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As Jews live all over Europe it would not be fair to confine es to "Men he Time," and I have accordingly searched

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e Gubernatis for Italy, and Bornmüller

e latter two contain only literary celebinguished in other careers, and for those dictionaries of contemporary biography e consulted other compilations of about ere must be many omissions in looking lists where the creed is generally not notwithstanding, succeeded in collecting of Jews distinguished in all branches of pendix I).

leserve to rank as distinguished in the tricted sense of the term as used in Mr. Of the 425 who in each million of place in the dictionaries, 175, or 41 per m unworthy of distinction. I have been the 335 Jews, and have rejected 50 per distinguished. Now comes the ticklish as it were, in a tripos of all the talents. ill quarrel with me if I venture to place our illustrious names:

greatest German poet since Goethe, "the ace Voltaire," the most potent of the ual War of Liberation which has freed its mediæval shackles.

"whose genius was such

n praise it or blame it too much,"

culture of his time, became the darling. orking classes, and is still remembered assalle," who was a jurist and an econorator of great power, a philosopher and Socialism a force in European politics. Prince Bismarck has confessed that he learned his Socialism from Lassalle, and it was universally recognised that these two were the most influential men in Germany in 1863, the year in which Lassalle met his death in an ignoble duel at the early age thirty-eight.'

of

FELIX BARTHOLDY-MENDELSSOHN, one of the great musicians

1 Strictly speaking, Lassalle should not be counted, as he did not reach the age of fifty. But I draw no conclusion from the first class alone, and it is not of much consequence whether we reckon the first two classes as 28 or 29, especially when we have to double them to make them applicable to Western Jews.

Author

Library of the University of Michigan

precise what we mean by the terms "genius," " talent," and the like, may also be utilised to compare tbilities of diffe nations or races, and I propose to ascert

and F's, illustrious, eminent, and disting

among

been million
those Jews whe
per
of fifty between 1785 and 1885, and by
estimate of Jewish ability as compared w
to mention that Mr. Galton is nowada
cannot rely upon the absolute accuracy
the variations at the end of a scale rang
of error.1 But while this affects the a
results it need not render a comparat
valueless. If I take a metre rod in my
a yard measure, all the measurements I
an inch in every foot. But if I wish tc
is twice as long as another my metre r
for this purpose as if I were using the b
standard yard for all England.

We have first to ascertain how many in the century just past. Two metho Taking the Jewish population of Europ ration in the years 1880, 1850, 1820, and that a little over 16,000,000 were living One-fifteenth of these, or 1,040,000, wc and about half that number would have the interval. Or we may calculate the 1735 and 1835 at about 6,400,000, and 3,160,000, would reach the age of fifty, 01 and a half males.2 The concurrence o us some confidence in saying that, in tl and a half Jews have reached the age of is equal to the English standard, we s dictionaries of biography 1 illustrious J 350 distinguished men of Jewish blood.

How many can we find? For the pi we must keep rigidly to names whic..

Date

Address

Signature

Title

Volume

Call No..

worthy of insertion by the compilers of biographical dictionaries.

1 The precariousness of the method consists in―(1) the doubt whether the base is fixed in length and so the classes equally removed: this, however, does not affect the comparison so long as it is kept to one standard; (2) doubt as to the symmetry of the curve: on this some evidence will be offered later on; (3) difficulty of trusting results at the end of a curve where a cidental causes tend to disturb the law-abiding quality. Against the last may be urged that such inequalities are apt to disappear when such large numbers as a million are concerned. Appendix II offers an empirical justification for the method.

2 It was estimated that the Jewish population in 1735 was 1,300,000, and in 1835 3,500,000. The geometric mean of these was taken as approximately 2,000,000, and a birth-rate of 32 reckoned on this for 100 years.

As Jews live all over Europe it would not be fair to confine ourselves to "Men of the Time," and I have accordingly searched Vapereau for France, De Gubernatis for Italy, and Bornmüller for Germany, though the latter two contain only literary celebrities. For persons distinguished in other careers, and for those Jews who died before dictionaries of contemporary biography came into vogue, I have consulted other compilations of about the same standing. There must be many omissions in looking through such extended lists where the creed is generally not mentioned, but I have, notwithstanding, succeeded in collecting from them 335 names of Jews distinguished in all branches of human activity (see Appendix I).

Not all of these 335 deserve to rank as distinguished in the more technical and restricted sense of the term as used in Mr. Galton's investigations. Of the 425 who in each million of Englishmen obtained a place in the dictionaries, 175, or 41 per cent., were deemed by him unworthy of distinction. I have been even more rigorous with the 335 Jews, and have rejected 50 per cent., leaving only 169 distinguished. Now comes the ticklish task of "placing" these, as it were, in a tripos of all the talents. I think, however, few will quarrel with me if I venture to place in the first rank these four illustrious names:

BENJAMIN DISRAELI, LORD BEACONSFIELD.

HEINRICH HEINE, the greatest German poet since Goethe, "the wittiest Frenchman since Voltaire," the most potent of the warriors in the intellectual War of Liberation which has freed European thought from its mediæval shackles.

