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wooden cases put up by the natives among the forest trees. A large barrelful may be bought for two yards of cloth.

The Wa-chaga inhabit the western, southern, and eastern slopes of Kilimanjaro. The northern side of the mountain is without any other inhabitants than roving bands of Masai. The principal Chaga states, beginning on the west, are Shira, Kibong'óto, Machame, Uru, Kibosho, Mpokomo, Moshi, Kirua, Kilema, Marang'ú, Mamba, Mwika, Rombo, Useri, and Kima’ngélia. Although these little states are perpetually quarrelling among themselves, they are nevertheless closely united by ties of blood and possess a common language. Ki-chaga is a very interesting Bantu dialect, preserving many of the prefixes in apparently archaic forms. It is intermixed with a few Masai terms in its vocabulary, but its grammar is perfectly untouched.

The inhabitants of Méru, Kahé, and Ugweno speak dialects closely allied to Ki-chaga. The tongue of Ugweno is, if anything, more archaic than the others, and offers most interesting points for consideration. I have made a careful study of all these dialects, and hope to publish the results shortly.

I will conclude my paper by a few words on the two remaining races to be noticed in this hasty review of the Ethnology of Eastern Equatorial Africa-the Masai and the Gallas.

The Masai are a well-marked variety of African man ranging like semi-nomads over the vast tract of plain country between one or two degrees north of the Equator and 5° 30' south. They certainly had their origin northwards, and in all probability merge into races inhabiting the great unknown tract lying between the Nile and Gallaland. The Masai primarily admit of two great divisions, the Masai proper and the so-called Wakwavi, or El-Oigob. These two peoples, who are of the same stock and speak almost identically the same language, are nevertheless in perpetual conflict. The Wa-kwavi, as they are always called by the Wa-swahili traders, are Masai who have, through loss of cattle and other reasons, become settled agriculturists, and have adopted a peaceful and honest mode of living. The Masai proper still live a semi-nomad life, do not till the soil nor cultivate, keep huge herds of cattle and goats, and are bold and daring robbers. I call them semi-nomads because each tribe ranges generally over a given district and within certain limits. They also live in their quickly constructed towns during the rainy months. A Masai town or village consists of a huge circle of low huts, surrounded by a thorn fence. In the middle of this enclosure the cattle are kept at night. Their huts are generally built as follows:-First making a rough framework of pliant boughs, which are bent over and stuck in the ground at both ends, they plaster on this a mixture of mud and

ox-dung, and for further resistance to heavy rain hides are thrown over the top outside. The height of the dwelling barely exceeds 4 feet. There is a low porch-like door. The only attempt at a bed is a hide laid across a row of sticks.

The Masai youth is circumcised in a peculiar manner at the age of sixteen, and then enters the clan of El Moran, or the unmarried fighting men. Whilst in this condition he strictly confines himself to a diet of milk and meat. Moreover, he must not mix these two things, but before changing from one to the other must take a powerful purgative, so that, for instance, if he had been living on milk, and wishes to eat meat or drink blood, he must thoroughly clear his system before changing.

With the company of young warriors dwell numbers of unmarried girls, and a very dissolute life is led. At about the age of twenty-five to thirty the Masai warrior selects a girl as his wife, marries, and entirely changes his mode of life. His diet is now unrestricted, and he varies his milk and flesh with vegetable food and honey. It is now his object to acquire a large family of children, and his disposition becomes wholly altered from that of a bloodthirsty, vicious, ruffian to a dignified gentlemannered man. The Masai believe in a vague supreme being whom they call Engai, a word also meaning "the sky," or "rain," as I have previously mentioned. The Masai language is an exceedingly interesting one. It is sex-denoting, uses a definite article of two genders and two numbers, has several modes of expressing the plural, principally by suffixes and lengthening the word, it conjugates its verbs by prefixes and suffixes, and uses pre-positions and not post-positions. But the most remarkable points that my slight study of it has revealed to me are the distinct though distant signs of relationship it bears to the Galla. Now is not the time for me to enter on a prolonged philological argument, but I hope at some future time to be able to work up the proofs necessary to establish this interesting fact.

The Gallas are advancing somewhat southwards in the direction of Mombasa, pushed on from the north by the hordes of turbulent Somalis. The Gallas are a race that there is some hope of civilising; they are at any rate not impossible to deal with-nor, with all their savagery and love of bloodshed, are the Masai, for whom also we may hope a brighter future, when they become encircled with civilisation; but the Somali! If it were reasonable to wish for the extermination of a whole race after the fashion of bygone Spanish colonisation, I could wish that race in Africa might be the Somali. Added to their naturally fierce and inhuman disposition, they have become fanatical Mohammedans and offer the greatest barrier to the opening up of that great eastern horn of Africa that can possibly exist.

FEBRUARY 24TH, 1885.

FRANCIS GALTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and signed.

The following presents were announced, and thanks voted to the respective donors:

FOR THE LIBRARY.

From the DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, U.S.A.-Second Annual Report, 1880-81.

From the AUTHOR.-Die Verbreitung des Blonden und des Brünetten Typus in Mitteleuropa. By R Virchow.

Ein Weiterer Beitrag zur "Nephritfrage." By A. B. Meyer. From the ACADEMY.-Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Córdoba. Tom. VII, Ent. 2a.

Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Serie 4, Vol. I,
Fas. 4.

