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descendants? That there were families who kept up tradition so strictly that no proselyte could enter into them is doubtless true, but such was not the case with all classes. And in other countries, like Persia, Arabia, the land of the Khazars, and elsewhere, the same process went on.

But let us now come to other European countries besides Rome. The Councils of Orleans (538 A.D.), of Toledo (589 A.D.), and of Rome (743 A.D.) prohibit intermarriage between Christians and Jews; the same prohibition was enacted in many other Councils in later periods and in many other countries. As long as conversions were allowed legally, or by some means tolerated, intermarriages frequently took place. The Jew has no preference for or any aversion from one race or another, provided he can marry a woman of his religion, and vice versa. (It is not the place here to explain the psychological ground for this.) Intermarriage and climate are, in my opinion, the reasons for the differences in appearance between Jews of various countries. That traces of the original race are in very many cases, and perhaps in most cases, left, cannot be wondered at. The same traces are to be found in the Celtic races, the Slavs, and the Latins, with the difference that intermarriages between these races have taken place on a larger scale than amongst the Jews.

It is, in my belief, outside the question to distinguish two different tribes of Jews-1st, those with a well-developed nose, black and striking eyes, and fine extremities in one word, the noble race of the Sephardim, or the SpanishPortuguese Jews; 2nd, those who have a thickish nose, large mouth, and curled hair, features which are represented amongst the Ashkenazim, or the German-Polish Jews. Even Jews with red or fair hair are pointed out, but not as a special type. But this is only a revival of the old legend which existed for a long time amongst the Jews themselves in the middle ages, viz., that the noble Spanish race are descended from the tribe of Judah and the rougher German-Polish Jews from the tribe of Benjamin. This legend had such effect that intermarriage between the Spanish and German Jews was for a long time avoided. Now this ethnological fact would only be possible if we could admit that removal or voluntary emigration was carried on in such a systematic way that the tribe of Judah spread in the East and went to the Iberic peninsula, and that the tribe of Benjamin settled in France and Germany, from whence it came to the Slavonic provinces. There is, however, no trace of such a systematic emigration, and surely the Romans did not care at that time for the distinction of the two tribes, when they sold them as slaves or transported them for the sake of the safety of the empire. If such a separation of

Israel, did certainly increase the mixture of the races by marrying Israelitish women. During the time of the second Temple the proselytes became more numerous through intercourse with the Syrians, the Greeks, and the Palmyræans, and many professed to be converted to Judaism in order that they might be allowed to marry Jewish women. The higher classes of these proselytes are known in the Talmud under the name of "proselytes of the table of the Kings." But, says Dr. Andree, "all the intermixture with heathen women, which took place in Asia in old time, had little effect on the physical constitution of the Jews, because they mostly married women of Semitic tribes." This argument does not hold good, at all events, as regards the Egyptian and Greek women, for the latter entered Judaism in Asia Minor in no small numbers, and they no doubt prepared the field for the Apostles. How, in fact, could the Apostles have quoted so freely from the Old Testament to people of the lower and middle classes if a part of them were not acquainted with the Bible through conversion? They certainly had not learnt it in the schools, as was the case with the philosophers.1

And we are able to adduce more positive evidence as to the intermarriage of the Jews with non-Semitic tribes. At Rome it is mentioned that a patrician woman of the name of Fulvia embraced Judaism, no doubt with a great number of friends and slaves. The conversions at Rome were so frequent that a heavy penalty was decreed against those who became circumcised. Of course the converts married Jews-if not always, at any rate frequently. The passage of Tacitus ("History," v, 5), where it is said that the Jews keep pure blood in the Roman empire, adding, "Alienarum concubitu abstinent," means that the Jews did not marry heathen women; with her conversion the woman ceases to be an aliena. It is said in the Talmud" that the Jewish population in the Roman empire is in proportion to that of Judæa, as regards purity of descent, like paste made of mixed flour compared to pure flour; Judæa itself, as compared to Babylonia, is also only paste." In another passage it is said concerning purity of descent, "Babylonia is sound, Mesene is dead, Media is sick, and Elam in its last moments," which means that in Babylonia the purity of descent is spotless, in Mesene mixed, in Media doubtful, and in Elam more than doubtful. Can there really be a doubt about the frequent intermarriage between Jews and non-Semitic tribes? And had these mixtures no influence on the physique of the

1 I discard the opinion of Dr. Richard Andree (“ Zur Volkskunde der Juden," Leipzig, 1881), that Israelites as early as the period of the Judges had acquired Greek slaves from the Phoenicians, who were known under the name of Pilegesh = παλλακὶς.

tradition

descendants? That there were families who kept up so strictly that no proselyte could enter into them is doubtless true, but such was not the case with all classes. And in other countries, like Persia, Arabia, the land of the Khazars, and elsewhere, the same process went on.

But let us now come to other European countries besides Rome. The Councils of Orleans (538 A.D.), of Toledo (589 A.D.), and of Rome (743 A.D.) prohibit intermarriage between Christians and Jews; the same prohibition was enacted in many other Councils in later periods and in many other countries. As long as conversions were allowed legally, or by some means tolerated, intermarriages frequently took place. The Jew has no preference for or any aversion from one race or another, provided he can marry a woman of his religion, and vice versâ. (It is not the place here to explain the psychological ground for this.) Interinarriage and climate are, in my opinion, the reasons for the differences in appearance between Jews of various countries. That traces of the original race are in very many cases, and perhaps in most cases, left, cannot be wondered at. The same traces are to be found in the Celtic races, the Slavs, and the Latins, with the difference that intermarriages between these races have taken place on a larger scale than amongst the Jews.

