by biographical notices of deceased Fellows, including Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Mr. William Lonsdale, Sir Thomas Acland, Sir John Herschel, Mr. George Grote, Mr. Robert Chambers, and M. Lartet.—The ballot for the Council and Officers was taken, and the following were duly elected for the ensuing year:—President

- The Duke of Argyll, K.T., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents-Prof. P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S., Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S., Warington W. Smyth, F.R.S., Prof. John Morris. Secretaries—John Evans, F.R.S., David Forbes. F.R.S. Foreign Secretary, Prof. T. D. Ansted, F.R.S. Treasurer-J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. CouncilProf. T. D. Ansted, F.R.S., the Duke of Argyll, F.R.S., W. Carruthers, F.R.S., W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., Prof. P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S., R. Etheridge, F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., Jas. Fergusson, F.R.S., J. Wickham Flower, David Forbes, F.R.S., Capt. Douglass Galton, C.B.,F,R.S., Rev. John Gunn, M.A., J. Whitaker Hulke, F.R.S., J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart, F.R.S., C. J. Meyer, Prof. John Morris, Joseph Prestwich, F.R.S., Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S., R. H. Scott, F. R.S., W. W. Smyth, F.R.S., Prof. J. Tennant, Henry Woodward.

"Nature," 29th Feb. 1872.


ADDITIONAL Note on OBOLELLINA, &c.—Since the sheet containing my remarks on this genus was printed I have received a letter in which it is stated that Prof. Hall


paper in reality printed in March, 1871, and that he received from twenty-five to thirty copies, from the printer, at that time."“ That he distributed these copies to some learned societies and individuals, having reserved three copies only, and that he sent one to the Geological Society of London, and to other parties whose names he can produce.” I do not admit the whole of this statement. I have made extensive enquiries, among the most active and best geologists and naturalists in the United Ststesmen who keep themselves fully informed, as to all books and papers on geology and palæontology published in the country. With a single exception not one of them ever saw, or even heard of the paper until I wrote to them about it. One gentleman, only, sent me a copy on the 12th Feb., 1872, but he did not


state when he received it, perhaps, becanse he did not wish to interfere in the matter. It was probably sent to him after Prof. Hall had seen my paper. The general opinion is that it was not circulated in the United States at all. There is some evidence, of a circumstantial character, to show that the two copies sent to England in September were printed after the month of July with important alterations. The principal objects of requiring a Naturalist to publish, are that others may obtain notice of what species or genera have been named and described; and, also, to afford the public a means of deciding questions of priority without depending upon the word of the author, who is always an interested party. Private distribution is not sufficient for either of these purposes. In this instance all of the six genera, poticed in Prof. Hall's pamphlet, might have been described and published, by as many different authors in the United States in perfect good faith, and without the least suspicion that they had been previously named by any one. Indeed, as he was aware that several were working at the same group, he seems to have concealed his pamphlet from them in order to give them annoy

How otherwise can we account for the fact, that no copies were sent either to the Smithsonian Institution or to the Canadian Survey?

I am informed that Prof. Hall's genera are to be sustained by two distinguished authors in England. One of them having received a copy of the paper in October, 1871, and knowing that another copy had been sent to the Geological Society of London, about the same time, neither can realize that it was not published. But let us place them in Prof. Hall's position. Suppose that the paper on which they are now engaged relates to a peculiar group of Wenlock fossils. They borrow specimens from the Geological Survey, and are notified by the Director that the palæontologist of the Survey is at work on the same group. Instead of publishing their paper in the Journal of the Geological Society, or in any other scientific journal, they resort to the following extraordinary proceeding. They prepare an abstract of five pages. They send no copies to the Survey, to the Geologi. cal Society, to the Royal Society or to any other learned institution in England. They conceal it from the English scientific public altogether. About six months afterwards they send one copy privately to a friend in Russia, and one to the Mineralogical Society there. In consequence of this course, for ten months afterwards not one single member of the Geological Survey, or of the Geological Society, ever hears of the existence of their pamphlet. In the meantime the palæontologist of the British Survey publishes his genus openly and fairly, in the Journal of the Geological Society. Several weeks afterwards he hears from Russia, that it had been previously published in London by the very two gentlemen to whom he had lent the specimens. I cannot believe that British Naturalists in general would consider it right to suppress his work.

I am informed also that Prof. Hall says I hare violated the agreement relating to New York fossils, by publishing species found in the United States. This is simply a misrepresentation of the statenent of the case. The different Surveys in the United States are quite independant of each other. The Director of any Survey can consult any palæontologist he thinks proper. I have never described a single fossil from any one of the States where Prof. Hall was, at the time, in any way employed. But I have examined a number of species for those Surveys with which he has no coppection.

In one of the letters I have received, it is stated with reference to publication, that “ No determined rules or laws have been hitherto settled or followed.” With the highest respect for the author of this opinion, I cannot agree with him. There are laws which result from the very nature of the circumstances to which they relate. These laws exist perpetually, although not established by legislative enactment, and although they may be disregarded and transgressed by any number of persons. The law of publication is one of these. Every true naturalist feels that such a law does exist, and that it is his duty to observe it. We can scarcely imagine a reason for its non-observance. The loss by fire, urged in this case, is surely not a sufficient excuse, because any scientific journal on the continent would have re-published the pamphlet for Prof. Hall, free of charge. On the other hand, there can be no law in favor of private distribution, for the simple reason that it affords so many facilities for the performance of unfair transactions. If distributed so widely that the require. ments of science are satisfied, a book becomes of authority, but this has not been done in the case of Prof. Hall's pamphlet. On the contrary, he seems to have shunned publicity. I am well aware that the law of publication is not always followed. All that I contend for is, that owing to the extraordinary circumstances of the instance under discussion, it should be strictly adhered to.

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