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tanning, or even of stock-breeding or reindeer farming, in the strict sense of the expression; for all terms connected with husbandry, metal-working, the names of the metals, and even of milk, are of Norse derivation.

As in most Uralo-Altaic tongues, verbal forms are very numerous, Lappish in this respect rivalling even Finnish and Turkish themselves. Besides dual and plural personal endings, there are transitives, intransitives, causals, diminutives, inchoatives, passives, negatives, and many others, all formed by agglutination upon a single unmodified root. Thus: laitet to guide; laitestet = to guide a little; laitekätet to begin to guide; laitetallet to be guided, and so on.




A curious feature is the inflexion of adverbs and other particles mostly undeclinable in the Aryan family. Thus : kukke long, far; kukket from afar; kukkas far away, as in wuoyeti kukkas muste = go far away from me. All particles are suffixed to the root, so that there are no prepositions, but only agglutinated postpositions, as in mokum, tokum, sokum, corresponding in sense, and, curiously enough, in sound, to the Latin mecum, tecum, secum. This is one of those singular coincidences which etymologists of the old school are so fond of seizing upon, although this particular case seems to have hitherto escaped their notice.

The language has been reduced to writing by the missionaries; but in it little has hitherto been composed except school books, devotional and religious works, besides some popular tales, songs, and folklore taken down from the mouth of the people by Grönland and other collectors.

Lappish is spoken with considerable dialectic variety in Russia, Sweden, and Norway. Even in the latter country the Finmarken dialect differs so much from that of Rörös that the inhabitants of the two districts can hardly understand each other. But the languages of the more cultured nations are everywhere encroaching on the domain of the national speech, and the process is naturally stimulated by the spread of education. Both in Norway and Sweden civilised Lapps are already found, who feel ashamed of their ruder kindred, and thus must inevitably become absorbed in the surrounding Norse populations.


Thus it requires no great gift of prophecy to foretell the fate in store for these kindly and inoffensive nomads. Primitive peoples who have lagged behind in the race become extinct or disappear, either by extermination, by slow decay, or by absorption. There is no danger of their being exterminated, as were



the Tasmanians during the first half of the present century; for the Lapps are now treated with perfect justice, and by their respective governments protected from unscrupulous speculators. Nor is it at all likely that they will die out through inanition, as it were, like the Ahts of Vancouver's Island, and so many inhabitants of Polynesia; for they are a hardy and healthy race, free from any destructive endemics, and as full of vitality as their neighbours.

But their grazing-grounds are becoming slowly exhausted; their domain is being encroached upon by the surrounding populations, whose speech and usages they are adopting; they are being steadily crowded out, or driven to exchange their nomad habits for a settled life. The sedentary far outnumber the wandering communities, and a sedentary Lapp is already half a Norseman. Once they take to agricultural pursuits, the process of assimilation goes on apace, and must be continued until the whole race has been completely merged in the more numerous and progressive Scandinavian populations. With it must also disappear the reindeer, that most remarkable survival from pleistocene times, when it roamed over Central Europe in company with the cave bear and Elephas primigenius, the contemporary, if not already the associate, of the men of the stone age.


1 In fact in the mouth of the people themselves Lapp appears to be always used as a term of contempt or reproach. Hence it is not at all probable that it is of native origin. Otherwise it might possibly be connected with the Lappish root Lappek, which seems to have escaped the notice of commentators. This word means swamp, or fen, so that Lapp might still be taken as an alternative for Samé, and Lappe (k)-gunda would be equivalent to "Fin-land" (Fen-land). 2 Dr. P. A. Possart brings them even much farther south, and asserts with some old authorities that " Lappen als Grenzvolk, welches das Wort auch bedeutet, hat es unter Finnen und neben Finnen so südlich gegeben wie in Esthland [Esthonia], nachher in Finnland von dem Innern des finnischen Busens an bis zum Eismeere" (Lappländische Gram. Einleitung IV). It is even pretended by some authorities that the Fenni of Tacitus (Germania, 46) were really Lapps, and the further back inquiry is pushed the more difficult it becomes to distinguish between the two peoples, a fact which itself points at their primordial unity.

