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needs to be pretty high in the scale of intelligence to identify the portrait of its master. A series of experiments could be devised to show how far this recognition under difficulty can be carried. The hound of Ulysses is said to have recognised his master, purposely disguised as he was, in addition to the changes in his face in twenty years; while the old nurse hesitated till she saw the scar on his knee.

These observations are the same in kind for animals and for men; and the two series of researches confirm each other. The most profitable of all modes of studying animals is to test the number and acuteness of their sensibility. This is the natural commencement and formation of all precise knowledge, and the first key to the difficulties arising from their anomalous endowments. Sir John Lubbock has taken pains to ascertain the sensibility of sight, hearing, and smell, in the ants and bees, and Mr. Darwin made a point of testing the sense endowments of the earthworm. When we have laid a firm basis in the department of the senses, we can proceed to infer important consequences as regards intellectual power, and divine the bearings on the more inscrutable instincts. No animal can work beyond its powers of discrimination; its selection of one of several courses to pursue requires it to feel the difference between them.

The mode of research grounded on discriminative sensibility, and working up from that according to the best known principles of our intellectual nature, may be contrasted with another mode, which has always been in vogue, namely, finding out and noting any surprising feats that animals can perform, out of all proportion to what we should be led to expect of them. The spirit of such inquiries is rather to defy explanation than to promote it; they delight to nonplus and puzzle the scientific investigator, who is working his way upward by slow steps to the higher mysteries. Before accounting for the exceptional gifts of animals-the geniuses of a tribe-we should be able to probe the average and recurring capabilities. Among the indefatigable experimental labours of Sir John Lubbock was an attempt to teach a dog to read, by making him select cards with writing upon them, to convey his wants. Now, this was a real and genuine experiment, if properly interpreted. The question raised was the dog's power of visual discrimination, as tested by his marking the difference between the different inscriptions on the cards. If the distinction of the words passed his faculty of visual perception of form, the operation was hopeless; if within his visual powers, it became a question of inducing his attention by sufficient motives, and this also revealed a point of character bearing on the docility of animals. Sir John no doubt kept within the bounds of humane treatment; but we know that this difficulty in animal training is too often surmounted by persistent cruelty. The truth is, however, that the ordinary experimenter on the powers of animals of acquisition has been long outdone by the professional exhibitor of their wonderful feats. A canary in Edinburgh offered to read my fortune for a penny. Of course I knew

that the animal was a charlatan, but even to educate it up to this point was no small effort. One of the finest similes in our literature is Dekker's "untamable as flies," but it has been falsified by the perseverance of trainers. Not to quote from recorded examples of the teaching of the common fly, the flea, which I suppose is in a lower place in the intellectual scale, was long exhibited in London as a performer of industrial avocations.

My closing observation relates to the present position of the science of Mind, commonly called Psychology, in the programme of the British Association. Taken as a whole, it is nowhere; it would not properly come into any section. Taken in snatches, it appears in several places; it would come in under Zoology, which embraces all that relates to animals; under Physiology, in connection with the nervous system and the senses; and it figures still more largely, although in an altogether subordinate and scarcely acknowledged fashion, in the section on Anthropology. Indeed, to exclude it from this section would be impossible; man is nothing without his mind.

Now while Zoology and Physiology would keep the study of mind within narrow limits, there is no such narrowness in the present section. In the ample bosom of Anthropology, any really valuable contribution to the science of mind should have a natural place. The subject only needs to be openly named and avowed, instead of coming in by side doors, and indirect approaches.

In saying this much, however, I am quite ready to make allowance for a difficulty. The science of mind, taken in all its compass, raises a number of controversies, which might be well enough in a separate society, but would be very unsuited to the sectional discussions of this Association. The perception of a material world, the origin of our ideas, the mystical union of mind and body, free will, a moral sense-are points that I should exclude from the topics of Anthropology, wide as that department is; and the more so, that it has already on its hands the consideration of matters whose importance depends upon their bearing on far more burning controversies than any of these.

Psychology, however, has now a very large area of neutral information; it possesses materials gathered by the same methods of rigorous observation and induction that are followed in the other sciences. The researches of this section exemplify some of these, as I have endeavoured to point out. If these researches are persisted in, they will go still farther into the heart of Psychology as a science; and the true course will be to welcome all the new experiments for determining mental facts with precision, and to treat Psychology, with the limitations I have named, as an acknowledged member of the section. To this subdivision would then be brought the researches into the brain and nerves that deal with mental function; the experiments on the senses having reference to our sensations; the whole of the present mathematics of man, bodily and mental; the still more advanced inquiries relating to our intelligence; and the nature of emotion, as illustrated by expression, in

the manner of Darwin's famous treatise. Indeed, if you were to admit such a paper as that contributed by Mr. Spencer to the Anthropological Institute, you would commit yourselves to a much farther raid on the ground of Psychology than is implied in such an enumeration as the foregoing.

