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no proper sign, but it is of equal importance in the gauging of their capabilities, both sensible and intellectual.

It is probable that the pleasure of colour and the discrimination of colour go together, although not in exact degree. A high predominance of the two conjoined aptitudes foreshadows a mind of artistic capability, and a strong preference of the concrete to the abstract.

The optical or colour discrimination of the eye is one thing, the discrimination of visible form and magnitude is a different thing. This may be assumed to be the most delicate susceptibility of the human mind. We have not contrived measures of it, so as to distinguish the aptitutes of different persons, and follow out the intellectual consequences of unequal endowment. The Report. of your Anthropometric Committee given in at the meeting in 1881 approaches this subject in one form, namely, the perception of testdots placed at different distances from the eye, and the relation of this perception to age-an important determination for those that have to keep a look-out for signals or distant appearances. But a still more advanced class of experiments is needed to ascertain degrees of retinal delicacy in regard to visible form and magnitude; the avocation of a line-engraver being one that would show the faculty at its utmost stretch.

We want, for the purposes of mental science generally, a set of observations on the plurality of the sense of vision, or the number of things that can be simultaneously apprehended, and also the relative delicacy of the impressions on the different parts of field of view, from the centre to the circumference. This inquiry has not yet been prosecuted to its full length for even a single individual, still less can differences in character be expressed; although it would not be difficult to surmise the intellectual bearings of such differences. The problem of the source of our perception of space must centre in this property of vision, as being the ultimate source of our cognition of the absolutely simultaneous, as distinguished from rapid succession or transition, which also makes a part of our notion of co-existing things.

All these determinations are pre-eminently suitable to observation and experiment, and may be given with numerical precision. And in so far as they can be accurately made, the facts of intelligence properly so called can be brought under measurement, instead of being left to the ordinary vague and loose phraseology. The compass of the native susceptibilities of the eye, as regards colour, visible form and magnitude, and simultaneous grasp is the groundwork of the enormous range and complexity of our acquisitions of sight; such as local memories, memories of persons, and of all the innumerable details of our ordinary experience of the world.

One of the most vital determinations, regarding the intellect, is the relation of memory or retentiveness to the delicacy of the sense concerned. There can be no doubt that we remember best the impressions of our most delicate senses, as sight and hearing. But whether the law that connects the two properties be a simple ratio, or not, only experiment can tell.

This matter, however, needs a still farther advance in the observation of mental facts, namely, the measure of the retentive quality of the intellect, as commonly expressed by memory. Now, this is also a subject well suited to experiment, and a beginning has actually been made in it. The relation of our memory or recollection of a fact to the number of repetitions, and to all other circumstances bearing on the retentive power, has been subjected to numerical determination, and may be pushed to an indefinite degree of accuracy. Such researches are pre-eminently within the scope of this section, being the legitimate following up of Anthropometry to some of its most fertile applications, and having a decided although remote bearing on the solution of the vast problems that first gave form to the section.

The observations now made on measurements of our various sight sensibilities might be paralleled in the sense of hearing, which is singularly open to experiment, with definite results. The musical sensibility, depending on the discrimination of pitch, can be estimated with exactness. You merely test the intervals that the person can distinguish, the fractions of a note, or, it may be, the number of notes that bring out the sense of difference. When you find an individual that cannot distinguish between one pitch and another until the interval amounts to two notes in the scale, as I have actually seen on a trial, you of course pronounce that individual totally incapacitated for music. You can also by the same test ascertain if a child has the degree of natural discrimination that justifies you in setting it to learn the art.

Other qualities of hearing can be measured likewise, by suitable means. As regards articulation, the differences of vowel sounds are very unequally felt, and can be put to an exact test; the bearing on character being still more important. An ear for articulation must enter into the aptitude for picking up languages by the ear, and for the language memory generally.

Farther, the cadence of the voice, which is turned to account in elocution, is equally open to discriminative estimate, and the consequences are of an analogous kind, as regards the endowment of oratorical or declamatory speech.

I will advert to only one other region of sensibility, namely, the muscular, that is, the graduation of degrees of energy, as required for manual dexterity of all kinds. This can be reduced to exact measurement, and was included among the now classical experiments of Weber, on Touch, which paved the way for the subsequent labours of German physiologists on the senses.

I mentioned the possibility of approaching the deeper intellectual powers by experiments on the degree of retentiveness of individual minds. There is another attribute of co-equal importance, and the groundwork of the higher powers of reasoning and imagination, that is, the discovery of agreement in the midst of diversity. The point is not to show that a human being or an animal can recognise an object, as a face, on repetition, but can recognise it under some amount of diversity of accompanying circumstances. An animal

needs to be pretty high in the scale of intelligence to identify the portrait of its master. A series of experiments could be devised to show how far this recognition under difficulty can be carried. The hound of Ulysses is said to have recognised his master, purposely disguised as he was, in addition to the changes in his face in twenty years; while the old nurse hesitated till she saw the scar on his knee.

These observations are the same in kind for animals and for men; and the two series of researches confirm each other. The most profitable of all modes of studying animals is to test the number and acuteness of their sensibility. This is the natural commencement and formation of all precise knowledge, and the first key to the difficulties arising from their anomalous endowments. Sir John Lubbock has taken pains to ascertain the sensibility of sight, hearing, and smell, in the ants and bees, and Mr. Darwin made a point of testing the sense endowments of the earthworm. When we have laid a firm basis in the department of the senses, we can proceed to infer important consequences as regards intellectual power, and divine the bearings on the more inscrutable instincts. No animal can work beyond its powers of discrimination; its selection of one of several courses to pursue requires it to feel the difference between them.

