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more or less parallel lines, the " Karl Lofts" would seem to have been for the most part a simple avenue of two lines. It is not stated that any interments or other remains were found when this avenue was destroyed, and if there were none there would be another point of resemblance to the Breton alignments, which are not found to have been sepulchrally monumental. The direction in which the "Karl Lofts ran is an unusual one, but it has also a counterpart in Brittany.

Several small circles and groups of standing stones are marked on the ordnance map as existing on the moors in the neighbourhood of Shap. I was only able to reach one of these groups, the most interesting parts of which were three small tumuli of three different patterns. One had only a central cist (4 feet x 22 deep), which had been rifled long ago and filled up with stones, probably to prevent the sheep from falling into it. Another had a line of three small stones like headstones, with a cist behind the middle one; in this respect it is not unlike a much larger tumulus and collection of stones at Gorwell, in Dorsetshire, described by me in the Journal of this Institute for November, 1881. The third tumulus had a circle, 16 feet in diameter inside, formed of small stones, each measuring about 3 feet each way; nine of these remain, and there is room for a tenth, unless, indeed, the gap, which faces south, were left as an entrance; there is a hole in the middle, where an interment has probably been made and long since destroyed.

The most interesting monument now remaining in the vicinity of Shap is not, however, marked on the ordnance map. It is situated at a place called Gunnerskeld, two or three miles north from Shap, and consists of two irregular, concentric, slightly oval rings, about 50 and 100 feet in diameter respectively, the longest diameters being from north to south. The inner ring is nearly perfect, and consists (besides fragments) of thirty large stones, all but one of which are prostrate; they are nearly contiguous, and seem more likely to have been the retaining wall of a tumulus than anything else, as the ground inside them is a foot or two higher than it is outside, and there are some small stones surrounding a sort of crater in the middle, which is suggestive of a destroyed interment. Eighteen stones of larger size remain of the outer ring, and of these three only remain upright, one at the south-south-west, and two at the north, which, in the present condition of the structure, look like a gateway; twelve more stones would be required to make this ring symmetrical in form as well as in number, and it is not unlikely that this monument, when complete, consisted of a cist and low tumulus, bounded by a rough retaining wall of large blocks, and surrounded, at a distance convenient for processional or other

ceremonies, by a ring of thirty larger stones, from 5 to 8 feet high when erect, and unusually bulky in proportion. A most careful and accurate plan and sketch of this structure were published by Mr. Dymond, C.E., F.S.A., in the "Journal of the British Archæological Association" for 1879, and I have therefore not thought it necessary to trouble you with minute details as to its measurements. I may add that Mr. Dymond, like myself, regards these stones as having formed a sepulchral monument, and as differing very much in character from the principal circles in Cumberland.

About a mile and a half south from Penrith, on the top of a slight eminence, is an oval enclosure called Mayburgh, about 100 yards in diameter from east to west, and 90 yards from north to south. It is formed by a bank of loose stones, 30 yards thick at the base, and about 16 feet higher than the ground inside; but there is no ditch. A stone, 10 feet high and 4 or 5 wide and thick, stands somewhat north-west of the centre of the enclosure, and, according to Gough, three others were so placed as to form a square with it, and four more stood at the corners of the entrance; but all these had long disappeared when he wrote in 1806. Dr. Stukeley, however, who visited the spot about the middle of the last century, says: Within this fine plain, which is now ploughed up, have been two circles of huge stones, four remaining of the inner circle till a year or two ago, that they were blown to pieces with gunpowder. They were of a hard black kind of stone, like that of the altar at Stonehenge. One now remains, 10 feet high, 17 in circumference, of a good shapely kind; another lies along. This inner circle was 50 feet in diameter. One stone at least of the outer circle remains by the edge of the cairn, and two more lie at the entrance withinside, others without, and fragments all about." If Dr. Stukeley's statement be correct the single stone now standing is therefore the sole survivor of two concentric circles, surrounded like those at Avebury and Arbelow with a high bank, which prevented those within from seeing anything outside and those outside from seeing anything within.

Another resemblance, though of a different character, which these circles exhibit to those of Avebury is that both were destroyed about the same period, namely, that of George I. The advent of "the Illustrious House of Hanover and Protestant Succession" has always been noted as one of extreme barbarism in all matters connected with art; but it is curious to find that the effects of that barbarism extended even to our great stone circles.

The only original entrance to Mayburgh is due east, or a little south of it, and in a straight line from it in the same direction.

About a quarter of a mile off is " Arthur's Round Table," a piece of ground enclosed by a slight trench, which appeared to me to be oval, the longest diameter being from north-west to south-east, with a low bank outside and an entrance at the south-east. There was a similar entrance at the north-west, but that end of the structure has been destroyed by a road being made over it. "Arthur's Round Table" somewhat resembles "Maumbury Ring," near Dorchester, but is much smaller. Both, however, seem more likely to have been amphitheatres or lists than anything else. Another similar earthwork is said to have existed a mile further south, but I did not attempt to find it.

Immediately to the north of these remains is the border of Cumberland, where I leave you for the present, hoping before long to have an opportunity of bringing before you some points respecting the circles of that county of greater novelty and interest than the melancholy account of destruction and delapidation which I have laid before you to-night.


