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exists between the alignments of Menac and Kermario, which evidently at one time were continuous. Indeed some of the menhirs remain concealed by the low fir trees in the fields between them. The reason why they were taken from this spot is simple. First, the menhirs were of considerable dimensions; and secondly, they were near to the high road, and therefore more easy to transport. The altars in the church are of granite, and the old beadle who accompanies visitors invariably mentions that they have been made from "menhirs." The same is said of the corona over the north porch of the church.

I propose now to offer some remarks on the sculptures of the dolmens, of which there remain about eighty. They are found usually on the capstones and their supports. A remarkable fact is that the sculptures are circumscribed to within a distance of about twelve miles, near the sea coast, beyond which, although the megaliths are so numerous, there is a complete absence of them.

The French classification of these monuments is as follows:First, Galgals (cairns), composed of roughed stones heaped up, covering a stone chamber; second, Tumuli, having also a stone chamber, with an allée or passage leading to it for secondary burials. In the construction of both, a quantity of mud from the seashore, or clay, was spread over to a thickness of about 6 feet, with the object of preventing pluvial infiltration, and thus preserving the remains deposited in the chamber. I may here mention that in some cases remains of human bones were found, -almost all, however, calcined.

In some few cases these monuments still remain almost intact, but others have been denuded and have consequently become ruins. Stone being everywhere so abundant, it was really not worth while to take any from the cairns; but, on the other hand, vegetable humus being only a few inches deep, the farmers removed the earth from the tumuli and spread it over their fields. As I shall have occasionally to use the French nomenclature and classification of the sculptures of the dolmens, it seems desirable I should first explain their system, namely: Signes Cupuliformes = Cup markings.

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= Foot shape.
= Yoke (of cattle) shape.
Pectiniformes = Comb shape.

= Celt (stone hatchet) shape.

On referring to the Archæological Map of the Morbihan, it will be seen that a tumulus exists on the peninsula of Rhuys, named Tumiac. I propose to commence here, observing that I shall as much as possible omit the details of the explorations, confining myself principally to the sculptures.

The tumulus of Tumiac is composed of three strata. The lower one consists of rough blocks of granite heaped up; the second is of mud and clay from the seashore; the third is of vegetable humus. Its height is 65 feet, and its circumference at the base is 300 feet. From its summit there is a truly magnificent panoramic view extending from the mouth of the Loire to Belle Ile; it, in fact, commands the whole country. In order to discover its chamber a perpendicular cutting was made on its south side, from southeast to north-west, being guided by the well-known and almost universal rule that the entrance to the Breton dolmens is found between the south and east points of the compass. A remarkable difference exists as to the position of this chamber, which is that its floor is about 20 feet above the level of the soil, the others usually resting on the granite rock; in fact, the dolmenic chambers have been erected on it. Tumiac may be said to have two chambers joined, but without a separation. Each is nearly a square. The inner one is composed of three supports of granite, which are secured together at the corners by a species of dovetail, which is unique; it is covered by a large slab of granite. The adjoining chamber consists entirely of rough dry stone walls, having two capstones; it is rather more contracted than the former; a human parietal bone was found in the latter. Two of the supports of the first chamber are sculptured: one has on it what very much resembles a double bead necklace (Plate IV, fig. 5); below it there is what is really an indescribable figure; the other support has on its lower part parallel bars, having hooked extremities; above these are some faintly incised waved lines.

We will now proceed to Petit Mont, which is situated to the right on entering the inland sea of the Morbihan, and about three miles from Tumiac; it is stated that it was from this height that Cæsar directed the sea fight at the entrance of the Mobihan between his galleys and those of the "Veneti." A chamber was opened at the foot of this cairn in 1865. Seven of its supports are sculptured, one of which (No. 4) is remarkable, it having incised on it the outlines of two human feet (Plate III, fig. 1), this being the only instance in which any part of the human frame has been found on any of the megalithic monuments of Brittany.

Support No. 10 has incised on it what appear to be two hafted celts; on No. 8 there are some rude imitations of what seem to be axes, also hafted; the remaining sculptures are principally waved lines and cup markings, with the exception of No. 1, which has some parallel zigzags.