FERDINAND LASSALLE,

"whose genius was such

We scarcely can praise it or blame it too much,"

who, armed with all the culture of his time, became the darling ader of the German working classes, and is still remembered by them as "Messiah Lassalle," who was a jurist and an economist of high rank, an orator of great power, a philosopher and a poet, and who made Socialism a force in European politics. Prince Bismarck has confessed that he learned his Socialism from Lassalle, and it was universally recognised that these two were the most influential men in Germany in 1863, the year in which Lassalle met his death in an ignoble duel at the early age of thirty-eight.'

FELIX BARTHOLDY-MENDELSSOHN, one of the great musicians

1 Strictly speaking, Lassalle should not be counted, as he did not reach the age of fifty. But I draw no conclusion from the first class alone, and it is not of much consequence whether we reckon the first two classes as 28 or 29, especially when we have to double them to make them applicable to Western Jews.

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precise what we mean by the terms "genius," "talent," and the
like, may also be utilised to compare the abilities of different
nations or races, and I propose to ascert how many X's
and F's, illustrious, eminent, and disting
been per million among those Jews wh
of fifty between 1785 and 1885, and by
estimate of Jewish ability as compared w
to mention that Mr. Galton is nowada
cannot rely upon the absolute accuracy
the variations at the end of a scale rang
of error. But while this affects the a
results it need not render a comparat
valueless. If I take a metre rod in my
a yard measure, all the measurements I
an inch in every foot. But if I wish to
is twice as long as another my metre ro
for this purpose as if I were using the b
standard yard for all England.

We have first to ascertain how many in the century just past. Two metho Taking the Jewish population of Europ ration in the years 1880, 1850, 1820, and that a little over 16,000,000 were living One-fifteenth of these, or 1,040,000, wc and about half that number would have the interval. Or we may calculate the 1735 and 1835 at about 6,400,000, and 3,160,000, would reach the age of fifty, o and a half males.2 The concurrence o us some confidence in saying that, in th and a half Jews have reached the age of is equal to the English standard, we s dictionaries of biography 1 illustrious J 350 distinguished men of Jewish blood.

How many can we find? For the pu we must keep rigidly to names whic worthy of insertion by the compilers of

1 The precariousness of the method consists in-(1) the doubt whether the base is fixed in length and so the classes equally removed: this, however, does not affect the comparison so long as it is kept to ore standard; (2) doubt as to the symmetry of the curve: on this some evidence will be offered later on; (3) difficulty of trusting results at the end of a curve where a cidental causes tend to disturb the law-abiding quality. Against the last may be urged that such inequalities are apt to disappear when such large numbers as a million are concerned. Appendix II offers an empirical justification for the method.

2 It was estimated that the Jewish population in 1735 was 1,300,000, and in 1835 3,500,000. The geometric mean of these was taken as approximately 2,000,000, and a birth-rate of 32 reckoned on this for 100 years.

As Jews live all over Europe it would not be fair to confine ourselves to "Men of the Time," and I have accordingly searched Vapereau for France, De Gubernatis for Italy, and Bornmüller for Germany, though the latter two contain only literary celebrities. For persons distinguished in other careers, and for those Jews who died before dictionaries of contemporary biography came into vogue, I have consulted other compilations of about the same standing. There must be many omissions in looking through such extended lists where the creed is generally not mentioned, but I have, notwithstanding, succeeded in collecting from them 335 names of Jews distinguished in all branches of human activity (see Appendix I).

Not all of these 335 deserve to rank as distinguished in the more technical and restricted sense of the term as used in Mr. Galton's investigations. Of the 425 who in each million of Englishmen obtained a place in the dictionaries, 175, or 41 per cent., were deemed by him unworthy of distinction. I have been even more rigorous with the 335 Jews, and have rejected 50 per cent., leaving only 169 distinguished. Now comes the ticklish task of "placing" these, as it were, in a tripos of all the talents. I think, however, few will quarrel with me if I venture to place in the first rank these four illustrious names:

BENJAMIN DISRAELI, LORD BEACONSFIELD.

HEINRICH HEINE, the greatest German poet since Goethe, "the wittiest Frenchman since Voltaire," the most potent of the warriors in the intellectual War of Liberation which has freed European thought from its mediæval shackles.

FERDINAND LASSALLE,

"whose genius was such

We scarcely can praise it or blame it too much,"

who, armed with all the culture of his time, became the darling leader of the German working classes, and is still remembered by them as "Messiah Lassalle," who was a jurist and an economist of high rank, an orator of great power, a philosopher and a poet, and who made Socialism a force in European politics. Prince Bismarck has confessed that he learned his Socialism from Lassalle, and it was universally recognised that these two were the most influential men in Germany in 1863, the year in which Lassalle met his death in an ignoble duel at the early age of thirty-eight.'

FELIX BARTHOLDY-MENDELSSOHN, one of the great musicians

1 Strictly speaking, Lassalle should not be counted, as he did not reach the age of fifty. But I draw no conclusion from the first class alone, and it is not of much consequence whether we reckon the first two classes as 28 or 29, especially when we have to double them to make them applicable to Western Jews.

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