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He had understood from Mr. Bridges that the idea that cannibalism was practised by the Fuegians arose probably from casual visitors having observed human bones near the dwellings, which however had been no doubt disturbed by dogs and foxes from the heaps of mussel shells in which they were interred, the Indians in their savage state having no means of digging deep graves in the very hard earth. The Indians used a hard, heavy stone, which they call something equivalent to firestone, for striking fire, and a special deposit of this peculiar stone was to be found near the Magdalen Channel. In addition to fish, seals, and shell-fish, the Indians depended much on the fungi, which in twenty different sorts grew on the beeches. Captain Poulden gave a condensed account of the South American Missionary Society, dealing with Carl Hagenbeck, the Hamburg importer of animals, in respect of the party of Fuegians brought to Europe and exhibited some little while since from Dawson Island, and said that a remnant of this party had ultimately reached the Mission Station, and that one little girl yet survived there.

Professor FLOWER and Professor THANE also took part in the discussion.

[Mr. HYDE CLARKE, who could not be present at the meeting, sent the following note:

Dr. Garson has dealt with the skulls of the natives and their racial characters. I propose to communicate my observations on the brain, as indicated by the language; but language is not a test of race. How the race came to Tierra del Fuego is one question beyond history; how the language came there is another. The determination of each must be obtained from comparative data.

In the investigation is concerned something more than a local relation, namely, whether the language is a creation of the savages themselves or whether it has been imported.

For the Yaghan language we have good material in the Gospel of St. Luke, published by the Bible Society, having been translated in 1882 by the Rev. T. Bridges. Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, the President of the Philological Society, referred to this language in his Presidential Address for 1882. In the same year I read a paper on the subject before the British Association. Mr. Ellis's address included a copious paper by Mr. Bridges on the grammar of the language, which is of a very remarkable character. Appended to it is a letter in Yahgan, written by a native in the Mission House to Mr. Bridges.

Having extracted a large number of words from the Gospel, these were compared in every direction. But without going into details of a linguistic character, it is sufficient here to state that the relations enter into a definite group, No. VIII of Dr. Kolle's Polyglotta Africana, and have a notable resemblance to the Ngoten, Melon, and Ekamtulufu languages.

Of course there are resemblances to other languages all over the world, for this is to be observed of all languages, but it is a remark

able circumstance that as to Yahgan a definite classification can be obtained, for this is very rare.

How such conformity can exist between Tierra del Fuego and West and South Africa others may explain. For my own part my conclusions have often been made public. The identification rests upon not less than eighty words, and further examination will produce more.]

APRIL 28TH, 1885.

FRANCIS GALTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and signed. The following presents were announced, and thanks voted to the respective donors:


From the AUTHORS.-Les Australiens du Musée du Nord.
É. Houzé and Dr. Victor Jacques.

By Dr.

From the BERLINER GESELLSCHAFT FÜR ANTHROPOLOGIE.-Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. 1884, Heft. 6; 1885, Heft. 1.

From the SOCIETY.-Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
December, 1884.

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. LIII, Part I,
Special Number.

Bulletins de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. Tom. VIII,
Fas. 1.

Journal of the Society of Arts. Nos. 1691, 1692.

From the EDITOR.-The American Antiquarian. Vol. VII, No. 2. "Nature." No. 808.

- Matériaux pour l'Histoire de l'Homme. April, 1885.

Revue d'Anthropologie. 1885, No. 2.

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The following paper was read by the Director:



A relic of the Mound-builders, found at Red-Deer River, Alberta District,
North-West Territory, May 10th, 1882, by Jean L'Heureux,
M.A., and presented by him, July 20th, 1882, to His

Excellency the MARQUIS OF LORNE, and

Her Royal Highness PRINCESS LOUISE.



ETHNOLOGICAL studies, tradition, language, and architectural remains furnish data by which to trace the migration of ancient peoples. It is now an established fact, admitted by the most eminent ethnologists of America, that the Hue-hue Tlapalan, or the primitive habitation of the ancient Toltecs, was situated in the Far West, and that the whole of the Nahua tribes were one of the primitive races that peopled the north-west at a remote period.

It is not improbable that the Nahuas of old, while few in number, arrived at our north-western coast, where they found a home until they became a tribe of considerable proportion. Thousands of their newly explored tumuli in Oregon and British Columbia speak more of permanent sojourn than of a migratory residence. Crossing the watershed between the sources of the Columbia and Missouri rivers, a large portion of the tribe found its way to the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, where, under the name of Mound-building people, they laid the foundation of a widespread empire. The remainder of the Nahuas, instead of crossing the mountains, migrated southward into Utah, establishing a civilisation, the remains of which are seen all over the San Juan valley in the cliff-dwellers which abound in that region.

An ancient site of the western branch of the Mound-builders appears to have been the head-waters of Missouri river, whence they spread themselves north as far as the South Saskatchewan and its tributaries, establishing numerous colonies all along the eastern base of the mountains and away south to the headwaters of Rio Grande, by the south pass of the Rockies.

The scattered remains of Mound-builders' works in the northwest territory are connected by a similar chain of works at James river, in Northern Dakota, with the great artery of the Missouri mounds, and show more of a migratory movement than of a fixed residence.

The most important of these ancient relics of the past are principally found in the Alberta district, close to the international boundaries, amongst which the more northern works are the defence works of Blackfoot Crossing, the ruins at the Canantzi village, the Omecina pictured rocks, the graded mound of the third Napa on Bow river, the tumuli of Red-Deer river,

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