Although the dolmens on the peninsula of Rhuys are numerous, the preceding are the only ones which have sculp

tures on them. We shall therefore pass over to the Ile aux Moines, which is the most considerable island in the inland sea. It has a remarkable cromlech on it, as also several dolmens : the first will be found at the village of Kergonan; it is semicircular, its diameter is 320 feet; it has actually a farmhouse and buildings within its boundaries. It is formed of thirty-six menhirs, of from 6 to 10 feet high, and from 3 to 6 feet broad. At about a mile beyond it, and on a rising ground, will be seen the dolmen of Pen-hap; on the exterior of its left support, on entering the chamber, there is sculptured a remarkable axe, now much weather-worn; on the inner side of the same support, and inside of the chamber, will be found incised a double oval figure, terminating in cup markings.

We will now pass on to Innis-hir (Long Island), which has on its highest part a cairn containing a chamber, now almost blocked up with stones; on one of the supports of its gallery there is incised a cartouche, now much weathered and hardly discernible.

On the south side of the next island, Gavr Innis, or "Goat Island," there is an elongated cairn, which has a diameter of 180 feet; its original height was 30 feet, but it is now only about 20 feet, its top having been removed, and a sort of crater formed, which reaches down to the capstones. This was done (it is said) to admit light into the chamber. The original form of this cairn was that of an elongated cone, and from its summit a really magnificent panoramic view of the Morbihan and the adjacent islands, as also of the surrounding country, was obtained. The date of its first opening is unknown; its late proprietor opened it in 1832, but it soon became evident that he had been anticipated, the chamber and its allée being nearly filled up with stone and rubbish. There was formerly a monastery on this island, the ruins of which existed until lately. The monks probably opened the cairn; it is also a well-authenticated fact that it served as a hiding-place during the revolution of 1793. The dimensions of the chamber are 8 feet by 7, and 5 feet 8 inches high; its allée is 14 feet long, 4 feet 6 inches broad, and 5 feet 4 inches high; its side walls consist of twenty-three supporting menhirs. The chamber has eight supports and one capstone, 12 feet 6 inches by 9 feet 6 inches. The chamber and its allée are paved with granite flags. All the supports, with the exception of two which are of quartz, are sculptured; the intricacies of these sculptures are truly surprising. They have been compared by some to the tattooing of the New Zealanders. We meet here with sculptured celts of the Neolithic period, which are represented thirty-one times on six of the supports. Four of the latter merit a special attention: one is in the

chamber (No. 9), it has three circular hollows which communicate, there being two loops externally, and which form the divisions; there is ample room to pass the hand through at the back of these loops. Endless theories exist as to their use, but the solution has not been found. Some have imagined that victims were attached to them and there immolated. This appears hardly possible, it being admitted that the chamber was sepulchral. The support No. 8 is peculiar from the arrangement of the celts, which are so placed that in each successive line the numbers are alternately odd and even (Plate III, fig. 3). It has also a cartouche. Support No. 21 has on its lower part three waved figures, which resemble snakes; these have given rise to theories as to the existence of serpent worship, but they are not serpents at all; this has been much disputed. The support No. 16 has on it not only some elaborate sculptures, but also a species of inverted cartouche. The support No. 20 has on the top of it a capstone, having a hafted axe sculptured on it; the stepping stone into the chamber is also prettily sculptured.

We shall now land at Locmariaquer, and visit the dolmen "Des Marchands," also named "La table de César." It has an enormous capstone, which is balanced on the points of three of its supports; it has sculptured on its lower surface (within the chamber) an axe having a handle to it. Endless discussions have taken place as to the interpretation of this symbol, but without arriving at a solution. Some have maintained that it is a phallus, others that it is a plough, a hafted celt, and even an emblem of original sin. At the further end of the chamber there is a cartouche of enormous dimensions; it is in the form of an ogive, and it has on it in relief a series of characters of the pediforme class. The height of this chamber under its capstone is 7 feet. There are also two incised sculptures on the upper parts of the supports of the table, but it is difficult to make them out, as the latter rests on them. It is clear that these sculptures must have been made prior to the erection of the dolmen, as they extend on to the edges of the supports; indeed they stand so close to each other that it would have been impossible to introduce a tool between them. Exactly the same may be said of "Mein Drein," the cup markings on its lower surface resting on its supports. I may here remark that raised sculptures are very rare in the dolmens; those at Gavr Jnnis may appear to be so, but it is an error, the fact being that the incised lines are so near to each other that the intermediate space appears to be raised.

Our next visit will be to Mané-er-Hroëg, "Mountain of the Fairy or Girl." This is in reality an enormous cairn; its form is elliptical, its diameter is 300 feet, and its height is 30 feet; it had

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