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7th. I would add two social facts of great importance in their bearing on vitality: (a) the vast majority of Jews live in cities; (b) Jews have a larger proportion of poor than the peoples among whom they dwell ("Studies," II and IV).

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This long list of divergences between Jewish and general statistics might seem at first sight to imply strongly marked racial differences. But when closely examined, almost all of them are seen to turn on social characteristics. Thus the frequency of consanguineous marriages and the smaller proportion of illegitimate births and of suicides are clearly due to social causes. The same may be said of the earlier age at which Jewish marriages occur, and from this follow their greater fertility, and probably the larger proportion of male births. Again, if less still-births and less mortality under five among their offspring were physical characteristics of all Jewesses, we should find them to some extent at least among illegitimate Jewish births and children.2 But as a matter of fact the superiority is confined to legitimacy, and must therefore be attributed for the most part to social causes, the greater care taken of Jewish children, and of Jewish mothers. Thus we are left with only four biostatical points which cannot be prima facie resolved into social phenomena, and may therefore be referred to influences of race. These are (1) the less number of twins and triplets; (2) the infertility of mixed marriages; (3) the greater longevity of Jews; (4) their alleged special morbidity or liability to disease. The paucity of plural births we may dismiss, as nothing is known of the cause of these.

Infertility of mixed marriages deserves more attention, owing to its important bearings on the main question of this paper. As I may claim to have first drawn attention to the subject, I will here repeat the evidence on which I found it. In Prussia these marriages have been separately registered since 1875, and between that year and 1881 there were 1,676 such marriages, resulting in 2,765, an average of 165 to a marriage, whereas during the same period pure Jewish marriages resulted in an average of 441 children, or very nearly three times as many ("Zeit. Preuss. Stat.," 1882, p. 239). In Bavaria, between 1876 and 1880, 67 mixed marriages were registered, the resulting offspring being only 76, or only 11 per marriage, against 4.7 children to purely Jewish marriages ("Zeit. Bay. Stat.," 1881, pp. 188, 213). This conspicuous infertility also implies greater

1 The earlier age of puberty may influence this, but I have shown the importance of social and religious causes in my "Studies," VII, where I attempt to connect this phenomenon with the fertility of Babylonian palms.

* F. J. Neumann was the first to use this crucial test (Brentano's "Jahrbuch," 1877).

sterility. Among 56 such marriages where I could ascertain the results, no less than 9 were sterile (18 per cent.), a striking contrast to the number of sterile marriages which I found in 71 marriages between Jewish cousins, where the percentage of sterility was only 54 per. cent. (cf. "Studies," p. 7). At the same time I must add that I found no other ill results. Of 85 families, only 2 were afflicted, about the same number as would be found among Jews in general, whereas 84 first cousin marriages included no less than 13 in which there were deaf-mutes or lunatics. The uniform infertility of mixed marriages can scarcely be due to any uniformity in the ages of the contracting parties, the chief determining factor of fertility, so that we may take it as a racial phenomenon, or, to make a rather fine distinction, as a phenomenon indicating racial differences.

The longevity and vitality of Jews are by no means so universally superior as has been thought; the superiority disappears in large measure among Jewish populations which, like those of Galicia and Russia, have a large proportion of day labourers.1 So far as it is founded on the low death rate, it can be attributed rather to the greater care taken of children under five, which after all means that more weakly individuals are kept alive to carry on an unequal struggle for existence. It certainly would appear extraordinary if Jews enjoyed exceptional vitality, considering the insanitary conditions of their lives in the past, and their weakly constitution in the present. I have been able to obtain some details of the way in which they used to be overcrowded in the ghetti—

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And Tchubinsky reports that in 1840 the Jews of Southern Russia used to dwell thirteen in a house, whereas the general population had only from four to five ("Globus," 1880, p. 340). So, too, the military statistics show an extraordinary number of individuals who are unsuitable for military service owing to their weakly constitution (cf. Goldstein's paper in "Revue d'Anthropologie," July, 1884). And where any superiority in vitality is

