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measured, so that we have to rely mostly for the physical state of the Jews on information gathered from examination for the general military service. We shall put together what is known about Jewish skulls from the dissertation of Dr. Blechmann. The first notices, he says, were given by Blumenbach, who states (in 1790) that a Jewish skull in his possession was recognised amongst many others as peculiarly formed, even by men whose speciality was not anthropology. His description is the following:-" Maxime quidem nasus aquilinus et mentum porrectum, tum vero etiam maxillæ superiores qua naribus subjectæ sunt in acutiorem angulum spinæ nasali continuum concurrentes. Suturæ non tantum genuinæ illæ ossium calvariæ planorum, sed et reliquæ quas harmonias vulgo vocant, ad unum fere omnes senio decrepito confusæ et obliteratæ." Wachter (in 1812) gave after him a description of another skull which represents another Jewish type, most likely of a Spanish Jew. He confirms Blumenbach's statement, adding that he found in the external part of the orbit, where in general the temporal nerves lie, an important cavity or depression, whilst in the interior of the orbit he found an elevation. He also says that Professor Brugmans at Leyden had found the same peculiarities in two other Jewish skulls. Of course, in order to make this a standard peculiarity of Jewish skulls, many other skulls in all parts of the world must be examined. Blumenbach might have left unnoticed this peculiarity in the skulls which he possessed. As to the measure of Jewish skulls, Pruner-Bey (in 1864), who had three of them, gives 75 mm.; Welcker (in 1866), who examined eighteen skulls, found an intermediate skull with 784 mm.; he does not give the measure of each. Dr. J. B. Davis (in 1867), who examined seven skulls, finds the measure from 71 to 84, intermediate 77·1; finally, Dr. Weisbach (in 1878) gives the intermediate of 81.11, and from the measure of nineteen living Jews he gives the measure of 79 to 88, intermediate 82:15. So far for the skulls.

Dr. Blechmann gives statements of the height of the Jews, the measurement of the chest, the length of the arms and of the extremities, according to military reports in Russia, Germany, and the Austrian provinces, which are not very favourable to the physique of the Jews in general. They are short, measure in circumference less than half of the height, and they are very weak on the whole. Dr. Blechmann comes also to the conclusion that the differences in the measure of the skulls, which I have noticed above, represent different types of Jews, of which he admits also the two above mentioned, viz., the Spanish and German-Polish. He quotes authorities for it, such as Dr. Weisbach, Karl Vogt, Franz Maurser and finally Dr. Andree; the

information of the last is second-hand and inaccurate. No one of them makes out a special type of the Jews with fair or red hair, but they all firmly believe that neither intermarriage nor climate has had any influence on the physique of the Jews, and that the Jews of the present time greatly resemble those on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria. I have already doubted this, and stated my view as to the impossibility of two separate emigrations of two types. At all events no certainty can be attached to reports of the physical condition of the Jews until individuals are examined in the various parts of the world. Jerusalem, for instance, possesses Jews of the greatest variety and the beginning of the system of measurement could be made there, but they are all nearly half famished. Next, the state of health and the relation of the height to the size of the chest among the Jews in Yemen and Kurdistân, where they are shepherds, agriculturists, and artisans of all kinds, will have to be investigated. Only then shall we be able to decide why the descendants of the Macchabean warriors and of those who kept Titus and Hadrian thoroughly occupied for several years, are now proportionally less fit for military service and more delicate in health than their Christian brethren.

The following paper was read by the author:

On the RACIAL CHARACTERISTICS of MODERN JEWS.

By JOSEPH JACOBS, Esq., B.A.

[WITH PLATES I AND II.]

IN the following research I have endeavoured to bring together all the data, scientific or historical, which bear upon the question of the purity of the Jewish race. I have found it necessary for this purpose to scrutinise somewhat closely many Jewish qualities and habits that have hitherto been regarded as peculiarly the results of race. Most of these, however, have been found to be due to social causes, and cannot therefore be regarded as primarily racial. Nevertheless I trust even the discussion of the secondarily racial qualities of Jews with which this paper opens may not be without interest to students of anthropology. They exhibit, I conceive, a striking example of the influence which the social life of man has upon his physical qualities. For a decision on the main question, I have been forced to turn

to history, which is on this occasion more than usually Janusfaced.

We have first of all to determine which are the Jews whose racial qualities we are to determine. I have made the following estimate, necessarily rough, of the various classes of persons now living, who may claim to be Jews by religion or by birth, or by both."

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Besides these, there exist a large number of persons, mostly in Europe, who have Jewish blood in their veins as descendants of Jewish converts. This is specially the case in Spain, where Jewish blood has filtrated through all ranks of society up to the very highest, and the same is said of certain districts of

1 The best enumeration of Jews is by M. I. Loeb, art. "Juifs," in Saint Martin's Dictionnaire de Geographie: his chief errors are making the number of Russian Jews too low by a million, and the Falashas 200,000 instead of 50,000. 2 Rohlfs in Petermann "Mittheil," 1883, p. 213.

