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ducted. Such little phrases as "I suppose," or "it is likely," are tell-tales here, as marking off the cautious from the reckless thinker. This latter person is betrayed also among my cases by a very unmistakable hastiness of inference, which in the bad cases degenerates into actual false perception. For instance, the name, C. W., in the corner of a picture is reported as M. W., this being the name of a girl in school, whom the young observer very well knew.

I found, as indeed might naturally be expected, that the false perceivers were nearly always ready apprehenders, who, as I suppose, digressing into actual inference, inferred carelessly, and projected their false inferences into false perceptions.1 The carelessness of such inference is of a very simple character; the impressions to the test of which the inference should be brought are there, and it is not brought to the test. This argues absence of the impulse to criticise, which is the basis of accurate habits of thought. Feebleness of the impressions is, it must be admitted, a negative cause for the false perceptions, since the test is thus kept in the background; but it is only a negative cause, since if the critical impulse were really strong, the inference would be challenged at least, even if it could not be corrected. In judgments, however, as to character tests, it would be necessary to estimate this negative cause as otherwise indicated, and allow for it before deciding on the degree of the critical defect.

2. In the second place, differences were observed in the degree of orderliness with which perceptions are marshalled, and in the general notion of order which characterises any particular observer.

Out of twenty observers eight gave evidence of no noticeable interest in order at all; the objects appeared to have been observed haphazard, as far as their relation to one another logically, or in place, went. On the other hand, seven descriptions were as orderly as they could well be expected to be, while to three I gave half marks, and to one two-fifths. In most of the orderly descriptions the order chosen was that of place: the order of the inventory round the room, some starting from the door, some from the opposite point, and some from the clock in the middle. In one or two the order was logical, i.e., the order of what may be called the idea of the room, as in one paper which begins, "The first thing that strikes you are the rows of desks and girls." In another set of papers describing a more ornamental kind of room I found signs of a third kind of order, sometimes very strong—the order, namely, of æsthetic effects, the order in

See paper II, Appendix.

space, and in idea too, being subordinated to the order in feeling for the beautiful.1

3. Great differences in colour interest were also observable, since some took pains to describe colours fully, while others took no notice of colour at all, or very little. In the same way, any marked interest in form was also shown; though in the experiments under consideration no call was made upon the forminterest so strong as to test defect by the absence of

response. 4. One other characteristic, and a most important one, came out into strong relief in a few cases. This is the tendency to substitute feeling for thinking, to apprehend impressions as the minimum of idea with the maximum of emotion, which I will call for simplicity over-emotionalism. An over-emotional person perceives objects habitually as sources of feeling, and that is of course equivalent to not properly perceiving them at all. Now, when in the description of a room a child tells you that it is very beautiful, and there are lovely curtains, and the sweetest flowers, and pretty ornaments, I consider that an evident mark of over-emotionalism, and should, in the educational interest, recommend a wholesome diet of ideas accordingly.

The negative defect for after all it is a defect-of underemotionalism, is, like all negative defects, difficult to test; but the freedom from defect reveals itself every now and then in little touches that are very subtle.

The description of another room prettily furnished as an ordinary sitting-room brought out more markedly some of these latter points; but the only new point noticed was an occasional tendency to flights of interpretative imagination, which is after all but a development of the tendency to complete apprehension by combining old ideas for the explanation of the new. An abstract of the results obtained in both these observations is given on the accompanying table, p. 347. The exact numerical marks under each head cannot indeed be considered as at all reliable in the sense of assigning precise degrees of value, and on the whole I am inclined to think that verbal remarks would be more valuable.

In the next observation made, a picture was used as test. The same contrasts as before were to some extent brought out in the various descriptions of the picture; but there was occasion for another set of contrasts in this case, and these contrasts came out decidedly. To see a picture in the full sense is to understand its meaning, and in the interpretation of meaning there is abundant scope for the most varied play of imagination, whether checked by faithful observation or not. Just as the

1 See paper III, Appendix.

perception of an object resolves itself into the two factors of impression and apprehension, so the observation of a complex of objects resolves itself into the two factors of perception and explanation by means of appropriate fetches of the constructive imagination. Now, in some children we found abundant and accurate perceptive detail, with something like the minimum of constructive explanation. In others the opposite extreme was manifest, explanation good, and details little dwelt upon or even described with imperfect accuracy. Between these extremes the two factors were combined in various ratios, including the ratio of equality characteristic of the well-balanced type of mind.

