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been coated over with clay, above which there was found in the humus several Roman coins of the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Domitian and Trajan, some bronze jewellery, and a bronze finger ring having an engraved stone setting, some bricks, tegulæ, and a square white glass bottle. I may here mention that the same has invariably been the case with the cairns of great height in the neighbouring districts; the country being flat it is believed that the Romans availed themselves of these elevations on which to erect guard-houses and signal stations. At the Moustoir near Carnac, Roman remains, pottery, glass, bricks, and tegulæ, as also a coin of Magnentius, were found. The chamber of Mané-er-Hroëg is square; there were no sculptures in its interior. Its entrance had been closed by a dry stone wall, in which there was a very curiously incised cippus (Plate III, fig. 2); there are apparently several axes having streamers attached to the haft; there is also a cartouche-nothing resembling it has ever been found elsewhere in Brittany. There was another stone built up in the wall having cup markings on it. It is further to be noted that the capstone of this chamber rested on dry masonry walls; there was no allée, but it had a crypt below its floor.

The Mané Lud, or "Mountain of Cinders" (which is a misnomer), was long supposed to be composed of ashes and cinders; it is a barrow 300 feet long, 150 feet broad, and 30 feet high; it is in reality composed of clay and mud from the seashore; it contains three places of sepulture; it has a small chamber in its centre, an allée of menhirs (transverely) within its eastern end, which were found to be capped with horses' skulls. There is a very fine dolmen at its western end. The chamber in the centre was formed by overlapping stones projecting gradually till a dome was formed which was closed by a slab; the remains of two bodies were found in it, one of which had been incinerated: they were separated by a stone partition. There were a quantity of horses' bones (also incinerated) on the exterior of the vault. The dolmen is a handsome one, having seven of its supports sculptured (Plate IV, fig. 4). The jugiforme is frequently repeated, as also the pectiniforme. Three of the celts are hafted, but one is not; the first seemed to have withies twisted round them similarly to the plan employed by blacksmiths for holding their chisels when tongs are not used. There is also a cartouche, and a series of cup markings. There is further on the flooring a raised sculpture which has given rise to endless discussions. Some have maintained that it represents the haft of a celt, others that it is intended for an unstrung bow; but in reality no solution has been or is likely to be arrived at. There is a crypt below the stone floor of this dolmen.

Bé-er-Groah ("Tomb of the Old Woman"). This dolmen is

quite near to the village; it has an inner and an outer chamber, which are contiguous. Three of its supports are sculptured. One is an axe and another is a "jugiforme." Owing to the upper part of the stone having shaled off, the third one is incomplete, and it is therefore difficult to determine what it represents. The capstone of this dolmen is remarkable, it being a slab of granite 34 feet long, 14 feet broad, and 22 inches thick. This dolmen was examined in 1860, but it was evident that it had been previously explored.

The land about Locmariaquer is still strewed with pieces of Roman bricks, notwithstanding that the French Government transported shiploads of them to l'Orient for building in the dockyard; some of the cottages at Locmariaquer have their floors paved with Roman bricks.

The Pierres Plattes ("Flat Stones"). This is an allée couverte, having an angle in it, its further end being partitioned off to form a chamber. It is situated near the seashore beyond Kerpenhir, and it is now in a ruinous state, so much so that it is difficult to get a sight of the sculptures, of which there are five. One is a cartouche in compartments, having raised circular knobs in each; it has been compared with one from Egypt which is now in the Museum of the Louvre at Paris; the remaining sculptures are also cartouches. Although there are eleven other dolmens in the vicinity none have sculptures on them, but one at Loperhet has cup markings. As we shall now leave Locmariaquer I may perhaps be permitted to explain its etymology, which has so puzzled tourists. It is really composed of three Breton words joined. "Loc," a holy place, hermitage, or chapel; "Maria," the Virgin; and "Ker," a village or farm, i.e., "The village of the Holy Virgin Mary."

Mein Drein ("Stone of Thorns") is situated on the right hand side of the road from Locmariaquer to Crach; it is oval, and has no allée. It consists of thirteen supports and two capstones (vide No. 1); the further one has 144 cup markings on its under surface, three of its supports are sculptured; the fourth one (Plate IV, fig. 6) has some curious "pectiniformes" and pediformes sculptured on it.

