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be well for those Europeans in Fuegia interested in the advancement of science to take advantage of, as osteological specimens of Fuegians are rare in our museums.

They believe in the existence of a spirit, in the form of a great black man, who is supposed to wander about the woods and mountains, and from whom they cannot escape. This being knows their words and actions, and when they do wrong sends storms of hail and snow. They are extremely superstitious.

Fire is maintained with great care wherever these savages go, by carrying about a piece of burning wood. Should it accidentally become extinguished they procure it again from sparks produced by striking two stones against one another. The sparks so produced are received into tinder made from the underdown of birds, well dried, or fine dry moss, and then by fanning the lighted tinder in the air a flame is produced and the fire is again kindled.

The employment of the men is hunting in the places where land animals exist, and procuring porpoises, seals, otters, &c.; they cut wood for the fires, build canoes and wigwams, and at night go out to catch birds. The women nurse the children, attend the fires, make baskets, fishing and water-buckets and necklaces; they gather shell-fish, dive for sea eggs, look after the canoes, and go out fishing in them, and paddle the men about. Both men and women are expert in swimming, which they do after the manner of dogs.

Regarding their life in the wigwams, Captain Bové says: "At night the fire is fed to the fullest possible extent, and around it, with their bodies almost in the ashes, lie the wretched inmates. When the family is numerous they dispose themselves in a line, one pressing against the other, and the last one covering his back with a rug of guanaco or sealskin. Cases of horrible burns are not infrequent." When not pressed for time the natives roast shell-fish and half roast other kinds of food, but when hurried they eat fish and meat raw. The oil and fat or blubber of seals and porpoises are cut off the carcass and eaten, even though somewhat putrid. They have little or no vegetable food. Their drink is pure water, which they take in large quantities. Captain Fitzroy seems to have satisfied himself in 1832 that when much pressed for food, and after battles, they resorted to cannibalism, but we have no later information regarding this practice.

The languages of the various tribes seem to be different, and to contain several dialects; that of the Yahgan tribe is the best known to us. They have a great facility in pronouncing and

1 "South American Missionary Magazine," October, 1883, p. 234.

repeating words and sentences of languages they are totally unacquainted with, and their power of mimicry seems to have attracted the attention of several travellers.

Population. Regarding the number of people who inhabit the Fuegian archipelago, comparatively little is known, except of the Yahgans, of whom Mr. Bridges has lately made a census,1 and finds that they include a population of about 1,000. Of these, 273 are men, 314 are women, and the remainder children and infants. He estimates the Ona population as not to exceed 500, the Alaculoofs and other likely tribes between them and Chilöe to number about 1,500, making the total population of the archipelago about 3,000 persons. The rate of mortality among the Fuegians is high, and it has been noticed by several travellers that there are very few old people, or people with grey hair amongst them, which I take to be a significant fact in connection with the duration of human life. The great scarcity of food, the toil with which it is procured, the severity of the climate, and their very inefficient protection from the elements, both in clothing and shelter, necessarily render the struggle for existence great, and elevate considerably the standard of fitness for survival.

We now pass on to consider the physical characters of the people. Speaking of them as a whole, Fitzroy and Bové are unanimous in their accounts that the most notable characteristics they present are, an extremely small low forehead, prominent brows, small sunken black eyes, wide cheek-bones, wide and open nostrils, large mouth, thick lips, and the face, as a whole, flat. The eyelids are usually red and watery from the irritation of the wood smoke in their wigwams. The chin varies in form, being smaller and less prominent in some than in others. The nose is always narrow between the eyes, and concave or almost flat in profile outline, except in a few instances. The teeth are fairly large, but often worn down in front till the dentine is exposed, consequently giving them an appearance similar to those of an aged horse. The hair is coarse and lank, and grows regularly over the head. It is said not to fall out or turn grey until they are very old. Little or no hair is allowed to grow on the eyebrows or face, it being carefully depilated from those parts. As exceptions to the general rule, Captain Fitzroy states that he has seen individual men and women occasionally with frizzly or curly hair, high foreheads, and straight aquiline noses. These, however, appear to have been people who have been shipwrecked or otherwise accidentally imported. They are mentioned by Captain Bové as having been seen by him. The

1 "South American Missionary Magazine," October, 1884, p. 223.


neck of the Fuegian is short and strong, the shoulders square and high, the chest and body large, the limbs short and slim compared to the size of the body. Most of the people are bow-legged, the knee is strained by the custom they have of always sitting squat, and when straightened the skin covering it hangs in loose folds; the muscles of the thigh are large, but those of the leg are small. The hands and feet are small, the latter perfectly undeformed, never being covered with boots. colour of the skin varies from a mahogany to a bronze hue. In 1881 a troup of eleven Fuegians, consisting of four men, four women, and three young children, of the Alaculoof tribe from Dawson Island,' visited Europe, and were examined by several distinguished anthropologists, amongst whom may be mentioned Professor Topinard and Dr. Manouvrier in Paris, and Professor Virchow in Berlin, who have carefully recorded their characters. The general appearance of these people confirms the account of Captain Fitzroy regarding them. Manouvrier and Virchow give series of careful measurements of their heads and bodies, which are very valuable, being the most exact and extended series we possess of any of the Fuegians. With the ample directions given to travellers by the British Association and the Anthropological Societies of Paris and Berlin, for making observations on the living subject, it is earnestly to be hoped that Europeans now living in or visiting Fuegia, will obtain similar and more extended information regarding all the tribes of that country at an early date, before, if possible, the influences of civilisation have materially altered them for better or worse.

