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skull: this was so remarkable that a wax model of the brain and of the skull was made by Mr. Towns, and is now in the Anatomical Museum of Guy's Hospital.

Professor FLOWER and Professor KEANE also joined in the discussion.

[Dr. GARSON has since stated that the Maori skulls in the Royal College of Surgeons' Museum do not, as a rule, present any unusual thickness which might serve as a race-character.]

JUNE 9TH, 1885.

FRANCIS GALTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and signed.

The following presents were announced, and thanks voted to the respective donors :

FOR THE LIBRARY.

From the INDEX SOCIETY.-A List of English Indexes. By Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A.

From the BUFFALO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.-Obsequies of Red Jacket at Buffalo, October 9th, 1884.

From the BRITISH ASSOCIATION.-Souvenir of Winnipeg.

From the SEC. DE FOMENTO, GUATEMALA.-Informe dirijido al Señor Secretario de Fomento, sobre los trabajos practicados por la Oficina de Estadistica en el año de 1884.

From the AUTHOR.--Notes on Prof. E. B. Tylor's "Arabian
Matriarchate." By J. W. Redhouse, C.M.G., LL.D.

Some Laws of Phonetic Change in the Khitan Languages.
By John Campbell, M.A.

The Khitan Languages: the Aztec and its relations. By
John Campbell, M.A.

Corrigenda and Explanations of the Text of Shakespeare. By
George Gould.

Miscellaneous Notes on Deneholes, 1883. By T. Vincent
Holmes, F.G.S., M.A.I.

Rapport à M. le Ministre de l'Instruction Publique sur une
Mission aux Iles Philippines et en Malaisie (1870-1881). Par
M. le Docteur J. Montano.

On the Track of the Crescent.

M.A.I., F.R.Hist.S.

By Major E. C. Johnson,

From the ACADEMY.— Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Serie Quarta. Vol. I, Fas. 1, 2.

From the AsSOCIATION.-Journal of the Royal Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland. No. 59.

From the AssoCIATION.-Report of the Fifty-fourth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Montreal in August and September, 1884.

From the INSTITUTION.―Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Vol. VIII, Part 3.

Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. From the SOCIETY.-Journal of the Society of Arts.

1698.

No. 128. Nos. 1695

June, 1885.
Vol. IV

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.
Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society.
(N.S.), Parts 5, 6.

Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. Vol. III.
(Series II), Nos. 4, 5, 6.

From the EDITOR.-Bulletino di Paletnologia Italiana. Anno XI.
N. 1e, 2.

Matériaux pour l'Historie de L'Homme. May, 1885.
L'Homme. 1885, Nos. 1-10.

Revue d'Ethnographie. 1885, No. 1.
"Science." Nos. 117, 191, 120.

"Nature." Nos. 811-814.

By permission of the authorities of the Alexandra Palace, a family of Lapps, consisting of three men, two women, and two children, were exhibited, in illustration of Professor Keane's communication. With them were exhibited a dog, sledge, reindeer skins, and other objects of ethnological interest.

PRINCE ROLAND BONAPARTE exhibited a very large collection of photographs of Lapps.

Mr. P. A. HOLST exhibited three coloured photographs, as samples of a collection of 240, representing all the Russian Empire.

NOTE on the LAPPS of FINMARK (in NORWAY), illustrated by Photographs. By H.H. PRINCE ROLAND BONAPARTE.

THE following anthropological data were collected during a recent tour of three months in Scandinavia. In the course of my journey I endeavoured to study the Lapps from two points of view-anthropometrically and ethnographically. I need not refer, however, to the ethnographical details, as these are already familiar to most anthropologists, thanks to the writings of Von Düben' and Friis. I shall therefore dwell rather on the anthro

1 G. Von Düben, "Om Lappland och Lapparne, företrädesvis de Svenske." Stockholm, 1873.

2 Friis, "En Semmer i Finmarken, Russisk Lapland og Norkarelen," Kristiania 1880. Friis, “Fra Finmarken," Kristiania, 1881. Friis, "Lappisk Mythologi, Eventyre og Folkesagn," Kristiania, 1871.

pometric results, for on this subject we possess less information, Mantegazza and Sommier being the only writers who have treated the subject with any fulness. The measurements which I now submit to the Institute have been taken on about 150 individuals, born in the provinces of Tromsö and Finmark, Russian Lapland, and Karasuando in Sweden.

There are at present 25,367 Lapps distributed as follows:

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But before entering into further details I would remark that there are hardly any pure Lapps, unless we consider as such the 1,073 nomad Lapps who still live in the kingdom of Norway, and who are hindered by their mode of life from crossing with strangers. The fact that pure Lapps no longer exist is easily explained when we consider that the northern provinces of Norway and Sweden are invaded by Finns who very readily cross with the Lapps, and give rise to a multitude of mixed breeds. This slow invasion, which has already been going on for a long time, will result-though it is true at a distant date -in the complete disappearance of the Lapp group-not by their destruction, but by their fusion into another race. Thus, in 1876 there were in the province of Finmark 7,008 individuals called Lapps, and 2,865 Finns, with 2,628 half-breeds of different races. In all the Lapp families whom I visited I found one or more members whose physical constitution declared their Finnish origin-whence we may conclude that the 7,008 individuals called Lapps in the Norwegian statistics are not of pure race.