Although the dolmens in the neighbourhood of Crach are very numerous none have sculptures; we shall therefore pass on to the Carnac district, where there are five dolmens having cup markings, and two having lapidary sculptures; of the former the Mont Saint Michel is the most important cairn in the Morbihan, it being 320 feet long, 80 feet high, and 120 feet broad. It is composed of rough stones heaped up, which are computed to measure 100,000 cubic feet; these have also been covered with clay to a thickness of 6 feet. It was opened by driving a perpendicular shaft, and

it was found to have a central chamber similar to the one of Mané-er-Hroëg at Locmariaquer. Incinerated bones were found in the crypt below the floor of its chamber; on the under part of its capstone there were six cup markings, so placed as to resemble the constellation of the Pleiades.

About a mile distant from this cairn, and to the right of the alignments of Kermario, is situated the Chateau of Kercado, near which there is a tumulus of the same name; it will well repay a visit, as it is the only one that remains intact in its barrow, and also in a state of preservation. It will be necessary to be provided with lights to enter it. Some angular sculptures will be found on the third support of its allée, and another somewhat similar on the first support to the left on entering the chamber. There is a perfectly sculptured axe on the lower part of its capstone. This chamber is in a good state of preservation owing to its having been fitted with a door, the key of which is kept at the Chateau; its dimensions are as near as possible a cube of 8 feet; the length of its allée is 23 feet.

On the road from Plouharnel to Auray, and at about two miles from Carnac, there is a group of three dolmens named Mané Kérion; the first one to the right has six sculptured supports (Plate IV, figs. 7, 8), which sculptures are mostly angular, and dissimilar to those before described. One of them is remarkable, it having a graduated scale on its outer edge somewhat resembling a ladder (Plate IV, fig. 8); a hafted celt, a cross, and a jugiforme will also be found on these stones. Although the dolmens in this neighbourhood are numerous (there being about fifty in the neighbourhood of Carnac and Plouharnel), there are no sculptures except some cup markings. It is difficult to account for this, unless the sculptures of the dolmens have been confined to a particular district, or perhaps tribe, whose religious cult or social system differed from the others.

It now remains for me to endeavour to elucidate two points with regard to these sculptures. First, the period when they were made, and, secondly, the implements with which they were


In the before-mentioned dolmens there are found in almost every case Neolithic implements, generally highly polished; they consisted of well-finished celts, some of which were of large dimensions; the material employed being nephrite, jadeite, chloromelanite, agalmatolite, tremolite, fibrolite, and diorite. There were also some remarkable necklaces of calaïs (green turquoise), flint knives and chips, as also a few arrowheads. There were some urns, and generally a great quantity of shards of pottery, which had been badly fired; some of it was ornamented with a Vandyke pattern, having a dot in the angles; withies

had also been used to impress circles. Generally speaking, only fragments of human bones were found; in three cases they had been incinerated; the latter are presumably the more recent, but as no metal whatever was found in the chambers we may, I think, assume that the sculptures are of the Neolithic period. A pecularity may here be mentioned, viz., that where incinerated bones were found there was an absence of sculptures, but the Mont Michel dolmen had cup markings on its capstone.

As regards the means employed for sculpturing the stones, no iron or bronze, or even the stains of these metals, having been found in the chambers, we may probably assume that stone was employed for the purpose. Having in my peregrinations observed a quantity of chert in the neighbourhood, as also that there was a vein or dyke of it across the granite rock at Clou Carnac, it struck me that I could possibly cut granite with it. Accordingly I selected a blunt and rather heavy piece of it, and commenced operations on a roche moutonnée of fine grained granite; its exterior was indurated and difficult to penetrate, but I found the inside of the stone softer, and after pounding and pulverizing for about twenty minutes I found that I had made a really deep cup. I easily made others. I may here remark that I selected this erratic block knowing that it was harder and more compact than the coarse grained granite of the country, which is softer, and of which the dolmens have been constructed. The next thing I had to do was to try and cut scores or lines on the granite; for this purpose I obtained a heavy piece of chert, having a pointed end. I worked away with it and succeeded perfectly in making them on the face of the rock. I therefore came to the conclusion (though perhaps erroneously) that the sculptures of the dolmens had been made in the saine manner, and with the same material, namely, the chert which is found not only in great quantities, but of every shade of colour, from deep red to light yellow and white, in those parts of the country where the sculptured dolmens are found.

