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(1832), all in France, and F. E. Meyerheim (1808-79), in Germany. Of sculptors there are two who have attained to some eminence in France, Adam Solomon (1818-81) and H. J. Daniel (1804), while E. Wolff (1814) is known in France, and another E. Wolff (1802) in Italy. Only two architects occur in my authorities, G. Basevi (1795-1845), Lord Beaconsfield's uncle, and architect of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, and A. Hirsch (1828).

II. SCIENCE.

Turning from art that delights to science that instructs, we may begin by enumerating the few Jewish names who have reached any kind of eminence in PHILOSOPHY. Of these the most genial, though not the best known or the most influential, is SOLOMON MAIMON (1753-1800), one of the most remarkable men that Judaism has produced. Though only trained in the ordinary Rabbinic schools, he displayed metaphysical powers of a high order. His genius was recognised by Kant, and though soon obscured and eclipsed by the great Epigonoi, Fichte, Hegel, and Schelling, it is nowadays recognised that his criticism struck at the root of the Kantian system. His remarkable self-analysis in his autobiography would stamp him as no ordinary man; it is the nearest to Rousseau's "Confessions" of all self-revelations. Maimon was also one of the earliest forerunners of Symbolic Logic (cf. Venn, "Symbolic Logic," pp. 377, 420). The only other names of importance are those of H. STEINTHAL (1828), M. Lazarus (1824), and A. Franck (1809), Membre de l'Institut and editor of a philosophical encyclopædia. The former, however, has gained his greatest laurels in philology, the two latter in literature of an essayist type. Lassalle perhaps deserves mention here for his book on Heracleitus. One of my authorities adds a name unknown to me, Melchior Meyr (1810-71).1

I.

HISTORY, philosophy teaching by example, has chiefly attracted Jews so far as it affects themselves. Of Jewish historians, H. GRAETZ (1817) is undoubtedly the greatest, and deserves to rank by himself, though his judgment is not as great as his erudition. J. M. Jost (1793-1864) comes next to him, and then †J. Salvador (1798-1860), who was a potent influence in his way in France. De Costa* (1798-1861) also wrote the history of the nation he had deserted. Jews have also written history of other nations, notably Sir F. COHEN PALGRAVE (1788-1861), the first in point of date of the scientific historians of England. G. F. Herzberg (1821), the Greek historian, is, I believe, a Jew, and so were S. Romanin (1808– 61), the historian of Venice, and P. Jaffé* (1819-70), who drew up the Regesta of the Popes. W. Frankl* (Fraknoi) (1843) is one of the chief historians of Hungarian, and M. Philipson (1846) and H. Breslau (1848) are German historians of promise. Young Prof. L. Geiger (1848) promises to be the leading authority on the Renaissance; H. Cohen (1810) an authority of numismatics. A

1 Professor H. Cohen, the Kantian, has not yet got into the dictionaries. N. Krochmal (1785-1840), who made a not unsuccessful attempt to combine

few antiquarians may follow the historians. M. A. Levy (1817-72), one of the chief authorities on ancient epigraphy, J. L. Klein (1810-76) wrote the most voluminous work on the history of the drama; G. Coen (1847), an Italian bibliographer, and Mr. L. B. Phillips (1842), the compiler of an extensive "Dictionary of Biographical Reference."

ECONOMICS studies the sinews of history, and Jewish economists have been some of the most influential names in the science. DAVID RICARDO* (1772-1823) is only second to Adam Smith. KARL MARX (1808-83) was the "headcentre" of modern Socialism, though this was led socially by the gifted FERDINAND LASSALLE (1825-63), who will take even higher rank when we come to politicians. Other Jewish economists are E. Morpurgo (1840-85), and E. Luzzati (1843). Statistics is the handmaid of Economics, and three Jewish names, M. Block (1816), J. Körösi (1844), and L. Leri (1821), are distinguished in this science.