The mode of research grounded on discriminative sensibility, and working up from that according to the best known principles of our intellectual nature, may be contrasted with another mode, which has always been in vogue, namely, finding out and noting any surprising feats that animals can perform, out of all proportion to what we should be led to expect of them. The spirit of such inquiries is rather to defy explanation than to promote it; they delight to nonplus and puzzle the scientific investigator, who is working his way upward by slow steps to the higher mysteries. Before accounting for the exceptional gifts of animals-the geniuses of a tribe-we should be able to probe the average and recurring capabilities. Among the indefatigable experimental labours of Sir John Lubbock was an attempt to teach a dog to read, by making him select cards with writing upon them, to convey his wants. Now, this was a real and genuine experiment, if properly interpreted. The question raised was the dog's power of visual discrimination, as tested by his marking the difference between the different inscriptions on the cards. If the distinction of the words passed his faculty of visual perception of form, the operation was hopeless; if within his visual powers, it became a question of inducing his attention by sufficient motives, and this also revealed a point of character bearing on the docility of animals. Sir John no doubt kept within the bounds of humane treatment; but we know that this difficulty in animal training is too often surmounted by persistent cruelty. The truth is, however, that the ordinary experimenter on the powers of animals of acquisition has been long outdone by the professional exhibitor of their wonderful feats. A canary in Edinburgh offered to read my fortune for a penny. Of course I knew

that the animal was a charlatan, but even to educate it up to this point was no small effort. One of the finest similes in our literature is Dekker's "untamable as flies," but it has been falsified by the perseverance of trainers. Not to quote from recorded examples of the teaching of the common fly, the flea, which I suppose is in a lower place in the intellectual scale, was long exhibited in London as a performer of industrial avocations.

My closing observation relates to the present position of the science of Mind, commonly called Psychology, in the programme of the British Association. Taken as a whole, it is nowhere; it would not properly come into any section. Taken in snatches, it appears in several places; it would come in under Zoology, which embraces all that relates to animals; under Physiology, in connection with the nervous system and the senses; and it figures still more largely, although in an altogether subordinate and scarcely acknowledged fashion, in the section on Anthropology. Indeed, to exclude it from this section would be impossible; man is nothing without his mind.

Now while Zoology and Physiology would keep the study of mind within narrow limits, there is no such narrowness in the present section. In the ample bosom of Anthropology, any really valuable contribution to the science of mind should have a natural place. The subject only needs to be openly named and avowed, instead of coming in by side doors, and indirect approaches.

In saying this much, however, I am quite ready to make allowance for a difficulty. The science of mind, taken in all its compass, raises a number of controversies, which might be well enough in a separate society, but would be very unsuited to the sectional discussions of this Association. The perception of a material world, the origin of our ideas, the mystical union of mind and body, free will, a moral sense-are points that I should exclude from the topics of Anthropology, wide as that department is; and the more so, that it has already on its hands the consideration of matters whose importance depends upon their bearing on far more burning controversies than any of these.

Psychology, however, has now a very large area of neutral information; it possesses materials gathered by the same methods of rigorous observation and induction that are followed in the other sciences. The researches of this section exemplify some of these, as I have endeavoured to point out. If these researches are persisted in, they will go still farther into the heart of Psychology as a science; and the true course will be to welcome all the new experiments for determining mental facts with precision, and to treat Psychology, with the limitations I have named, as an acknowledged member of the section. To this subdivision would then be brought the researches into the brain and nerves that deal with mental function; the experiments on the senses having reference to our sensations; the whole of the present mathematics of man, bodily and mental; the still more advanced inquiries relating to our intelligence; and the nature of emotion, as illustrated by expression, in

the manner of Darwin's famous treatise. Indeed, if you were to admit such a paper as that contributed by Mr. Spencer to the Anthropological Institute, you would commit yourselves to a much farther raid on the ground of Psychology than is implied in such an enumeration as the foregoing.


"In that department of biology which deals with man there has been a good deal of progress during the year. One of the most noteworthy events was Mr. F. Galton's address as President of the Anthropological Section at Aberdeen, in which he summed up the results obtained from the large collection of family records which he was able to make. The same ingenious inquirer's conclusions from the data collected at the International Exhibitions from anthropometric measurements also deserve mention as an important contribution to a science of human character and human action. More striking still are the results of the investigations made by the Rev. Malling Hansen, Principal of the Danish Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, into the laws which govern the growth of the human body during childhood, to which attention was called for the first time in The Times of yesterday. Professor Flower's attempt, in his Presidential Address at the Anthropological Institute, to lay down some definite principles for the classification of the human species was much needed, and must have been welcome to anthropologists generally. This Institute has during the past year done an unusual amount of good work under the presidency of Mr. Galton. The papers and subsequent discussion on Jewish ethnology, for example, were of very great interest, as well as, to many, of much novelty. In connection with the many geographical and military expeditions of the past year, our knowledge of outlying peoples has made much progress; while anthropological methods are becoming more and more precise. M. de Mortillet's attempt to establish the existence of man or a precursor of man during the Tertiary period, though perhaps not conclusive, is certainly in the direction favoured by anthropologists of reputation."-The Times, January 8, 1886.

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