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the walled city of the dead in the inland Lake of Big Sandy Hill on the South Saskatchewan, and the Sesoators or sacrificial stones of the country, to describe one of which is the object of the present paper.

The recorded traditions of the ancient civilised nations of the Pacific States corroborated to some extent the tradition of the Indian tribes of the north-west. The Kamuco of the Quiché mourn over a portion of their people whom they left in Northern Tullan. The Papol-Vuh, speaking of the cultus of the morning star amongst the ancient Toltecs or Nahuas, states that they were drawing blood from their own bodies and offering it to their stone god Tohil, whose worship they first receive when inhabiting the north. The Napas tradition says that, "In the third sun (Natose) of the age of the earth, in the days of the Bull of the Nile, the third Napa of the Chokitapia, or the plain people, when returning from the great river of the south, caused to be erected in the sacred land of the Napas (Alberta district), upon certain high hills of the country, seven sesoators or sacrificial stones for religious services amongst his people."

The religious idea in man, whether observed in the darkest heathenism or partially enlightened civilisation, has always associated a place of worship with condition of elevation and isolation. These high places of worship of the Napa's tradition were the ever-open sanctuaries of a migratory people, at whose shrines the worshipper was himself first victim and sacrifice in the rites, and point to the belief of an early age, not entirely forgotten by the remnant of the race whose remains of ancient works seem to sustain the claim of our Indian traditional lore.

A constant tradition of the Chokitapia or Blackfeet Indians, a powerful tribe of remote Nahua parentage, inhabiting at the present day the southern part of the north-west territory of the Dominion of Canada, has always pointed to a high hill situated on the south side of Red-Deer river, opposite to Hand Hill, two miles east of the Broken-knife ridge, as the site of one of those ancient cities of the bygone days of the primitive race.

Elevated 200 feet above the level of the surrounding plain, Kekip-kip Sesoators, "the hill of the Blood Sacrifice," stands like a huge pyramidal mound commanding an extensive view of both Red-Deer and Bow river valleys. A natural platform of about 100 feet crowns its lofty conical summit. At the north end of this platform, resting upon the soil, is the Sesoators, a rough boulder of fine grained quartzose rock, hemispherical in form, and hewn horizontally at the bottom, measuring 15 inches high and about 14 in diameter. Upon its surface is sculptured, half-an-inch deep, the crescent figure of the moon, with a shining

star over it. Two small concave basins about 2 inches in diameter are hollowed into the stone, one in the centre of the star-like figure, the other about 7 inches farther in a straight line with the star figure. Around them are traced strange hieroglyphic signs, bearing some likeness to the hieroglyphs of the Davenport tablet and the Copan altar. Interwoven all over are numerous small circlets, which remind one of the sacrificial stone of Mexico.

At times of great private or public necessity, when extraordinary blessings are much sought after, such as the successful return of a long-absent war expedition, the cure of inveterate disease, or the absence of game in the hunting grounds of the tribe, this Altar of the Temple of Nature is thronged by many devoted worshippers-the deputies of the family, the clan, the tribe, and in certain emergencies of the whole nation.

The sun is disappearing behind the snowy top of the mountains in the west, the shadow of night has already encompassed the Indian village in the eastern valley of the river. Behold! a voluntary victim, bearing in his hands the instrument of his own sacrifice, clothed in festive attire, is slowly ascending the well-smoothed path of the hill. Building the sacred fire on the top of the platform, he sits gazing wistfully in the far east for the coming of the Star-God of his ancestors. It is the vigil of the warrior hero. Lo the first ray of the morning star lights the distant horizon, and the faithful watcher has fallen prostrate on the ground doing homage to the war god of the nation. Laying a finger of his left hand on the top of the stone, he cuts it off, leaving the blood to flow into the basin. Throwing the sacrificial knife on the ground he with his right hand seizes the severed finger and presents it still bleeding toward the morning star, crying, "Hail! O Episors, Lord of the Night, hail! Hear me, regard me from above. To thee I give of my blood, I give of my flesh. Glorious is thy coming, all-powerful in battle, son of the Sun, I worship Thee; hear my prayer. Grant me my petition, O Episors!" Putting the severed finger into the basin of the star-like figure, the devoted visitor to the shrine of the Napa of old retraces his stately steps toward the lake at the foot of the hill, where alone he stoically attends to the dressing of his self-inflicted wound. With the return of the sun in the east the messenger to the god enters his own village, where triumphant honours and a well-earned public ovation await him. Amongst the Blackfeet these self-inflicted wounds ranked equal to those received in the battle-field, and are always mentioned first in the public recital of the warriors' great deeds in the national feast of Ocan. It is the cross of the "legion d'honneur" of our red men.

Explanation of Plate VII.

Kekip-Sesoators, or Ancient Sacrificial Stone, of the NorthWest Tribes, a relic of the Mound-builders, found at RedDeer River, Alberta District, North-West Territory, May 10th, 1882, by Jean L'Heureux, M.A., and described in the foregoing paper.