Again, we observed varieties in the nature of the imaginative play which suggested well-marked contrasts of general character. Sometimes the play of imagination was almost purely intellectual, strictly subordinated to the purpose of fetching ideas for the explanation of observations. This I call the logical or intellectual imagination. In other cases the fetch of imagination was not so much after ideas to construe with as after feelings to luxuriate in; the ideas are overpowered in a mass of vague associated emotion. This, if it can be called imagination at all, may be marked out as the emotional variety, and a touch of it is not, of course, out of place in describing an object like a picture which has distinct æsthetic bearings. But most striking of all were the examples of dramatic imagination, which were not rare; here the picture is lost in the story which it is interpreted as meant to tell; the picture becomes the occasion for a departure into story-land, instead of remaining, as in the first case, the main fact, solely for the explanation of which such departures are at all allowed, and by which they are limited.1

Besides these marked cases there were doubtful cases, and balanced cases, and cases negative altogether. Sometimes, too, the play of imagination was markedly careless and uncontrolled by the inward critic, as compared with the good cases in which it showed itself sober and self-controlled."

All the observations above described were conducted several months ago. Quite lately I have tried the picture test again, and with similar results.

It goes without saying that the sources of error in such observations as these are very numerous. Accidental variations in the subject of the observation from time to time may produce quite misleading responses to the tests used. This is the least serious difficulty, however, since it can be dealt with, like all other similar difficulties, by taking the mean of several observa

1 See papers IV and V, Appendix.

2 See paper VI, Appendix.

tions, and noting at the same time the limits of variation as itself an important fact. More serious are the difficulties arising from the complex implication of mental 'quantities with one another, which makes it impossible to measure them separately as physical quantities are measured, or calculate them with any pretence to scientific accuracy. The observer may feel pretty sure that there is more of factor A and less of factor B in one complex mental fact of which he has evidence than in another, but his estimate must be, at the best, not only a very rough but a very fallible one. The facts observed are all complex facts, the evidence indirect evidence, and the observer, moreover, reads this evidence through the atmosphere of his own individuality. For the last-named reason it is clear that several observers are necessary, to ensure the maximum of practical trustworthiness in the results. The observers must, however, be agreed on their method of diagnosis; and here again difficulties suggest themselves, since the personal equation in this case affects the method. of diagnosis as well as the diagnosis itself, though probably this difficulty might be overcome by full discussion with facts at hand.

All these difficulties notwithstanding, I am satisfied that results obtained by such tests as those described have a genuine practical value, if the observer be careful and not dogmatic, and above all avoid attaching an absolute value to them. Their practical value depends on the use that can be made of them in the education of the person observed, or in the selection of a suitable occupation for him. If a series of observations of this kind could throw any light on mental defects which can be remedied by education, or mental excellencies which can be specially utilised, this would be something gained.

I have made some attempts to apply definite tests to mental operations of a higher kind than those of observation; but though I find it quite possible sometimes to form distinct impressions as to excellence and defect in fundamental intellectual characteristics after a certain amount of intellectual traffic with the individual in ordinary school-work, the application of special single tests is apt to produce no appreciable result at all. With some-many, perhaps one's knowledge of the true condition of mind is from first to last, after all pains taken, very slight, and at present I see no royal road to investigation of character in its more complex manifestations.

Uor M

APPENDIX.

I.

Description of a Room."

There is a clock on the wall, given by the old pupils; it has some grass crossed on the top of it. On the same wall there are several pictures, two of Julius Cæsar, there is one of Nero, Augustine, and Titus, and one of a man standing on the ground with another little figure holding on to his leg. There is a large one about a place with walls broken and pieces of stone lying about; on the other wall there is a picture of some daffodils in a vase. On the mantlepiece there are some vases; below the mantlepiece there are some squares of china, all joined together with a pattern on it, done in red. There is some green cloth on the windowsill and some rock on one of the window-sills, and a plant on another. There is a green notice board by the door, and over that there is a picture with likenesses in it of men and women dressed in foreign costumes. The gas is hanging in the middle of the room. There are three windows and three ventilators on the opposite wall.

II.

Description of a Room.

Entering the above room, if you examined the right-hand side you would see the blackboard, and in the centre of it overhead you would see a picture of a vase of daffodils, painted by Miss C. M. W.; the daffodil is our school flower. Turning round you would see all along the wall pictures of different people who lived long ago-for instance, Augustus, Julius Cæsar, Titus, and a great many more. In the centre there is a large picture of Rome, and above it the clock presented by Mr. C. T. P. There are pictures of men who lived long ago on each side of it. Now on your left-hand side there are three windows, each of which have coverlets (green) on the sills; on the first there is a very large piece of white coral. On the centre window-sill there are two ginger pots, containing dried grasses. On the right-hand window there is a pot of riband ferns; all three windows have their sills covered in green. In the front there is a cupboard, and then comes the slate, then Mrs. B.'s table, which is raised on a platform. Next come the mantlepiece and stove. There are very pretty pink and white tiles between the mantle-board and the stove. The mantle-board has a green covering, and at each end there is a red pot of grasses, and in the centre an Oriental pot. Over this there is a

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