MATHEMATICS.-Here we reach another speciality of Jews. At their head stands the name of Professor J. G. SYLVESTER (1814), probably the greatest living pure mathematician, if his rival and friend, Professor Cayley, does not usurp that place. Of equal rank in the past was C. G. J. JACOBI* (1804-51), after whom certain intricate functions are termed "Jacobians." Then come L. Kronecker (1823) and L. Cremona (1830), and these are followed by H. Filipowski (1817-72), the compiler of some anti-logarithmic tables, O. Terquem (1782-92), M. Levy (1791-53), B. Gompertz (1779-1865), the first actuary of the "Alliance," and one of the earliest students of "Double Algebra," L. Bendavid (1762-1783), Mendelssohn's friend, and I. Blum (1812).1

ASTRONOMY has some very great names of Jewish blood, though some of them kept not their Jewish faith. Of these the greatest is Sir W. HERSCHELL (1738-1822), and his sister, C. Herschell* (1750-1848). To these we can add H. Goldschmidt (1802–66), the discoverer of 14 asteroids, W. Meyerbeer, Meyerbeer's brother, and first cartographist of the moon (1797-1850), and M. Loewy (1833), of the Paris Observatory.

BIOLOGY.-Few Jews seem to have devoted themselves to this subject, though F. Cohn (1828) and S. Pringsheim are among the greatest names in German botany. In the department of physiology, Jews, however, count a large number of comparatively important names. R. Remak (1816-65) was one of the greatest in the past, G. G. Valentin (1808-83) wrote one of the best text-books in the "fifties," and "Valentin's knife" is still used by specialists. Both J. Bernstein (1839) and J. Rosenthal (1836) have had books in the "International Scientific Series," and J. Cohnheim (1839-84), H. Cohn (1838) the oculist, and G. Schwalbe (1846) are other Jewish

Ibn Ezra and Hegel, will probably always be kept out of them by his choice of Hebrew to express his views.

1 G. Cantor, the historian of mathematics, T. Reiss, the physicist, and the first Jew to enter the Berlin Academy, have escaped the notice of the biographers. Professor Schuster has only to wait.

nerves.

names connected with physiology, most of them as specialists on Other names will meet us among the Jewish doctors. PHILOLOGY. But it is chiefly in philology that Jewish science is so predominant. The philosophic side of philology is nowadays dominated by the school of M. LAZARUS (1834) and H. STEINTHAL (1828), who have founded the science of national psychology. Carl Abel (1839) is doing good work in treating of Comparative Lexicography, and L. Geiger was even a greater name (1829-70). M. Bréal (1832) is one of the greatest authorities on Comparative Mythology. Classical Philology is not without its Jewish masters, L. Friedländer (1814), the greatest living authority on the silver age of Rome, J. Bernays (1834-82), W. Freund (1806), on whose Latin dictionary all those used in England are founded, H. Weil (1818), Membre de l'Institut, Bernhardy* (1800-75), Lehrs* (1802-78), and L. Meyer (1833). Modern languages have also found their masters among Jews. The gifted A. L. Davids (1811-31) for Turkish, A. Vambéry* (1832), and M. Bloch (1815) for Hungarian, A. Darmesteter (1846) for French, D. Sanders (1819) for German and modern Greek, M. Landau (1837) for Italian, are here the Jewish names, while H. Bacharach (1810) is mentioned as a translator from German into French, and H. G Ollendorf (1805-65) invented the method by which modern languages are still chiefly taught. But it is only natural that Jews should take the highest rank in Oriental Philology. In Germany TH. BENFEY* (1809-82) held the same position as Professor Max Müller does in England. His great speciality was Sanscrit, as is that of G. J. Ascoli (1829) and E. Brandes (1847). Coptic is that of C. Abel, Egyptian of G. Ebers* (1837), Hindustani of G. G. Leitner* (1840), and, it seems, all Eastern tongues of Dr. L. Loewe (1809). M. James Darmesteter (1849) is now one of the chief Zend scholars, and promises to be one of the most influential Orientalists in Europe. In the Semitic branches we find even more Jews. Professor J. OPPERT (1825) is perhaps the leading Assyriologist of the day, and has advanced the development of cuneiform more than any living man after Rawlinson. The promise of F. Luzzato (1829-54) in the same branch was cut off by an early death. The late M. A. Levy was an authority on Phoenician (1817-72). In Arabic G. Weil (1808) translated the 1,001 Nights, and wrote the Standard History of the Caliphs. The two Derenbourgs, J. Derenbourg père (1811) and H. Derenbourg fils (1844), S. Munk (1805-66), the Editor of Maimonides, I. Goldziher (1840), (also known for a rather wild book on the mythology of the Hebrews), and D. H. Müller are all well-known Arabists. We naturally meet with a crowd of Jewish names connected with the Hebrew language and literature. Of these the two greatest are undoubtedly LEOPOLD ZUNZ (1794) and MORITZ STEINSCHNEIDER (1816); though A. GEIGER (1810-74) displayed talents of as wide range as they. Graetz we have already mentioned, and S. L. Rapaport (1790-1867), co-founder with Zunz of modern Jewish