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Dr. JOHN RAE remarked that Mons. J. L'Heureux's interesting paper having drawn attention to the prairie Indians of North-West Canada, the President had kindly requested him to say a few words on the subject of the half-breeds. These, in consequence of certain disturbances caused by them, were at present attracting a good deal of notice. Dr. Rae said: "The name Half-breed '-not in any way looked upon as a term of reproach-is applied indiscriminately, and regardless of the proportionate admixture of blood on either side, to all those who are descendants of white and 'red' parents, or of any crosses of these. The original fathers are whites-a white woman seldom marrying a red man-chiefly from the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides, and French of Lower Canada, who formed the principal employés of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of another large fur Company with which the former amalgamated about sixty years ago. On the mothers' or Indian side the plain and swampy' Crees' (some of whom are good-looking) form a very large element. I may add that these two branches of Crees are far more numerous and widely spread over the northern parts of North America than any other tribe. These mixed races, whether from Canadian or north of Scotland fathers, are, I think, taller than either of the parent stocks, and do not seem to degenerate by intermarriage, except where they loaf about towns, &c., and drink poisonous whiskey. In the Hudson's Bay Company's service by whom they are much employed, and lead a healthy, sober life, they are vigorous and strong after passing through many generations. Although, perhaps, not so broad-shouldered as their fathers, they are deep-chested and have good lung capacity, and make admirable hunters and voyagers; some of them formed a not unimportant part of four of the Arctic Expeditions in which I was engaged. As they become old, both men and women, especially those with Scottish or Orkney blood, have a tendency to become corpulent. The two varieties (French and Scottish) do not, as a rule, mingle much with each other, and seldom intermarry. In fact, the one has much of the plodding and docile character of his male progenitor, whilst the other takes after his more volatile Canadian-French parent, and more readily adopts or falls back into Indian customs and habits. I do not think that there is a single English-speaking half-breed connected with the present

The plain Crees live in the prairies; the "Swampies" in the thick woods.

so-called half-breed rebellion. Every one of these half-breeds had a certain number of acres of good land made over to them (how much I do not remember) by the Canadian Government, but in nearly all cases these lands were disposed of to certain sharp men at Winnipeg and elsewhere, for perhaps one-tenth of their value, and the sharp men made handsome fortunes, whilst the half-breeds migrated some hundreds of miles to the north-west, on the Saskatchewan River. It may be worthy of remark that the half-breed women are, not seldom, handsome in person and pretty in face, very neat-handed and admirable sempstresses. A number of the half-breed young men are apt and quick learners, and have taken fair positions at our Universities. One (an immensely large man named Norquay, descended from an Orkney man) is at present Premier of Manitoba. Another, also of the same parentage, named Jnkster I think, is or was recently Mayor of Winnipeg."

The following paper was read by the author:


THE highest point of the railway between Lancaster and Carlisle is a little to the south of the village and station of Shap in Westmoreland, where there were formerly some very extensive rude stone monuments, now unfortunately almost entirely destroyed. Camden, writing in the middle of the sixteenth century, says of them: "Several huge stones of a pyramidal form, some of them 9 feet high and 4 feet thick, standing in a row for near a mile, at an equal distance, which seem to have been erected in memory of some transaction there which by length of time is lost." Dr. Stukeley, writing about the middle of the last century, says: "At the south side of the town of Shap we saw the beginning of a great Celtic avenue on a green common; this avenue is 70 feet broad, composed of very large stones set at equal intervals; it seems to be closed at this end, which is on an eminence and near a long flattish barrow with stone works upon it, hence it proceeds northward to the town, which intercepts the continuation of it and was the occasion of its ruin, for many of the stones are put under the foundations of walls and houses, being pushed by machines they call a 'betty,' or blown up with gunpowder; houses and fields lie across the track of this avenue, and some of the houses lie in the enclosure; it ascends a hill, crosses the common road to Penrith, and so goes into the cornfields on the other side of the way westward, where some stones are left standing, one particu

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larly remarkable, called the 'Guggleby' stone. guess by the crebrity and number of the stones remaining there must have been 200 on a side" (he says the interval between the stones was 35 feet, which would give about 7,000 feet, or nearly a mile and a third, or allowing for the thickness of the stones themselves, a mile and a half, as the length of the avenue); near them in several places are remains of circles to be seen of stones set on end, but there are no quantity of barrows about the place, which I wonder at." Gough, in his edition of Camden (1806), says: At the south end of the village, on the common near the roadside, is an area upwards of half-a-mile long and between 20 and 30 yards broad, of small stones; and parallel to the road begins a double row of immense granites, 3 or 4 yards diameter, and 8, 10, or 12 yards asunder, crossed at the end by another row, all placed at some distance from each other. This alley extended within memory over a mile quite through the village, since removed to clear the ground; the space between the lines at the south-east end is 80 feet, but near Shap only 59, so that they probably met at last in a point. At the upper end is a circle of the like stones 18 feet diameter." Camden also mentioned an ebbing and flowing well, which Gough said was lost, and that its peculiarity was purely fortuitous; still it might have been used for the advantage of the priesthood who probably set up the stones. A circle is said to have been destroyed when the railway was made, six stones of which may still be seen from the train on the west side in passing from a cutting to an embankment about half-a-mile south from the station; they are all prostrate, and are from 6 to 9 feet long, 3 to 6 feet broad, and 2 to 3 feet high or thick; if they have not been moved the diameter of the circle (if circle there were) would seem to have been about 125 feet; another stone is built into a wall 30 feet north from them. Of the stones of the avenue, which was called the "Karl Lofts," three or four are lying in front of the police court, large fragments of others have been built into walls, and two are in the fields to the west of the village, one standing and another fallen (8 x 6 x 4 feet); there may be two or three others in some of the enclosures, but there is nothing to show the extent of the monument which once occupied so much space. From the descriptions already quoted it would seem that the avenue ran northerly or slightly north-westerly from the circle (if circle it were), part of which still remains by the railway, that its breadth was diminished as it went northward, that another row crossed it, and that there were smaller circles or other arrangements attached to it here and there. These peculiarities all have their counterparts in the great avenues of stones in Brittany, but, while those consist of several

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