In conclusion, I may allude to a fact which has not generally been noticed, which is that the surfaces of the granite on which there are sculptures appear to have been previously smoothed or levelled by some process, the exterior being left in a perfectly rough state.

Explanation of Plates III and IV.

Fig. 1. Sculptures on dolmen of Petit Mont, Avzon, Brittany. The outlines of the human foot are notable. Ditto on Mané-er-Hroeg, Lockmariaquer. formed part of the wall which closed the entrance of the chamber of the dolmen.


This stone

Antiquities," II, p. 282), and dark blue may be used as an alternative to black by widows on the Slave Coast (Bouche, loc. cit.). In Guatemala a widower dyed himself yellow (Bancroft, "Native Races," II, p. 802), and it is said that Anne Boleyne wore yellow for Catherine of Aragon (Brand, II, p. 283).

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If the spirit of the dead usually receives a grim or iron he occasionally receives a loving or golden welcome from his friends. The Coreans seek to recall the departed soul. A servant takes a garment once worn by the deceased, ascends to the top of the house, and, looking northward (whither the spirits flee), he calls aloud thrice the name of the deceased (Ross, "History of Corea," p. 321). The loud cry (conclamatio) raised by the Romans at death may have had the same object (Becker's "Gallus, p. 506). In Masuren on the evening of the funeral day they place a chair in the chamber of death and hang a towel on the door, for on that evening the ghost comes back from the grave, seats himself on the chair, weeps bitterly, dries his tears with the towel, and goes away for ever (Toppen, Aberglaube aus Masuren," p. 111). The Jews keep a lamp burning for seven days at the head of the bed where the man died, because the ghost returns thither to weep (Buxtorf, "Synagoga Judaica," p. 711); beside this light were placed a glass of water and a towel (Bodenschatz, "Kirchliche Verfassung der heutigen Juden," iv, p. 178. The reason here assigned is that the Angel of Death may wash his sword in the water and wipe it with the towel, but probably the water and the towel were originally intended, like the light, for the convenience of the ghost). In some parts of Calabria they place bread and water in the room for three nights, because the ghost returns at midnight to eat and drink (V. Dorsa, "La Tradizione Greco-latina negli usi e nelle credenze popolari della Calabria Citeriore," p. 92). The Samoan custom of keeping up a stream of light between the house and the grave may have been intended (as we saw, p. 91) to show the ghost the way back to the house. With this object, apparently, some Central American tribes extend a thread from the house to the grave, carrying it in a straight line over every obstacle (Bancroft, Native Races," I, p. 745). In some parts of Germany the funeral always goes by the high road, in order that the ghost may be able to find his way home (Sonntag, "Todtedbestattung," p. 175). In the Mariana Islands when a man was dying they placed a basket beside him and begged the soul at its departure to go into the basket, and to take up its quarters there on any future visits to the house (Waitz, "Anthropologie," V, ii, p. 151). In some Russian villages from time to time all the dead are feasted in a house and are then let down through the window by a shroud into the street and go their way (Ralston, "Songs of the Russian People," p. 321, sq.).


The PRESIDENT thought it a fair topic of discussion whether it was likely that any widely prevalent and long enduring custom sprang from a single root, and whether, on the other hand, its existence and persistence under very varied conditions was not some evidence of its origin in many roots, and of its being sustained by a concurrence of motives. He would instance the prevalent custom in society of avoiding the name of a recently deceased person when speaking to his or her very near relatives. For his own part he felt the disinclination very strongly, on the ground that it was too direct under the circumstances, and that a euphemism was more appropriate. Probably others felt the same, and he and they followed a savage custom for totally different reasons to that by which the savage was principally governed.

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