It is, in my belief, outside the question to distinguish two different tribes of Jews-1st, those with a well-developed nose, black and striking eyes, and fine extremities in one word, the noble race of the Sephardim, or the SpanishPortuguese Jews; 2nd, those who have a thickish nose, large mouth, and curled hair, features which are represented amongst the Ashkenazim, or the German-Polish Jews. Even Jews with red or fair hair are pointed out, but not as a special type. But this is only a revival of the old legend which existed for a long time amongst the Jews themselves in the middle ages, viz., that the noble Spanish race are descended from the tribe of Judah and the rougher German-Polish Jews from the tribe of Benjamin. This legend had such effect that intermarriage between the Spanish and German Jews was for a long time avoided. Now this ethnological fact would only be possible if we could admit that removal or voluntary emigration was carried on in such a systematic way that the tribe of Judah spread in the East and went to the Iberic peninsula, and that the tribe of Benjamin settled in France and Germany, from whence it came to the Slavonic provinces. There is, however, no trace of such a systematic emigration, and surely the Romans did not care at that time for the distinction of the two tribes, when they sold them as slaves or transported thei for the sake of the safety of the empire. If such a separation of

types were admitted, we should have to make a third one for the Italian Jews, who stand between the German and the Spanish Jews. Can it be shown that communities exist composed only, or in the majority, of Jews with fair or red hair and blue eyes? Certainly not. On the contrary, we find often in a family a part of the children having a dark complexion and another part with fair hair. This phenomenon must be ascribed to some yet unknown reason or to the influence of climate.

What is curious to notice is that the manners and habits of the so-called distinct tribes are also different, in accordance with the features, viz., the Spanish and Eastern Jews have a kind of refinement in speech and gesture, while the German-Polish Jews are rougher in both; and the Italian Jews lie again between the two. But this also must be attributed to the manners and speech of the nations amongst whom they lived, and with whom they were in daily contact. We shall go further;-there is even a difference in the literature of the medieval Jews of the two so-called tribes. The Spanish Jews are much more logical and clear in their casuistic compositions, and dislike scholastic discussions, whilst the contrary is the case with the German-Polish Jews, whose casuistry reaches the climax of logical mistakes, of scholastic torture, and absurd thinking. The Italians stand again between these two in this matter. Can this be attributed to a difference between the two tribes, or not rather to the character and tone of the nations amongst whom they lived? Another difference must be noticed also in the pronunciation of Hebrew words. It lies chiefly in the clear â, the é, and the th, with the Spanish Jews; for which the GermanPolish Jews have an o, an i, and an s. The gutturals are not distinguished by either of the Jews except by those who live amongst the Arabs, whilst the ain is, strangely enough, pronounced by the Italian and by some Portuguese Jews as a nasal ng. This difference of pronunciation is not tribal, but influenced by the languages spoken round them. In a word, there are no two distinct tribes amongst the living Jews, and they are not of wholly pure blood. I believe that it is quite imaginary to say that the Jews represented on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments exactly resemble the Jews now living. Certainly we find individuals who bear a resemblance to the Jews of the monuments, and who may be the remnants of families which took special care against intermarrying with proselytes; but the bulk of the Jews, if dressed in European costume, would present few characteristics by which they could be recognised. The only strong similarity existing amongst the living Jews is that they often still bear, more or less, the stamp of oppressed individuals, a stamp which they cannot get rid of

quickly, since there are many countries even now where they are treated like pariahs, and from whence they emigrate to more civilised lands; and these Jews are at once recognised in the streets, but not those who have shared in the advantage of civilisation and education. As I have already said, there remains something typical in the features, just as in the case of the Celts, Teutons, Slavs, and other tribes. That the Jews keep together is by no means due to a tribal instinct; they were forced to do so by the Ghettos, and such a habit cannot be got rid of in one generation. That it is not the race which holds them together, but the religious community, may be concluded from the fact that they are interested in the amelioration of the Jews in Russia and the East, as also in that of the Falashas' in Ethiopia, the black Jews in Cochin, and the Bene Israel in India, who are certainly not of their race.

We pass now from the ethnological question to the anthropological results relating to the Jews. We shall find here also the same abnormal state of things and contradictory statements on the part of those engaged in research. Let me state at once that there exist no skulls or skeletons belonging to ancient Jews, and in all probability none will be found. In the climate where they are buried, none can be preserved except by embalming, which was not frequently in use in the Jewish nation. The dead were too much respected amongst the Jews of all ages to allow of any pathological examination of the corpse; indeed, every effort was always made, and is still made, in the orthodox communities of Poland, Hungary, and the East, to avoid a post-mortem examination. This is most likely due to the same superstitious repugnance that the Mohammedans have to amputation, in order that the body may be kept intact until the time of the resurrection. It is a matter of the greatest difficulty even now, as stated by Dr. Blechmann in his essay "On the Anthropology of the Jews" (Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, Dorpat, 1882), to induce a Jew to be

The Falashas are a tribe which is not Semitic, but rather Nubian. The name Falasha means "immigrated"; they believe themselves to be descendants of the queen of Saba. Their language is a kind of Amharic, and they do not know Hebrew at all. Their Bible is written in Ethiopic, and their hymns in the vernacular language. They observe strictly the laws of the Pentateuch, except as to some local modification, but know nothing of the Jewish traditional interpretation, neither of the Rabbinic (the Talmud), nor of the Karaitic (of those who repeat the Talmud but have another traditional interpretation).

Of the black Jews Dr. Buchanan says that he could not distinguish them from the Hindoos. The missionary, Joseph Wolf, says of them in 1833: “The`r complexion is like that of the Hindoos; indeed, even at this time, many of the Hindoos at Cochin become converts to Judaism.

The Bene Israel are fixed in the neighbourhood of Bombay; they pretend to be descendants of the ten tribes, but their features are Hindoo. They do not know Hebrew at all, but observe the laws of the Pentateuch.

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