3 Serour, "Les Daggatouns," 1880. I include in this number the Mavambu or Negro-Jews of the Loango Coast (vide Andree, "Volkskunde d. Juden," 1881, p. 90).

4 Census of India, 1881, gives 7,952 Jews in British Bombay.

5 "Jüd. Littblt," 1883, No. 36. The number of Jews in China is unknown.

6 Descendants of Spanish Jews still isolated. Lewin, ibid., No. 30.

7 Descendants of followers of the Jewish "Mahdi," Sabbathai Zebi. Graetz in "Monatsft," 1884, Feb.

8 Jews forcibly converted to Islam thirty years ago, "Vesillo Israel," April,

mid France. The anthropology of Jews can never be satisfactorily settled till careful examination of these various data has shown their resemblances and differences. From the common qualities of classes A and B we can determine qualities due to religion; from those common to A and C, but differing in B, we might draw valuable conclusions as to influences of race. As a matter of fact, for the second and third classes we have practically no data to work with, except the vague impressions of travellers, and we must therefore confine our attention to the two chief divisions of Jews: (1) Sephardim, mostly descendants of the refugees from Spain in 1492, and now residing on the littoral of the Mediterranean,' and (2) Ashkenazim, dwelling in all the countries inhabited by Teutons or Slavs. The latter form an overwhelming majority (93 per cent.), and our information about them is tolerably extensive and reliable.

2

What are the qualities, if any, that we are to regard as racially characteristic of Jews? Much vague declamation has been spoken and written on this subject. All the moral, social, and intellectual qualities of Jews have been spoken of as being theirs by right of birth in its physical sense. Jews differ from others in all these points, it is true, as I have partly shown elsewhere. But the differences are due, in my opinion, to the combined effect of their social isolation and of their own traditions and customs, and if they have nowadays any hereditary predisposition towards certain habits and callings, these can only be regarded as secondarily racial, acquired hereditary tendencies which cannot be brought forward as proof of racial purity. If all the Johns and Maries of Europe were to be shut up in ghetti for a couple of centuries they would undoubtedly show peculiarities in habits and thought; they would develop a Johannine psychology, as it were, and most probably, as we shall see, a Johannine biostatics. And there is another reason why the psychological traits of Jews must be omitted for the present from any research which claims to be scientific. Science was to Condillac a hundred years ago only a well-constructed terminology (une langage bien faite); nowadays science is measurement accurately calculated. Now though I hope to show on some future occasion that the intellectual capacity of Jews, if not absolutely, is yet relatively measurable as compared with that of other Europeans, I should still hesitate to qualify these distinctions as racial in a strict sense. They seem more a matter of temperament, which is at best but the tone of race, and is much more modifiable by education and environment than

1 I have reckoned in with the Sephardim the Italian Jews and those under Moslem rule. "Studies in Jewish Statistics" (Jewish Chronicle Office).

2 Vide my

purely racial characteristics, so that it may happen that widely diverse races, e.g., Jews and Frenchmen, may have much the same temperament. Under any circumstances it would be difficult for a Jew to avoid subjective bias in dealing with these matters, and where that bias leads to any assertion of superiority the result is as unsatisfactory from the point of view of science as it is from that of taste. It remains then to consider those qualities of Jews which depend on physical properties, and these have the further advantage of lending themselves to accurate measurement. These are (1) the vital statistics of Jews-marriages, births, deaths, diseases—and (2) their anthropometry or bodily measurements.

I. Vital Statistics.

As I have already given in my "Studies in Jewish Statistics" the results of my search among statistical publications on Jewish biostatics, I will here content myself with giving a summary of the conclusions at which I have arrived. These are as follows:—1

1st. Jews have a less marriage rate, less birth rate, and less death rate than their neighbours, but the less marriage and birth rate are due in large measure to the less mortality of Jewish children. The larger number of children living causes the percentages of marriages and births, really larger as regards adults, to seem smaller when reckoned on the whole population. 2nd. Jews and Jewesses marry earlier than the surrounding populations. Cousins intermarry more frequently, perhaps three times as often.

3rd. Jews have larger families, though fewer plural births. On the other hand, mixed marriages between Jews and persons of other race are comparatively infertile.

4th. In Jewish confinements there are more boys, less stillbirths, and fewer illegitimate births, though the advantage as to still-births disappears among Jewish illegitimate children.

5th. Jews have a smaller mortality of children under five, but this does not hold of Jewish illegitimate children, who die off at much the same high rate as the unfortunate beings of the same class in other sects. Jewish deaths over sixty are generally greater in proportion. Jews commit suicide less frequently.

6th. It has been frequently asserted that Jews enjoy an immunity from certain diseases, notably phthisis and cholera, but the evidence I have on this point is adverse to the claim. There is some indication that they are more liable to diabetes and hæmorrhoids, and they have certainly more insane, deafnutes, blind, and colour-blind persons.

1 Vide my "Studies," No. VII, pp. 49 et seq.

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