3 Aus dem obern Finnland sind sie, besonders durch die Tawaster [Tavastians], seit noch nicht entfernter Zeit verdrängt worden; und dies ist jene Vertreibung aus Finnland, deren sich die Lappländer selbst erinnern" (Possart, loc. cit.).

4 And which appears to have been normally black in the time of Linné, who briefly describes the Lapps as characterised by "capillis nigris, brevibus, rectis." The hair is still mostly "short and straight," but far from uniformly "black." 5 It is noteworthy, however, that, under various names, such as Wu-sun, U-sun, Hiong-nu, &c., the Chinese records speak of ancient races on their northern frontier as characterised by fair complexion, "red hair, "green" eyes, and tall stature. These races are identified by some with the "Chudes," a collective term applied by the Russians to all the Finnish peoples, who might

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consequently have acquired such traits even before their arrival in Europe. A florid complexion is still also common enough among the Manchus, Koreans, Rui-Kiu Islanders, Ainos and other north-eastern Asiatic peoples, a circumstance which has given rise to the theory advocated by De Quatrefages and others of an earlier diffusion of the Caucasic stock throughout most of the Asiatic Continent. But this is one of the obscure points of Asiatic ethnology needing further elucidation, and which cannot here be discussed with advantage.

6 This statement, which anthropologists were slow to accept, has received fresh confirmation from the discovery of a fossil skeleton at Castenedolo, six miles south-east of Brescia, by Professor Ragazzoni, on February 16th, 1880, and recently examined by Professor G. Serpi, who pronounces the type to be distinctly human and dolichocephalic with index 71.97 ("L'Uomo terziario in Lombardia," reprinted from "L'Archivio per l'Antropologia," xiv, 3, 1884).

7 The passage, which is of great historic interest, occurs in the "Gothic Wars," Book II, 15 : Τῶν δὲ ἱδρυμένων ἐν Θούλῃ βαρβάρων ἕν μόνον ἔθνος, οἵ Σκριθίφινοι, θηριώδη τινὰ βιοτὴν ἔχουσιν. Οὐ γὰρ σιτίζονται Σκριθιφίνων παιδία γυναικῶν γαλακτι οὐδὲ μητέρων ἁπτονται τιτθοῦ, ἀλλὰ ζῴων τῶν ἁλισκομένων τοῖς μυελοῖς ἐκτρέφονται μόνοις. ἐπειδὰν οὖν γυνὴ τάχιστα τέκοι, δέρματι το βρέφος εμβαλλομένη κρεμᾷ μὲν εὐθὺς ἐπί δένδρου τινός, &c. It is noteworthy that these "Skrithiphinoi" are by Procopius here placed in his "Thule," elsewhere said to be a vast island" far larger than Britain, a description obviously applicable only to the Scandinavian peninsula at that time (sixth century) still supposed to be entirely surrounded by water.

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8 Thus in one of the Sagas quoted by Von Güben a Norse hero exclaims, Skriða Kann eg á skíðum, “Stride can I on skates."

9.66 History of Travel," 1577, p. 284; spelling modernised.

10 Thus besides the general terms patso, sarwa, herke, &c., for reindeer, luotvot is the young fawn, mese the yearling, orrek, vuopperes, kållotes, kosetes, makanes, nammo-lappeye, the animal in its 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th year respectively. There occur 20 words for ice, 11 for cold, 41 for snow in all its forms, 26 verbs to express freezing and thawing, and so on.

The following paper was then read by the author :

On the PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS of the LAPPS. By J. G. GARSON, M.D., F.Z.S., M.A.I.; Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy, Charing Cross Hospital; Royal College of Surgeons of England.

THE Lapps examined by me in conjunction with Professor Keane at the Alexandra Palace were three males and two females. Two of the males were adults, their ages being fortyfour and thirty-one years respectively; the third was a young man of twenty years. The two females were adults. All of them were fairly well developed, the elder woman being the sparest of the group.

The colour of the eyes differs considerably, being brown with a greenish tinge in the two adult males, gray in the youth, and brown in the two women, those of the elder woman being of a darker shade than those of the younger.

The skin of the face is brownish, as is also that of the hands,

but this arises from exposure, as that of the rest of the body is white, differing in no respect from that of the working classes in this country, save that it is not kept so clean, it being a rare thing, I am informed, for the Lapps to wash themselves.