Dr. MICHAEL TAYLOR, late of Penrith, said that from personal knowledge of these monuments he could corroborate the general accuracy of the impressions given by the author of the paper, and participated in his regret at the partial obliteration of Karl Lofts, and of what was probably at one time one of the finest stone avenues in this country. The prehistoric remains of that part of Westmoreland had been thoroughly well examined by Canon Greenwell, Canon Simpson, and the Cumberland and Westmoreland Archæological Society. These avenue structures could not be considered sepulchral; they were probably of the Neolithic period. He might state that the sepulchral relics of the polished Stone age and of dolichocephalic man were shown in the tunnels known as the long barrows. These were comparatively rare, but three or four still existed on Ashfell, near Kirkby Stephen, and at Sunbiggin Farm, near Shap. The sepulchral relics of the Bronze age, of which Gunnerkeld was an example, on the other hand, were numerous over that part of Westmoreland; the bowl-shaped barrow, stony cairns, and stone circles abounded on these fells. He had been concerned in the exploration of many of these, and some had furnished results of interest to this Society, in an . anthropological point of view. He referred to a discovery four years ago of interments in a round barrow at Clifton, about one mile from Mayborough; the burials were by inhumation in kistvaens, with the bodies in the usual bent-up position, with urns and food vessels lying by their sides. In one case the cranium

It is spoken of by some writers as a circle 29 yards in diameter, and, as I did not measure it, I cannot speak with certainty, but viewing it from the road it seemed decidedly oval.



and long bones were so perfect that the type of the individual could be determined. It was a brachycephalic adult, but of stature only 5 feet 2 inches, unusually small for a round-headed individual. His deductions were confirmed by the late Professor Rolleston, and the relics are in the Oxford Museum. His experience was that in these round barrows and cairns burials by cremation and inhumation were used indiscriminately by the same race of people at the same period of time. They occurred in close proximity to each other, and the pottery and ornamentation of mortuary urns and food vessels in both usages were very similar. In reply to a question as to the presence of cup-markings and sculpturing on the Shap stones, Dr. Taylor said that none existed at Karl Lofts or Gunnerkeld, but that on one of the isolated monoliths in the avenue there were two cup and ring cuttings, which were figured by Sir J. Y. Simpson in his monograph on Sculptured Stones. Cup and ring markings were found on the monolith Long Meg in the Salkeld circle, but the best example of a cup and ring marked stone in Cumberland was found at Redhills, near Penrith, three years ago; it was a large slab which formed the cover of a cist; it is described in "Cumberland and Westmoreland Archeological Transactions," Vol. VI, and it is deposited in the Penrith Museum.

Miss BUCKLAND, the EARL of NORTHESK, Mr. C. ROBERTS, and Dr. GARSON also joined in the discussion.

The following paper was then read by the Director:



THE late Mr. James Miln, F.S.A. Scot., when following the road from Carnac to Coët-a-touse, observed, on a gentle rising ground amid the gorse and heather, a number of weathered stones protruding through the soil, which resembled menhirs aligned. The spot is known by the name of Mané-Pochat-enUieu (ie.," the hillock of the egg-basket"). (Plate VIII, fig. 1.) On examining these weathered menhirs attentively it became evident to him that they formed part of an alignment running from east-north-east to west-south-west. There were, further, at the end of these, three other menhirs outlying (and also transversely to these), two of which remained upright, their length being nearly 5 feet. Permission having been obtained from the proprietor, operations were commenced, and shortly a low wall of about 2 feet high was brought to light; it was of dry masonry and roughly constructed, having built up in it, at intervals, some

small menhirs, some of which still remained upright, but others had fallen. In following this wall a structure was brought to light having the form of a parallelogram with rounded corners; its longest side measured 110 feet, its western end being 40 feet, and its eastern end 52 feet; there was an opening (or entrance) at its eastern end which was 6 feet wide. În clearing out the enclosure it became apparent that it had been filled up with vegetable earth (humus), which had been brought and deposited there; its walls had been quite buried, leaving the menhirs protruding. Two circular constructions were next brought to light: the one marked A was situated at the western end of the enclosure; the second one, B, being on the north side and near to the boundary wall. The diameter of A is rather more than 12 feet; it is composed entirely of rough blocks of granite, which it was evident had been subjected to the effect of an intense firing, they being much reddened and quite friable. The shape or form of these structures is that of a beehive about 3 feet high; their interior was nearly filled up with a dark unctuous earth. It should be further mentioned that the three outlying stones before alluded to were on the outside of the western end of this enclosure.

The beehive construction B is precisely similar to, but is smaller than A, its diameter being only 8 feet, and its height 2 feet 8 inches. It also contained black unctuous earth. Extending from this structure, and along the boundary wall for a distance of about 25 feet by 6 feet broad, there was a stratum of ashes and burnt earth; there was a further deposit of ashes and fine particles of charcoal to the south-west of it.

The following were the contents of this enclosure:-At the foot of the menhir (I) charcoal flint chips and a shard of grey pottery; on the outside of the beehive, charcoal, five shards of coarse brown pottery, and four flint chips. To the east of the menhirs G and H, and near to that part of the wall which is thicker, a few flint chips, and some very small shards of pottery. Outside of the west wall a shard of pottery (grey). At the south wall (near M) the lug of a vase of brown pottery, also shards of the same; there were also similar shards inside the enclosure. At the east wall, near the fallen menhir (0), a fragment of red pottery and some charcoal. There was found a very small shard of red pottery in A, as also some small shards of brown pottery on the exterior of B; but, as a rule, the shards found were so small that it was quite impossible to reconstitute them.

To the south of Mané-Pochat-en-Uieu, and distant about 200 yards from it, there is another slightly raised mound named Mané-Ty-ec(" hillock of the little house "). (Plate VIII, fig. 2.)

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