From the ASSOCIATION.-Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 1884. No. 8.

Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Minneapolis, 1883.

From the INSTITUTION.―Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. No. 127.

From the COLLEGE.-List of the Fellows, Members, Extra-Licentiates, and Licentiates of the Royal College of Physicians, 1885. From the SOCIETY.-Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1884-5.-President's Address. By H. Muirhead,

M.D.

Journal of the Society of Arts. Nos. 1682, 1683.

From the EDITOR.-Matériaux pour l'Histoire de l'Homme. Jan., Fév., 1885.

"Nature." Nos. 798, 799.

Science. No. 104.

Revue Scientifique. Tom. XXXV, Nos. 7, 8.

Revue Politique. Tom. XXXV, Nos. 7, 8.

Mr. F. GALTON exhibited a collection of composite photographs illustrating Jewish types.

The following paper was read by the Director:

NOTES on the RACE-TYPES of the JEWS.

By DR. A. NEUBAUER.

THE history of the Jews from the earliest period up to our own time has been written and re-written many a time, by various authors and from various points of view. Jewish literature, biblical as well as post-biblical, has occupied many scholars for centuries, and we have arrived at a fair knowledge of it. Jewish customs and manners, both old and new, their thoughts in all branches of learning, their ethical teachings-all these have found champions. And scholars have generally agreed that the Jewish race have kept their blood unmixed. "It is the only pure race in Europe," says Dr. Andree, "besides the gipsies." This opinion is chiefly based on the fact that a Jew is almost at once recognised amongst thousands of others. The scanty intermarriages (a subject which I shall mention later on), they allege, did not disturb the individuality of the race. In the earliest times we find Abraham's son Ishmael becoming the father of the Arabic race, because he was the offspring of Hagar, an Arabian woman. Her name is Arabic, meaning "the flying," from which root also the word Hejra, "the flight of Mahomet," is derived. Isaac as well as Jacob is reported to have married an Aramean wife; Joseph married an Egyptian, and Moses is blamed for having married a Midianite. David descends from Ruth, the Moabitess; Solomon is the son of a Hittite woman, Bath-Sheba, and he himself married foreign women. It is, moreover, likely that the children of Israel married in Egypt Egyptian women, for a "mixed multitude went on with them" (Exodus xii, 38). We are often reminded in the Bible of the non-Jewish women who came in frequent contact with the Israelites. From all this we should conclude that the Israelites of old were descendants of a mixed race, though the priestly caste might perhaps be excepted.

The practice of intermarriage was continued by the Jews who returned from the exile, as can be seen from the following passage in Ezra (x, 11): "Now therefore make confession unto the Lord God of your fathers, and do his pleasure: and separate yourselves from the people of the land, and from the strange wives;" and from Nehemiah (xiii, 23): "In those days also saw I Jews that had married wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab." The "stranger" and the "sojourner" mentioned in the Bible, a kind of proselyte, as well as the functionaries and the warriors of non-Israelitish race who served under the kings of

VOL. XV.

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Israel, did certainly increase the mixture of the races by marrying Israelitish women. During the time of the second Temple the proselytes became more numerous through intercourse with the Syrians, the Greeks, and the Palmyræans, and many professed to be converted to Judaism in order that they might be allowed to marry Jewish women. The higher classes of these proselytes are known in the Talmud under the name of "proselytes of the table of the Kings." But, says Dr. Andree, "all the intermixture with heathen women, which took place in Asia in old time, had little effect on the physical constitution of the Jews, because they mostly married women of Semitic tribes." This argument does not hold good, at all events, as regards the Egyptian and Greek women, for the latter entered Judaism. in Asia Minor in no small numbers, and they no doubt prepared the field for the Apostles. How, in fact, could the Apostles have quoted so freely from the Old Testament to people of the lower and middle classes if a part of them were not acquainted with the Bible through conversion? They certainly had not learnt it in the schools, as was the case with the philosophers.1

And we are able to adduce more positive evidence as to the intermarriage of the Jews with non-Semitic tribes. At Rome it is mentioned that a patrician woman of the name of Fulvia embraced Judaism, no doubt with a great number of friends and slaves. The conversions at Rome were so frequent that a heavy penalty was decreed against those who became circumcised. Of course the converts married Jews-if not always, at any rate frequently. The passage of Tacitus ("History," v, 5), where it is said that the Jews keep pure blood in the Roman empire, adding, "Alienarum concubitu abstinent," means that the Jews did not marry heathen women; with her conversion the woman ceases to be an aliena. It is said in the Talmud "that the Jewish population in the Roman empire is in proportion to that of Judæa, as regards purity of descent, like paste made of mixed flour compared to pure flour; Judæa itself, as compared to Babylonia, is also only paste." In another passage it is said concerning purity of descent, "Babylonia is sound, Mesene is dead, Media is sick, and Elam in its last moments," which means that in Babylonia the purity of descent is spotless, in Mesene mixed, in Media doubtful, and in Elam more than doubtful. Can there really be a doubt about the frequent intermarriage between Jews and non-Semitic tribes And had these mixtures no influence on the physique of the

1 I discard the opinion of Dr. Richard Andree ("Zur Volkskunde der Juden,' Leipzig, 1881), that Israelites as early as the period of the Judges had acquired Greek slaves from the Phoenicians, who were known under the name 0 Pilegesh = παλλακὶς.

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