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THE

CANADIAN NATURALIST

AND

Quarterly Journal of Science.

THE POST-PLIOCENE GEOLOGY OF CANADA.

By J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.

SUB-KINGDOM MOLLUSCA. Introductory.-In preparing this, the largest and most important part of my catalogue, I have to acknowledge my obligations to Dr. P. P. Carpenter, for his kind aid in comparing all the more critical species of shells, and in giving me his valuable judgment as to their relations and synonymy, which I have in nearly every case accepted as final. I am also indebted to Dr. Carpenter for all the notices of West-coast shells.

To Mr.J. F. Whiteaves, F.G.S., I am indebted for reviewing the Polyzoa and comparing them with Smitt's Norwegian catalogues, and also for many valuable facts as to shells obtained in his recent dredgings in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

To Mr.J.Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., and Mr. R. McAndrew, F.R.S., of London, my grateful acknowledgments are due for aid and information, and also for the opportunity of comparing my specimens with those in their collections.

My comparisons with recent species have been made to a great extent with specimens dredged by myself, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and especially at Murray Bay, where the marine fauna seems to be more nearly related to that of the Post-pliocene Vol. VI.

No. 4.

than in any part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence with which I am acquainted. I have also to acknowledge the use of specimens from Greenland, from Prof. Morch; from Norway from Mr. McAndrew; from Nova Scotia from Mr. Willis; as well as the use of the large and valuable collections of Dr. Carpenter and Mr. Whiteaves.

All the references in the following pages, except where authors are quoted, and many of these last, have been verified by myself by actual comparison of specimens.

The principal works to which I have referred in the publication of the catalogue are the following:

Beechey's Voyage, Natural History Appendix.
Belcher's Last of the Arctic Voyages, do.
Bell, Report on Invertebrata of Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Busk, Polyzoa of the Crag.
Crosskey on Post-pliocene of Scotland.
Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica.
Forbes and Hanley, British Mollusca.
Gould, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, edited by Binney.
Jeffreys' British Conchology.
Lyell on Shells collected by Capt. Bayfield; and Travels in

North America.
Matthew on Post-pliocene of New Brunswick.
Middendorff, Shells of Siberia.
Packard on the Giacial Phenomena of Labrador and Maine.
Prestwich on the English Crag.
Sars on the Quaternary of Norway.
Stimpson, Shells of Hayes’ Expedition, &c.
Whiteaves, Lists of Shells from Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canadian

Naturalist.
Wood, Crag Mollusca.
Willis, Lists of Shells of Nova Scotia.

Class 1.-HETEROBRANCHIATA.

Sub-Class I.-Polyzoa.
Hippothoa catenularia, Jameson.

Fossil-Beauport; Labrador; Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent—Gaspé* ; Labrador (Packard).

* The references to Gaspé are from my list contributed to the Rept. Geol. Survey, 1858—Bell and Richardson, collectors; and from subsequent dredgings by myself and Mr. Whiteaves.

Hippothoa expansa, Dawson.

Fossil-Beauport; Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent—Gaspé; Labrador, Maine (Packard). Tubulipora flabellaris, Johnston.

Fossil-Beauport; Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent—Gaspé, Labrador (Packard) ( = T. palmata, Wood). Lepralia hyalina, Johnston.

Fossil-Beauport; Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent-Gaspé.
Lepralia pertusa, Thomson.

Fossil--Beauport; Labrador; Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent-Gaspé, Labrador (Packard).
Lepralia quadricornuta, Dawson.

Fossil— Leda clay, Montreal.
Not yet found recent.

Mr. T. Curry, of Montreal, has recently found specimens in a very perfect state. They show that the cells are sculptured in a papillo-striate manner, and that the ovi-capsules are globular and granulate. Some cells have a projection for a vibraculum or avicularium at one side of the aperture. A few have two of these. Old colonies have a pitted calcareous deposit between the cells. The large size and narrow aperture with deep sulcas in front and four spines behind are as in the specimens formerly described. Lepralia spinifera? Busk.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup. L. violacea ? Johnston.

Fossil --Rivière-du-Loup.

It wants the depression in front of the cell said to be characteristic of the species. (J. F. Whiteaves.) L. variolosa, Johnston.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent-Gaspé.

Dr. Smitt upites this with L. trispinosa of Johnston, and con-
siders both as varieties of L. Jacotini, Audouin. L. Jacotini,
Gray, is a very different species. (J. F. W.)
Lepralia Belli, Dawson.

Fossil --Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent—Gaspé; Labrador (Packard).

L. producta, Packard.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent-Labrador (Packard); Gaspé; Murray Bay. L. globifera, Packard.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent—Labrador (Packard).
L. punctata ? Hassall.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent—Gaspé.

The oral spines of this species cannot be made out in the fossil specimens I have seen. Smitt refers Hassall's species to D'Orbigny's sub-genus Escharipora. (J. F. W.) L. Peachii, Johnston.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent—Gaspé.
Rare in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Smitt

groups

this species, together with L. variolosa (of Busk but not of Johnston) and L. ventricosa, as forms of Discopora coccinea. (J. F. W.) Lepralia trispinosa, Johnston.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent—Gaspé; Labrador (Packard). Lepralia ventricosa, Hassall.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent-Gulf St. Lawrence. Diastopora obelia, Johnston.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.

Recent—Gaspé.
Eschara elegantula, D'Orbigny.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup; Montreal (Curry).
Recent--Labrador (Packard); Gaspé.

Very fine and frequent in 10–30 fathoms opposite Cape Rosier Village. More abundant in the open river than in Gaspé and other bays. (J. F. W.) Celleporaria surculuris, Packard.

Fossil-Rivière-du-Loup.
Recent-Labrador (Packard); Gaspé.

Smitt identifies this species with the C. incrassata of Lamarck. Abundant in 10–50 fathoms everywhere in the Gulf, and often drifted down to lower levels. (J. F. W.)

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