1 I cannot find T. Goldstücker (1819-71) in any of the reference books.

scholarship, S. D. Luzzato (1800-65), Z. Frankel (1801-75), the chief of scholarly Talmudists, and longo intervallo J. Fürst (1805– 73), author of a Hebrew Concordance and Lexicon, are the next greatest names. A. Jellinek (1821) has never concentrated himself sufficiently to do justice to his powers, and the same may be said of M. M. Kalisch (1828-85). I would add the names of my friends Dr. A. Neubauer (1832) and Dr. M. Friedländer (1833) to the above. The versatile L. Philippsohn (1811), M. Kayserling (1828), and D. Castelli (1836) follow, and these may be succeeded by an alphabetical list of the remainder, Dr. H. Adler (1839), the Chief Rabbi, Dr. N. M. Adler (1803), E. Benamozegh (1822), F. F. Benary* (1805), A. Benisch (1811-78) J. H. Biesenthal* (1800), I. Cahen (1826), S. Cahen (1796-1863), E. Carmoly (1885-75), B. Consolo (1815), M. Lattes (1846-84), I. Leeser (1806-68), D. Levi (1740-99), M. Mortara (1815), M. Margoliouth* (1820-82), M. Shapiro (1816), and M. Soave (1801-83).1

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POLITICS.-Considering the restrictions under which they have laboured, Jews have shown marked ability for politics. Here they have two names of the very first rank. Lord Beaconsfield* (1804-81), whatever we may think of his political achievement, is certainly entitled to rank among the first ten men of his time in England. Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-63), the Messiah of modern Socialism, made the greatest impression of any man of his time in Germany; in 1863, when he died in a duel at the early age of thirty-eight, Bismarck and he were regarded as the two foremost men of the Fatherland. These great names are followed by those of JULES SIMON* (1814), whose Jewish parentage is not certain, I. A. CREMIEUX (1796-1881), to whom the French nation awarded a public funeral, and E. LASKER (1839-83), the leader of the National Liberal Party in Germany. Other important personages are A. Fould (1800-67), M. Goudchaux (1727-1862), G. d' Eichthal* (1804), and A. Naquet (1834) in France; L. Bamberger (1828) and J. Jacoby (1805-77) in Germany, the latter the leading spirit of German Liberalism; and I. Kuranda (1811–84) and E. Horn (1825– 75) in Austria; T. Massarani (1826) may follow here, though more distinguished as poet and painter than as politician. W. Löwe (1814) and H. B. Oppenheim (1819-80) in Germany; Sir F.

