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She is generally accompanied by an old woman, who is deputed to screen her from all excitement and danger until the expected event has taken place; after which little further fuss is made, and other succeeding children are born without any extra precautions being taken.

After marriage the greatest laxity of manners is allowed among the women, who often court their lovers under the husband's gaze; provided the lover pays, no objection is raised to his addresses. Both sexes have little notion or conception of decency, the men especially seeming to be unconscious of any impropriety in exposing themselves. What clothing they have is worn either as an adornment or for warmth at night and early morning. These people are affectionate and kindly in their family relations, and to give you a better glimpse of how they live and feel I will cull the following extract from my diary, which describes the visit paid to a native's compound in Taveita :

"Early this morning many friends came with offerings of milk, fowls, bananas, &c. One man wanted me to come to see him at his home, so I went thither with my servant. Round his little compound was a kind of fence formed of the long midribs of the Mwale' palms laid lengthways. There were three houses inside one for the women, one for the goats and sheep, and one for the man. His dwelling, though small, was far from uncomfortable, and the interior was remarkable for the neatness that characterises the domestic arrangements of most Africans. There was a raised daïs for the bed, on which skins were laid; a little three-cornered stool to sit on; a fire burning in the centre of the floor; spears, knives, horns of animals, and many other articles ranged to dry round the walls. At the man's earnest request we partook of sour milk and sugar-cane. He also wished us to try some rather dirty half-fried fish, but this I was obliged to decline. Whilst I sat talking to him, his wife, a motherly-looking soul, appeared leading a small, rather unhealthy child, and was further followed by a genial old hag, my friend's mother. This latter was a merry social old body, though very monkey-like as she sat and chewed sugar-cane, holding it before her with both hands and gnawing it laterally with her teeth, while the further end of the cane was clutched between her lean thighs. My host caught his child to him with unmistakable parental affection. He carefully pinched and pressed the great protruded stomach, as if divining this to be an unhealthy symptom. Seeing he was anxious, and wishing to say something kind, I offered to send medicine, which in the Swahili tongue is

1 A species of Raphia.

expressed by an Arab word 'Dawa.' But he only replied, 'Dawa, what do we know of Dawa?' Then he looked up to the sky in quite a simple way and said, 'Perhaps Muungu will cure him? who knows?-the other one died.' 'Then you had another child?' I asked. 'Yes,' he said, 'but Muungu took it.' He looked again at his child, and seeing its eyes were flecked with mucus he cleaned them with great sucking kisses. At length I rose and said in a roundabout way I had better be going. He put the child from him with a sigh and rose and followed me to my camp, carrying a present of bananas."

The people of Taveita subsist mainly on vegetable food, of which they rear a great variety in their beautiful gardens. They also eat fish and meat. The fish are caught in the river Lumi, which runs through the settlement, by means of skilfully made wicker-work traps and weirs. They also construct from the midribs of a Raphia palm most clever rods and lines, the whole material coming from the palm, with a native-made iron hook superadded.

The Wa-taveita proper number about two thousand. They bear an excellent reputation among the coast traders for honesty and friendliness. They speak Ki-swahili almost universally, and speak it with singular correctness; but of course among themselves Ki-taveita is the only language used. This very interesting Bantu dialect offers many curious features and retains a number of archaic words in its vocabulary. It is somewhat midway between Ki-kamba and Ki-chaga, but offers independent features of its own. So much intercourse with traders from the coast seems to have slightly robbed them of originality, and in their modes of life and forms of belief they somewhat ape the Wa-swahili. Many of them are almost Mohammedans. I noticed one little detail as regards firemaking which is worth recording. To produce fire, which is done in the common African way by rapidly drilling a hard pointed stick into a small hole in a flat piece of wood, is the exclusive privilege of the men, and the secret is handed down from father to son, and never, under any conditions-so they say-revealed to women. I asked one man why that was. "Oh," he said, "if women knew how to make fire they would become our masters." Nevertheless, without this drawback, the fair sex in Taveita have pretty much their own way. I have known one or two leading matrons who have always insisted on having their voice in the deliberations of the Wazee, or elders, who govern Taveita. I have referred to their laxity of conduct after marriage, but it springs so much from amiability of disposition that it can hardly be called vice. In short, a more kindly, sensible, considerate set of beings I have never met than the Wa-taveita.

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The Wa-chaga of Kilimanjaro do not altogether resemble them. They are neither so pleasing in appearance nor in disposition. Sometimes they attain a fine stature, as in the case of Mandara, the chief of Moshi, but generally they are short men. The women, however, are at times very good-looking, and have wonderfully fine figures. In fact, the ordinary rule amongst Africans is here reversed, and the women are handsomer than the men. Amongst these people we again meet signs of marriage by capture, but in their case it does not seem to be as I have described in the Wa-taïta, for the bridegroom is quite equal single-handed to the capture of his wife, and certainly not disposed to reward his friends in the same manner as the less exclusive Wa-taïta husband. On several occasions when I observed a marriage ceremony during my residence in Chaga, the intending husband went to his future wife's home, seized her in his arms and carried her off pig-a-back to his own residence, she screaming lustily and crowds of laughing friends following behind. On arriving at the husband's hut the marriage is generally consummated in public, and should the woman be found a virgin there are loud cries of rejoicing. Should the husband, however, fail to satisfy himself as to this point there are mutual recriminations, often ending in a loud-voiced wrangle, and sometimes the woman is returned to her father, who repays the marriage price. More often the matter is arranged by mutual concessions. The Wa-chaga are not markedly immoral; in fact, as they have come but very little into contact with Mohammedans they may be said to ignore real vice; but they are nevertheless the most utterly shameless people I have ever encountered. With them indecency does not exist, for they make no effort to be decent, but walk about as Nature made them, except when it is chilly, or if they wish to look unusually smart, in which cases they throw cloth or skins around their shoulders. Circumcision, if performed on the male, which it is not universally, is generally done after the age of puberty.

