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Let us now glance at the industrial life of a Greek islander, and we shall come across many traces of antiquity still existing. In connection with the planting of vineyards they have quite a Bacchic festival in many islands. On the numerous feast days of the Virgin, after matins are over, the man who desires to plant a new vineyard calls together fifty or more men, according to the size of the field which he intends to plant. To each man he hands a spade, and then he fills skins with wine, and brings out joints of goat's flesh roasted for the occasion; then the company start off in high glee, singing as they go, and preceded by a standard-bearer holding a white banner. During their intervals of rest they consume the goat and the wine, and then work till the vineyard is planted-for it must all be done in one day— and in the evening they return home with their spades, their hoes, and the wine-skins empty, somewhat the merrier for having imbibed the contents. It is curious in Naxos, the ancient home of the wine-god Dionysos, to find still traces of this god. St. Dionysius, the namesake of the ancient wine-god, is greatly worshipped here, and about him a curious legend is told, clearly pointing to the ancient cult; it runs as follows:-St. Dionysius was on a journey from the monastery on Mount Olympus to Naxos; as he sat down to rest, he saw a pretty plant, which he desired to take, and to protect it from being withered by the sun he put it into the bone of a bird. He went on and was surprised to find that it had sprouted before his next halt, so he put it, bone and all, into the bone of a lion: again the same phenomenon occurred, so he put his treasure into the leg-bone of an ass. On reaching Naxos he found the plant so rooted in the bones that he planted them all, and from this up came a vine with the fruit of which St. Dionysius made the first wine. When he had drunk a little of it he sang like a bird, when he had drunk more he felt as strong as a lion, and when he had drunk too much he became as foolish as an ass. This legend is told in Naxos to-day in an island where place-names still recall the old worship of Dionysius; one of the loftiest mountains is called Koronon, reminding us of the nymph Koronis and the infancy of the wine-god, and an excellent wine made in Naxos is called now Τοῦ Διονύσου τὸ κρασὶ-perhaps the same that Archilochus once likened to the nectar of the gods.

On the adjoining island of Paros a church is dedicated to the "Drunken St. George," an instance of how the modern, Greeks still love to deify the coarser passions, and on inquiring into the reason, I was told that on the 3rd of November, the day of the anniversary of St. George's death, the Pariotes usually tap their new-made wine and get drunk; they have a dance and a scene of revelry in front of this church, and this Bacchic orgy

is hallowed by the presence of the priests. Only on one island, Thermia, or the ancient Kythnos, did we find the resinated wine which is commonly drunk on the mainland. Many people imagine this to be a custom derived from an Albanian source, namely, that of covering the inside of the barrels with resin to preserve it. The fact is that Kythniote wine will not keep without it, and we have instances to prove that this is not altogether a modern custom. Plutarch tells us how the ancients put seawater into their wine to give it a flavour, and how the casks were sometimes smeared inside with pitch; the thyrsos of Bacchus had a pine cone at the top of it; and furthermore, that the Euboeans actually did put resin into their wine to flavour it.

In agricultural and pastoral life we have abundant relics of a bygone age. In Karpathos, for example, before the sowing of grain they do this:-The farmer takes a portion of the grain that is to be sown and a rose to church. These are blessed during the liturgy. The rose is broken up and scattered about in the first field which is sown that year as a sure emblem of abundance and success. Thus did the ancients at the festival of ponpóσiaι before the seed was sown in the ground. In many islands the shepherds wear on their feet sandals of undressed ox-hide, just a flat piece of leather fastened by thongs of the same hide to the feet; they are most comfortable for rough mountain journeys, and identically the same that Homer described. In Amorgos a two-pronged hoe is used for trimming vines, and is called Sikλa, an obvious contraction of the same tool which Sophocles described, and called Sikeλλa. In Karpathos and Keos they have a curious way of preserving grain; holes are dug in the earth near the threshing-floor, and when the grain is ready they put it in, having first been careful to cover the inside with straw; after the grain has been piled up, so as to form a sort of cone-shaped mound, they cover the whole with straw, and place on the top of this some of the stiff native brushwood, and then they cover their mound with earth. Rain never penetrates these granaries, which are now known as λakko, the classical term for them, opòt, having been changed, while the custom itself has been preserved. The puλaxiov of Aristophanes, a skin for holding the grain necessary for household purposes, exists still; in some places it is called pλaki, in others prais. In a shepherd's village on Karpathos, where we spent φλαῖς. some time, we found many exceedingly interesting words in existence which occur nowhere else in Greece; their mules they term kinμaтa, or possessions, and do not understand you when you use the usual modern Greek word for mules; their goats they call xiλia, or thousands, a truly patriarchal word, pointing to flocks which cannot be counted for number; they

have peculiar words for distinguishing the several kinds of goats and sheep which you find in the pages of Liddell and Scott, but in no glossary of modern Greek words. If a woman wishes to carry a light from one house to the other she puts it into a reed, which here alone have I heard termed vapoŋka oг vapen, the same word and the same use for the reed which mythology teaches us Prometheus employed when he brought down fire from heaven.