ANTHROPOLOGY IN 1885.

"In that department of biology which deals with man there has been a good deal of progress during the year. One of the most noteworthy events was Mr. F. Galton's address as President of the Anthropological Section at Aberdeen, in which he summed up the results obtained from the large collection of family records which he was able to make. The same ingenious inquirer's conclusions from the data collected at the International Exhibitions from anthropometric measurements also deserve mention as an important contribution to a science of human character and human action. More striking still are the results of the investigations made by the Rev. Malling Hansen, Principal of the Danish Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, into the laws which govern the growth of the human body during childhood, to which attention was called for the first time in The Times of yesterday. Professor Flower's attempt, in his Presidential Address at the Anthropological Institute, to lay down some definite principles for the classification of the human species was much needed, and must have been welcome to anthropologists generally. This Institute has during the past year done an unusual amount of good work under the presidency of Mr. Galton. The papers and subsequent discussion on Jewish ethnology, for example, were of very great interest, as well as, to many, of much novelty. In connection with the many geographical and military expeditions of the past year, our knowledge of outlying peoples has made much progress; while anthropological methods are becoming more and more precise. M. de Mortillet's attempt to establish the existence of man or a precursor of man during the Tertiary period, though perhaps not conclusive, is certainly in the direction favoured by anthropologists of reputation."—The Times, January 8, 1886.

THE JOURNAL

OF THE

ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

or

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

NOVEMBER 24TH, 1885.

FRANCIS GALTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and signed.

The following presents were announced, and thanks voted to the respective donors :

FOR THE LIBRARY.

From R. H. SCOTT, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.-Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennica. Vol. XIV.

From the AUTHOR.-Anthropologische Studien. By Professor Schaaffhausen.

The Races of Britain. By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. From the SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH, MASSACHUSetts.Forty-third Report to the Legislature of Massachusetts, for the year 1884.

From the BERLINER GESELLSCHAFT FÜR ANTHROPOLOGIE.-Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. 1885, Heft. 4.

From the INSTITUTION.―Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. No. 131.

From the SOCIETY.-Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Society of Tasmania.

- Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Vol. X,
No. 2.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. 1885,
November.

Journal of the Society of Arts. Nos. 1720-1722.

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South
Wales for 1884.

VOL. XV.

2 D

FROM THE SOCIETY.-Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Vol. XXI.

From the EDITOR.-"Nature." Nos. 837, 838.

"Science." Nos. 143-145.

Matériaux pour l'Histoire de l'Homme. 1885, Novembre.

The election of the following new members was announced:W. SETON KARR, Esq.; E. LAWRENCE, Esq.; Dr. R. MUNRO, and Dr. W. SUMMERHAYES.

Mrs. BENT exhibited a number of Greek Dresses and other objects from the islands to which reference was made in Mr. Theodore Bent's paper on" Insular Greek Customs" (p. 401).

Dr. EDWARD B. TYLOR, F.R.S., exhibited a collection of Tunduns, or bull-roarers, from Australia (p. 422).

Mr. C. H. READ, F.S.A., exhibited a collection of Ethnological Objects from Tierra del Fuego, consisting of models of a canoe and its fittings, bows and arrows in skin quivers, parts of dress, shell necklaces, &c. These specimens were collected from the natives at and around Ushuwia by one of the officers of the South American Missionary Society, and were sent by him to Mr. E. A. Holmsted, a gentleman living in the Falkland Islands. Mr. Holmsted has since presented the series to the British Museum. Mr. Read also exhibited an oil painting by the wellknown artist, James Ward, R.A., dated 1815. It represents three views of the head of an African, and was obtained at the sale of the collection of Dr. Barnard Davis, but was unfortunately without any record of the person represented. The picture has been given by Mr. A. W. Franks, to be hung in the Ethnographical Gallery at the British Museum.

EXHIBITION of COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHS of SKULLS.

By F. GALTON, Esq., F.R.S., President.

THE PRESIDENT exhibited twenty composite photographs of skulls, by Dr. J. S. Billings, of the War Department, Washington. They formed four series, referring respectively to Sandwich Islanders, Ancient Californians, Arapahoe Indians, and Whistitaw Indians. Six skulls of adult males of each of these races had been taken, and a composite had been made of each set of six skulls in the following five positions-front, back, side, top, and bottom. He remarked upon the great skill, from a photographic point of view, shown in making these composites, which were among the very best specimens of composite representation that existed, and he read the following extract from Dr. Billing's letter which accom

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