We have now to consider the physical characteristics of the Fuegians as illustrated by their osteology. The material at our disposal is even now extremely limited, and until it is considerably increased it will not be possible to arrive at accurate conclusions regarding them. The Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England contains eleven skulls and incomplete skeletons of four or five of the individuals to whom the skulls belonged. Seven of the skulls were presented by the Rev. Thomas Bridges; four skulls were brought home by the "Challenger" Expedition, and are in Professor Turner's possession in the University of Edinburgh; two crania are preserved in the Anthropological Cabinet of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, under the charge of Professors Quatrefages and Hamy, making altogether a series of sixteen. Two of the skulls in the Museum of the College of Surgeons are those of young

1 This family was said to come from Hermite Island, but Mr. Bridges, who saw them and conversed with them on their return, writes contradicting this statement, and states that they are Alaculoofs from Dawson Island. ("South American Missionary Magazine," November, 1882, p. 254.)

persons, and consequently cannot be included in the series from which measurements are taken, so that the number of specimens at our disposal for studying the characters of the skull is fourteen. Of the remaining parts of the skeleton there are no examples except those in the College of Surgeons, which are quite inadequate to determine with any degree of certainty its general characters. The series of adult skulls in the College of Surgeons' Museum is now on the table before you, and is composed of seven males and two females. Six of the former and both of the latter belong to the Yahgan tribe, having been obtained directly or indirectly through the South American Missionary Society; and the other male skull, with part of the skeleton, was brought home and presented by Captain Fitzroy, but does not bear any record of where it was found. The skulls brought home by the "Challenger" were obtained at the Settlement at Punta Arenas (Sandy Point), in the Straits of Magellan, but there appears to be no record to what tribe they belong; two of these are males and two females. One of the two skulls in Paris was also obtained from Punta Arenas, and the other from the Harbour of Mercy near Cape Pillar, on Desolation Island, and is therefore probably that of an Alaculoof; both these skulls are those of males. I have been careful to determine the exact localities from which the various skulls were procured, and to which tribes they belong, as it may be necessary when additional material is obtained, particularly of the Ona tribe, to study them separately from the rest, seeing they appear to be different in their appearance and perhaps also in their origin from the other tribes.

Stature. Mr. Bridges states the average height of the Yaghan men to be 5 feet 3 inches, or 1,612 mm., and the women 5 feet 1 inch, or 1,550 mm.1 And Captain Fitzroy states the men to be from 4 feet 10 inches to 5 feet 6 inches, or from 1,473 to 1,676 mm., and the women as 4 feet and some inches." None of the skeletons was complete enough to articulate, so that the only way we can estimate their height is from the long bones. This may be done from the femur alone, but better from the combined lengths of the femur and tibia, as when estimated in this way the risk of error is reduced to the minimum. Topinard's researches show that the length of the femur plus that of the tibia is to the height of the body in seventy-five Europeans whom he measured as 49 4 to 100, and in five South Americans as 49.5 to 100 in males, and as 49.5 and 48.2 to 100 in twenty-five European and six South American females respectively.2 Presuming the same proportions to exist in Fuegians as in other

1 "South American Missionary Magazine," January, 1882, p. 12.
2 "Elements d'Anthropologie Générale" (Paris), 1882, p. 1041.

South Americans, I find that the average height of the male Yahgans, calculated from the skeletons, is 1,527 mm., or 5 feet 1 inch. This result has been arrived at by finding the average length of the femur and tibia respectively, adding those averages together, and then estimating the stature according to the canon of proportion given by Topinard for South Americans. The estimated height so obtained is almost exactly the same as that indicated by an average deduced from the limbs of the five individuals taken separately. The tallest is 1,600 mm. = 5 feet 3 inches, the skeleton brought home by Captain Fitzroy, and the shortest is 1,450 mm. (= 4 feet 9 inches). The stature of the two Yahgan women of whom we have the limb-bones is 1,423 or 1,420 mm. respectively (= 4 feet 8 inches), as estimated from the canon of proportion given by Topinard for that sex in South Americans. Probably the proportion which obtains in other South Americans is too high for the Yahgans, as all accounts agree as to their bodies being remarkably large in proportion to their lower extremities, and Professor Virchow states regarding the Alaculoofs he examined that this proportion "liegt nicht blos in der Muskulatur, sondern auch in dem Knochenbau." This is supported by the average height of the people given by Mr. Bridges, being above that indicated by the limb-bones. This question cannot, however, be settled until we possess some complete skeletons.

The average stature of the Alaculoofs who visited Europe in 1881 is given by Dr. Manouvrier2as 1,612 mm. (= 5 feet 3 inches) for the males, and 1,516 mm. (=4 feet 11.8 inches) for the females, the tallest man being, according to Professor Virchow, 1,645 mm., the shortest 1,595 mm. Dr. Cunningham, naturalist to the "Nassau" Expedition, when in Sholl Bay measured two men and two women, presumably from his description belonging to this tribe, and found the males to be 5 feet 6 inches and 5 feet 3 inches respectively 1,676 and 1,600 mm. respectively. Herr Böhr1 measured four men who came on board his ship at about thirty miles west of Cape Froward, and found them to average 1:52 m. (=5 feet), the tallest being 1:55 m. (= 5 feet 1 inch), and the smallest 1.47 m. (=4 feet 10 inches). The exact tribe to which they belonged is uncertain, but the position in which, according to Captain Fitzroy, they were found would indicate them to be Pecherays, or possibly a branch of the Alaculoofs.


As to the height of the Onas I have been unable to obtain any

"Zeitsch. f. Ethnologie," Bd. xiii (1881), S. (379).

2 "Bull. de la Societé d'Anthropologie," 3 Série, t. iv, p. 772.
3 "Nat. Hist. of the Straits of Magellan" (Edin., 1871), p. 320.
"Zeitsch. f. Ethnologie," Bd. xxii (1881), S. (30).

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