The colour of the hair in the males differs from that of the females, being dark brown in the former and light brown in the latter. In all cases it is quite straight, and regularly distributed over the scalp.

The examination of the various measurements was made under very disadvantageous circumstances; indeed many measurements I wished to make could not be obtained at all. The following are the results of those I was able to make. In stature there is a good deal of variation among the men, one being comparatively tall, while the other two are short. The average stature of the three is 1,562 mm. =5 feet 1 inches. The tallest man measured 1,655 mm. (5 feet 5-2 inches) in height, while the shortest was only 1,480 mm. (4 feet 10-3 inches). The women, however, are more of a uniform height, being respectively 1,500 (4 feet 11 inches) and 1,520 mm. (5 feet). These measurements were made with boots on the feet, for which, as far as I could calculate, 2.5 cm. (1 inch) in the case of the men, and 15 cm. (6 inch) in the women, must be deducted to obtain the actual stature. According to Horch' the average height of male Lapps is 1,500 mm. (4 feet 11 inches), which fairly agrees with the average of those before us, when the thickness of the sole of the boot is allowed for. The shortness of stature seems to be due to the shortness of the lower limbs, which are short in proportion to the size of the trunk, as compared to what obtains in Europeans generally. The average difference between the height of the males and females is about 40 mm., or about onethird what it is between English men and women.2

The span of the arms in all instances exceeds the height of the body. The span of the arms in the tall man considerably exceeds that of the others, and is also much larger in proportion to his height.

The length of the forearm and hand, from the end of the olecranon to the tip of the middle finger, is much the same both in the males and females, except the tall male, who has a considerably longer forearm than the others, it being in his case 470 mm., having a mean length in the others of 420 mm.

The form of the head is very brachycephalic, or short from before backwards, in proportion to its breadth, the cephalic index, or the proportion of breadth to length, averaging 90-2 in the males, and 870 in the females. Comparing these averages in

1 Report Brit. Asoc. (1883), p. 271.

2 Ibid. (1883), p. 260.

the living with those in the skulls, we find that the cephalic index of seven male skulls in the College of Surgeons Museum is 83-4, and of forty skulls 801. The results obtainable from these two sets of measurements agree, in that they indicate the Lapps to be a very brachycephalic race. The points of maximum breadth are situated far back comparatively to the length of the skull, while the forehead is narrow, giving the cranium a markedly wedge-shaped appearance, a condition which is readily observed in the living people before us. The size of the skull is large, as is indicated by its capacity, which in the crania before us average 1,570 cc., measured with mustard seed according to Professor Flower's method, which is about 30 cc. less than what their actual capacity probably is.

The chin is narrow and pointed, especially in the males, while the malar bones stand out prominently. In the skulls the prominence of the malars is also observable, but the pointedness of the chin is less marked. The flatness of the face so characteristic of the pure Mongolians is little observable in the people before us. The transverse axis of the palpebral opening is almost horizontal, as in Europeans generally, so that in this respect they do not possess the well-marked Mongolic feature of oblique eyes. There is no vertical band masking the internal commissure of the eyes as in the Mongols; the eyebrows extend over the eyes as in Europeans. The orbital index of the skulls average males 83-8, females 82-8. The facial index, or the length of the face in proportion to its breadth, averages 77.3 in the males and 768 in the females, while in the skulls it is 84.2 in the former, 86-3 in the latter.

On an examination of the skulls we find that though the zygomatic fossæ are normally deep, the zygomatic arches lose their usual appearance of prominence owing to the breadth of the brain case above. Indeed, the Lapp skulls I have examined are without exception cryptozygos. The fronto-zygomatic index of the five males averages 934, and of the four females 92.9, which is remarkable, as in a long list of this index in various races given by Topinard, only in the Eskimo does the index in the males exceed that of the females. The gonio-zygomatic index of the males averages 783, and of the females 806, which shows the breadth of the lower portion of the face of the woman to be greater than that of the man. This character, when taken in conjunction with the facial index, which is lower in the woman than in the males, shows that the face of the former is rounder than that of the latter. This is well illustrated in the living specimens before us.

The nasal index is 73.5 in the males, and 68-2 in the females, while in the skulls it is 471 in the former, and 494 in the

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