These are all the names of Hebraists occurring in the books of reference to which I restrict myself. The lacunæ under this head are naturally many. I can find nowhere any mention of Barasch, S. Benedetti, A. Berliner, Ď. Chwolson*, E. Deutsch (1829-73), L. Dukes, R. Eisel of Slonim, I. Erter, Fassel, J. Friedman, J. L. Gordon, Jos. Halévy, Harkavy, N. Krochmal (1785-1820), L. Löw (1811-75), Mappo, J. S. Nathanson, Reifmann, Rosin, Schorr, Weiss, not to speak of younger men whose fame is yet to come. On the other hand, Cooper inserts J. Levisohn* (1797), whose only claim to distinction seems to be that a book he wrote was suppressed, and only two copies of it are now said to be in

existence.

2 A brilliant study of the last year of his life is contained in George Meredith's "Tragic Comedians."

Goldsmid (1808-80), Baron Lionel de Rothschild (1808-81), Sir D. Salomons (1797-1873) and Sir B. S. Phillips (1811), in England, and MM. Millaud (1834), F. David (1796-1879), and Bédarrides (1817) in France, complete the list of politicians contained in my authorities. I. Artom (1829) may be added as a distinguished diplomatist.

THE PROFESSIONS also yield their quota of Jewish celebrities, though it is extremely seldom that a professional man reaches international rank. Medicine has been the favourite among Jews, who count among their number, in addition to those mentioned as physiologists, the names of Traube (1818-76), C. Lombroso (1836), the greatest of Italian doctors, F. R. Liebreich (1830), the ophthalmologist and inventor of the " eye mirror," A. Hirsch (1817), the standard authority on "medical geography," Zeissl (1812), the chief authority on syphilis, and K. F. Canstatt (1807-50), whose "Vierteljahrschrift" was the repository of the first German medical work of the time. Less important names are M. Heine*, brother of the poet (1807), H. A. Bardeleben (1819), a distinguished surgeon, E. Altschul (1812), a leading homoeopathist, Störk (182075) the laryngoscopist, M. L. O. Liebreich (1839), brother of the ophthalmologist and discoverer of "chloralhydrate" with all its dubious uses; Germain Sée (1818), and his son Marc (1827), A. Lumbroso (1813), L. Mandl (1812-81), M. Lévi (1809-72), and A. Mayer (1814) in Paris end the list of distinguished Jewish medical men. Law follows with the names of E. GANS* (1798-1839) as one of the chief leaders in the German school of legal theory; Sir G. JESSEL (1824-83), late Master of the Rolls, as one of the greatest practical lawyers of the age. J. P. Benjamin (1811-84) was the chief English barrister of his time, as well as one of the "headcentres" of the Southerners. J. Glaser* (1831-85) has been recently described in the newspaper obituaries as "Austria's greatest jurist," and H .Dernburg (1829) is an important German legist. Other names of Jewish lawyers are H. F. Jacobson (1804– 68), T. M. C. Asser (1838), who recently represented Holland at the Congo Conference, I. Luzzati (1847) and M. Levi-Vita (1840), two important Italian legists, and J. Bédarrides (1804-69), in France; Lassalle deserves to be mentioned here again for his "System des erworbenen Rechts." Military and Naval celebrities among Jews are only represented by one in each branch: MASSENA (1758-1817) on land, if we may accept Lord Beaconsfield's account of him as a Jew whose real name was "Menasse,"1 and U.P. Levy (1781-1862) was an Admiral in the United States Navy of some note. The Church has not been without its Jewish ornaments; the sober G. A. W. NEANDER* (1789-1850), whose Church History is still authoritative; the brilliant P. Cassel* (1827), M. Ballagi*

1 "Coningsby," IV, xiv. M. Loeb informs me that there is nothing more in this identification than a "jeu de mot." Much the same may be said of other parts of the same chapter which everybody has read. Everybody has also read Thackeray's inimitable parody of it in "Codlingsby," with the amusing climax, "The Pope is one of us!"

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