1 Cf. Bergmann, "Beiträge," 1883, pp. 145-6.

shown, this again may be traced to moral and social causes. Jews do not lead "dangerous" lives in the insurance sense (sailors, soldiers, firemen, miners, &c.). The trades which they do exercise, except that of tailoring, seem more long-lived.1 Further, the Jewish nature does not seem to require stimulants, and Jews are markedly free from alcoholism. The tranquilising effects of Jewish family life, the joyous tone and complete rest of the Sabbath and other festivals, the unworrying character of the Jewish religion, are all important in the difficult art of keeping alive. The greater care taken of Jewish women, who more rarely take to manual labour, aids also in producing good results in the tables of mortality. I attribute much importance, too, to the strict regulation of the connubial relations current among Jews.2

I am unable to attribute much beneficial influences to the Jewish dietary laws, though the matter requires careful and unbiassed examination. These may be divided into four divisions, developed in chronological sequence-(1) the Biblical distinction of clean and unclean (Lev. xi); (2) the Talmudic method of cutting the animal's throat (Shechita) for the purpose of removing the blood; (3) Bedika, or examination of the chief organs to see if there are any lesions, developed after Talmudic times; (4) Melicha, or putting the flesh into salt and water to remove the blood; the origin of this is uncertain, nor is it clearly mentioned in the Talmud. It may have some connection with the practice of using salt with sacrifices (Lev. ii, 13). (1) The diet prescribed by the Bible, as by all Oriental legislation (Manu, Zoroaster), was doubtless due to a rough induction from popular experience. Apart from a few anomalies, it coincides in the main with the dietary of all civilised peoples with whom the ruminants, being the chief domestic animals,

The indefatigable Korösi has given from Schimmer statistics showing that while 37 per cent. of Catholics (over 14 in Buda Pesth) followed certain trades of high mortality, and Protestants about 33 per cent., Jews had only 22 per cent. in these industries ("Pest in 1870," p. 45).

2 Query may this custom of separation (Lev. xv, 19) have any connection with Jewish proficiency in music, which in its origin seems to be also regulated sexual emotion? (cf. Darwin, “ Descent," p. 573, and Gurney, “Power of Sound," chap. vi, pp. 116-121).

3 It is possible that some of these anomalies may be explained as survivals of totem worship derived by the ancient Hebrews from the Canaanites, or existing among themselves. Even in Ezekiel's time the Jews worshipped " every form of creeping thing and abominable beasts" (Ezek. viii, 10), and it has been contended that they worshipped totems, and no member of a totem clan will eat the totem animal. When, therefore, we find in the same passage Jaazaniah ben Shaphan (ie., son of the Coney or Rock-badger) in the same passage (verse 11) officiating at these totem-rites, totemism is given as the reason why the coney was included among the taboo'd food of the Israelites (Lev. xi, 5). On the whole subject cf. Prof. Robertson Smith, "Journal of Philology," 1880.

form the staple diet. The chief exception is, as is well known, the use of pork. This has been found to be injurious in hot climates, but in northern latitudes the chief danger has been found to be from trichinosis. So far as this affects vitality, Jews are undoubtedly free from this source of danger, but it scarcely seems to be prevalent enough to affect the death rate. (2) Shechita seems to have been originally confined to animals intended for sacrifice on the principle that "the blood is the life," and that this must be entirely spilt. It was afterwards extended to secular food, and it is nowadays contended that the removal of the blood is a safeguard against waste-products contained in it. Whatever advantages this gives must also be enjoyed by Mohammedans, who have borrowed it, as well as the Biblical distinction between clean and unclean, from the Jews. As a matter of fact, it does not remove all the blood, since Jewish practice requires a further process, insertion in salt and water (Melicha), to ensure this. (3) The Bedika, or examination of the internal organs, seems based on a correct principle,' but it has never been ascertained how far this is carried out in practice; it certainly does not ensure immunity from tubercle, as we shall shortly see. (4) About this it is sufficient to say that it does not effect its purpose. The originators of these practices, I may add, did not claim any medical validity for them, carefully distinguishing cases where food should not be eaten for medical, as opposed to religious, reasons. Some Jewish writers have even declared the flesh of the swine to be highly nutritious (cf. Kalisch on "Leviticus," II, p. 82).