The Wa-chaga share with the Masai, whom they may have copied, a curious habit of spitting on things or people as a compliment or sign of gratitude. I remember one man, after I returned to my settlement in Chaga from a short trip to Taveita, was so pleased at my safe return that he took my hand in his and spat repeatedly at the sky, saying constantly "Erua icha!"-" God is good!" They have but a vague idea of the deity. Indeed one never knows whether or not he is identical with the sun, for that luminary bears just the same name, "Erua." It is interesting to notice, in contradistinction to the derivation of the name of God I recently gave as coming from ancestor worship, that among other African nations the deity is identified with the

sky or the sun. Thus there is the term "Erua" already referred to, which indicates "God" in Ki-chaga. Among the Ki-taveita it is "Zuwa," also "Sun," although the Swahili have lately introduced their word, Muungu. The form "Erua," "Zuwa," is identical in origin with the Swahili "Jua," the Luganda "Njuba," the Congo "Ntuva," all meaning sun, and all remounting to an archaic form "Nduba." On the upper Congo the Ba-yanzi have but one word for God and Sky-"Ikuru," or "Likulu." Even among the Gallas "Waka" means indifferently God and Sky, and in the Masai language "Engai" (a feminine word) means both God, Sky, and Rain.

However, to return to the subject of the Wa-chaga. Though having little religious belief, they are very superstitious, and have great dread of sorcery. Large trees are supposed to be much affected by ghosts, and for this reason are spared by the axe. Their dead are buried in these isolated forests, sometimes in hollow trees, sometimes in the ground. Hyænas generally dig them up and eat them-this being little cared for by the survivors.

The Wa-chaga are clever smiths, and forge all kinds of utensils, weapons, and ornaments from the pig-iron they receive from the country of Usanga near Lake Jipe. The forge is but a pair of goat-skin bellows converging into a hollow cone of wood, to which are added two more segments of stone pierced through the centre and ending in a stone nozzle which is thrust into the furnace of charcoal. The bellows are kept steady by several pegs thrust into the ground, and a huge stone is often placed on the pipe to keep it firm. After the iron has been heated white hot in the charcoal it is taken out by the iron pincers and beaten on a stone anvil. The Chaga smiths not only make spear blades and knives of apparently tempered steel, but they can fabricate the finest and most delicate chains. Out of a rhinoceros horn they will make a beautifully turned and polished club, carved by hand, for they have no turning lathe. Pottery is almost absent. Basket-work is carried to great perfection, and they can weave it so tightly that milk may be held in these utensils of woven grass or banana-fibre. The wooden platters that are here before you to-night show no little skill in shaping, as they are cut out of solid blocks of wood, and not joined in any way.

But it is in their husbandry that the Wa-chaga mostly excel. The wonderful skill with which they irrigate their terraced hill-sides by tiny tunnels of water diverted from the main stream shows a considerable advancement in agriculture. Their time is constantly spent in tilling the soil, manuring it with

1 The stem, Kuru, Kulu, however, is identical with the universal Bantu word for "great."

ashes, raking it, and hoeing it with wooden hoes. All their agricultural implements, except the choppers, adzes, and sickles, are of wood-wooden hoes, wooden stakes, and so on. They have a very clever mode of irrigating equally a given surface. As the little canals of water are always elevated above the cultivated plots, they will tap it at a convenient spot above the bed to be watered, and then turn the stream into a rough conduit made of the hollow stems of bananas cut in half, the end of each stem overlapping the next. Then as the water enters the last joint it is freely turned right and left, dispersing the vivifying stream in all directions.

The food of the Wa-chaga is mostly vegetable. Fish are absent from the streams of their country; but, moreover, like the Wa-taïta, they think them unfit to eat, and of the same nature as serpents. They breed fowls in large numbers, but merely to sell to the passing caravans of traders from the coast, for they themselves abjure poultry as food, thinking it unwholesome and unmanly. Their other domestic animals are the ox, the goat, the sheep, and the dog, though the latter animal is rarely seen. The oxen are much valued. They belong to the humped Zebu breed prevalent throughout East Africa from the days of the ancient Egyptians. The goats are small and handsome, with poorly developed horns, drooping ears, and often two small appendages of skin in place of the ordinary beard. The sheep are of large size, hairy, with fine dewlaps and drooping ears. The male has an enormously fat tail, developed to such an extent as to really impede his movements. A fine sheep may be bought for from 4 to 8 yards of cloth, a fat goat for about the same cost, and a milch goat a trifle dearer.

Milk enters largely into the diet of the Wa-chaga, and they are also passionately fond of warm blood fresh from the throat of a newly slaughtered animal. Whenever I killed an ox for my men-who being Mohammedans insisted on cutting its throat and letting it bleed to death-the Wa-chaga would assemble with their little wooden bowls, and as the animal lay in its death throes on the ground, the hot purple blood spurting at high pressure from the severed veins, the eager natives filled one after the other their wooden vessels and then stepped apart from the crowd to drink the coagulating gore with utter satisfaction and a gourmet's joy. They are great flesh-eaters when they can afford it, but, as I have already said, their main diet is vegetable. Among the plants grown for food are maize, sweet potatoes, yams, arums, beans, peas, red millet, and the banana. Tobacco is also largely cultivated, and the natives chew it and consume it as snuff mixed with salt. Honey is produced in immense quantities by the semi-wild bees which make their hives in the

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