I have now the honour to offer for presentation to the Anthropological Institute a series of 101 anthropological photographs which have been taken in the course of my tour. Each Lapp was photographed in full face and in profile, the two positions being rigorously exact, whence it follows that all these photographs are comparable among themselves.

The measurements made on the living subjects were taken according to Broca's method, and yielded the following results.

1 Norges Officielle Statistik. Resultaterne af Folketaellingen i Norge i Januar, 1873. 3die Hefte. Kristiania, 1880, p. 350.

2 Unpublished information communicated by the Central Statistical Bureau of Stockholm.

3 Bidrag Finlands Officielle Statistik. VI. Befolknings-Statistik, 31st December, 1880, pp. 12, 13.

* Information furnished by Professor Von Düben.

The Lapp is short in stature, the mean height of 200 individuals being 1.53 metres for the men, and 147 m. for the women. The Lapp is brachycephalic; the preceding series of individuals gave a mean index of 87.63 for the males, and 86-17 for the females. The Lapp has a round visage, the mean facial index of 198 individuals being 80-32 in the men, and 80.04 in the women. The cheek-bones are prominent, the eyes small and sunk, the colour varying generally (in 65 per cent. of the individuals examined) between the first two lines of Broca's chromatic table. The eyelashes are scanty, and in many cases altogether absent, having been lost by the affections of the eyes to which the Lapps are peculiarly subject, through living cortinually in a smoky atmosphere. The sight is very good; 38 6 individuals had an index of V = of Snellen, and in 5 of them

51

√ = 5

5

The nose is rather small, and very much inclined forwards, as may be seen in many of the photographs exhibited, which represent the type we mostly met with. The profile of the nose varies between the numbers 2 and 3 of Broca's instructions. The mean nasal index is 74.59 for the males, and 73.64 for the females (in 121 individuals). The mouth is large, the mean for 120 subjects being above 5 centimetres. The lips are of moderate size and straight; the teeth vertical, and often worn; the chin is pointed; the hair is wavy and shining; many of the Lapps become bald early. They have but little beard; and this, when present, is sparse. The colour of the skin varies between numbers 24 and 26 of Broca's instructions: it is often deepened by the smoke in which the Lapps habitually live, and by dirt. Even young men have the skin much wrinkled, and this, added to the other characters previously cited, makes them appear prematurely old.

The voice is high-pitched and rather weak. The legs are generally short; the ratio of the seated figure to the erect figure being for 112 subjects, 52.90 for the men, and 52.98 for the women; but it should be remarked that appearances rather deceive in this respect, as the Lapp always stoops in walking. The ratio of the head to the total height is, on an average of 110 individuals, 14 23 for the males and 14:53 for the females.

In consequence of defective nutrition the Lapp is always thin, but his muscular system is well developed. He is very agile, is a good walker, and in winter, by aid of snow-shoes, covers enormous distances on the ice. The Lapps enjoy good health, but

1 Dr. H. Snellen, "Optotypen, tot bepaling der Gezichtscherpte." Utrecht, 1882.

they lose many children for want of due care. In temper the Lapp is mild; he seeks to gain his end by a ruse rather than by violence. Although every one carries a knife, sanguinary conflicts are rare. It is often supposed that the Lapps live in a savage state, but this is quite incorrect; they enjoy the same rights and are subject to the same duties as the Norwegians among whom they live.

Such are the chief anthropological results of my journey in Lapland. I may add that I intend preparing a work on the Lapps similar to that in which I have treated of the inhabitants of Surinam, in Guiana, a copy of which I have presented to the library of the Anthropological Institute.

The following paper was then read by the author :

THE LAPPS: Their Origin, Ethnical Affinities, Physical and Mental Characteristics, Usages, Present Status, and Future Prospects.

By Professor A. H. KEANE.

To the members of this Institute, devoted as they are to the special study of mankind, an intellectual treat of no ordinary interest is now afforded by the enterprising management of the Alexandra Palace, which, without inconvenience to ourselves, offers us the rare opportunity of observing on the living subject the physical qualities, social usages, and domestic life of perhaps the most interesting group of aborigines still surviving in Europe. A section, as it were, of the Arctic region of Lapland has been brought to our very doors, and we are this evening invited to make the personal acquaintance of its present inhabitants. They are here in our very midst, not indeed for the first time, for a few individual members of the race have ere now found their way sporadically to our shores; but certainly for the first time in a compact family group, affording with their "furniture and fixings," objects and implements of daily use, some even of their domestic animals, a picture in miniature of the whole life of the people drawn directly from

nature.

The Lapp Domain-Statistics-Divisions.

The geographical area, to which these Hyperboreans have long been restricted, comprises the extreme north-western corner of the Continent, and may be roughly described as the whole region lying between the Atlantic and White Sea, west and east, and between the 65° north latitude and the Arctic Ocean, south and

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