These practices certainly do not secure immunity from any special diseases, as has been claimed for them in recent years, especially as regards cholera and phthisis. We now know that the Jews fell victims to the Black Death as much as their neighbours (Honiger, "Der Schwarze Tod in Deutschland," 1881). As regards cholera, the only favourable result I can find is a strong tradition that Jews suffered less from it when it visited England in 1834, and last year at Marseilles their death rate from it was only 2 per 1,000, against 5 of the general population ("Vessillo Israel." September, 1884). On the other hand, I find in 1873 the mortality from cholera in Hungary greatest where there were most Jews, e.g., 63 per 1,000 in Drohobycz, where half the inhabitants are Jews ("Statist. Monatsft," 1875, p. 136). In Smyrna, 1848, mortality from this pest carried off 1 in 26 among Jews, 1 in 40 among Moham

It is scarcely likely, however, that the Rabbins were in any sense anticipators of Koch and Pasteur, for they considered the function of the lungs to be to absorb the liquids of the body. See Talm. Bab., Beracoth 60 a, a passage which shows them to be by no means in advance of Hippocrates and Galen.

medans, Greeks, Catholics, 0 Armenians (Burguière's "Etudes sur la Cholera à Smyrne," Paris, 1849, in A. Hirsch "Hist.-Geog. Pathologie," 1st edit., I, 129); and Bonnafort noticed the same for Algiers (ibid.), and Lombroso for Verona (Legoyt, “Immunités," p. 65). The alleged immunity from tubercular disease disappears in the same way on reference to definite results. In Verona, 1855-64, Lombroso found among 272 Jewish deaths 6 per cent. from phthisis, against 7 per cent. among Catholics, and in an Hungarian district Glatter found this disease (Lungentuberculose) causing 144 per cent. of 473 Jewish deaths, against 16.9 Magyars, 164 Slovaks, and 19.5 Servians, but against only 135 of German deaths, (Casper "Vierteljahrschft," XXV, p. 48). These are the only favourable statistics, and by no means exceptionally so. Here in London, of 1,215 deaths attended by the medical officer of the Jewish Board of Guardians 1862-71, I have found that no less than 159 were due to tubercular disease, 131, against 113 for the Whitechapel district for the same period (Registrar-General's Report, XXXV, Suppt., p. 37). I find phthisis especially prevalent among Jews in Egypt according to Pruner, in Algeria according to Haspel, Bertheraud, and Pietra Santa (Hirsch, II, 95), and in South Russia according to Tchubinsky ("Globus," 1880, p. 377). Strong confirmatory evidence of the last statement may be seen in the fact that among the Russo-Jewish recruits of 1877-8 no less than 4 per cent. were dismissed for phthisis (a disease that cannot be "malingered "), against only 13 of the Polish recruits (Goldstein in "Revue d'Anthrop.," 1884, p. 470). We cannot therefore, in the face of these facts, claim any immunity from phthisis for Jews. No claim has been made for freedom from zymotic diseases; such immunity would be but a doubtful boon, as it would only leave freer field for the demon Bacillus to batten on, and the same might be said of the alleged immunity from phthisis. Syphilis seems to be less prevalent among Jews; but this may be due to moral causes,

1 On this see Dr. H. Behrend, "The Communicability of Diseases of Animals to Man" (Jewish Chronicle Office). Unfortunately, Dr. Behrend has undertaken to show why the practice of Bedika should produce immunity from phthisis before ascertaining whether the immunity exists. And certainly he proves too much in the pamphlet referred to when he points out that 80 per cent. of animals slaughtered are infected with tuberculous disease. For only about 42 per cent. are rejected by the Jewish butchers, many of them merely for faults in the mode of slaughter.

2 On the other hand, Jews had 47 of deaths from tubercular cerebral inflammation, against 2.2 Serbs and Slovaks, 26 Magyars, and 1.5 Germans.

3 Dr. A. Cohen, late Senior House Surgeon of the Metropolitan Free Hospital, has kindly given me the following details of the venereal cases coming under his notice during hospital practice in 1882-3. The numbers are those of all the venereal cases ; the percentages in the first two rubrics, those of syphilitic cases;

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