In their daily life, in their methods of catching fish, in their planting of crops, in their medical and religious lore, endless parallels can be found to antiquity, which prove beyond a doubt that in these islands, remote from civilisation and alien governments, a race of people live of pure Hellenic blood, unadulterated by admixture with other races; they are not numerous, it is true, and for a pure Greek, as for a pure Celt, you must search in mountain villages and unfrequented bye-paths.


The following is a description of the articles collected during three winters in the Sporades and the Cyclades which I have the honour to lay before the Institute for inspection:

A figure dressed as a woman of Niseros, in a short narrow dress. of white cotton, embroidered round the tail and round the square neck, and with wide sleeves, embroidered in stripes of various coloured silks, and with silver embroidery on the shoulders; over this a very wide dress of turkey-red, half a yard shorter, and sleeveless. A black kerchief across the forehead, and a yellow one over that, hiding the mouth. A figure dressed as a woman of Karpathos 150 years ago; raw silk embroidered with a wide border in green, dark blue, and red silks, also all round the neck and down to the knees. The sleeves are square, and the pattern mostly a chequer. The dress is 8 or 9 feet long, and a great tuck forms it into a double skirt. Embroidered trousers. Round the waist a silk scarf, embroidered, and on the head, over a black kerchief, a long silk scarf called bolia (midojia): three or four silver and gilt chains, &c., round the neck, and chains with drops across the brow, also pear-shaped silver-gilt ornaments with glass garnets hooked on the top of the head, with several chains coming down the cheeks, and rings about 4 inches across hanging from them.

Bed valances from Ios, Naxos, and Keos. These consist of a silk embroidered border 6 feet long and a narrower border 10 inches up the sides sewn to a piece of linen, tucked in to the edge of the bed; having originated in the sheet having bren adorned to hang over; still called Sindhoni, or sheets (Σινδόνι).

Sindhonia of Karpathos, one cotton and the other silk, and both embroidered very similarly in red and dark green. These are 2 yards deep; 18 inches at the bottom is more handsomely embroidered, and separated from the rest by a gold insertion 1 inches wide. In this island, where they have no bedsteads, they are used as wall hangings for festive occasions.

A Sindhoni of Niseros worked in brown, light yellow, and blue, and with a pattern resembling that of Karpathos.

Two pillow covers from Karpathos, silk, with green and blue border on both sides, that they may show when the pillows are stored in piles.

Two towels of Karpathos, cotton, with woven coloured ends. Two silk towels, one with coloured cotton ends, the other gold. All the house linen being hung on the rafters, these smart ones are hung over for show.

A swaddling band from Karpathos, 150 years old, cotton closely worked with black and red silk on the outer end, and with a small sprigged pattern on the rest.

Two towels from Samos with deep lace ends, partly needle and partly pillow.

A cotton hood from Apeirenthos, in Naxos, with a border of blue and red cotton (birds), worn as a coal-heaver wears a sack. Some fine silk pillow lace from Crete.

A sabouna (Zaunoiva), composed of a small pear-shaped gourd as mouthpiece, two reeds (one with a straw in it), and a goat's horn.

A syravlion, or pan-pipe, from Paros.

A whip from Mytilene, wooden handle, chain of twisted iron with four large rings on each link to warn mules of the long knotted thong.

Two rokas, sticks, about a foot long, prettily carved, stuck in the waistband to support the left knitting needle.

An eikon, given us in Mykonos to preserve from shipwreck. A gilded crab-shell, with St. Nicholas, the present "Ruler of the sea," painted in it.

A bank-note, a card 14 inches square, covered with paper with the name of the Monastery of Spiliane and the signature of Kyrillos, the Prior, who issues them-legal tender in the Turkish island of Niseros. Two worth a penny: from Samos. A half-drachme piece, pierced, with little blue and white ribbons, Greek colours, tied through: given to friends at a baptism.


Mr. REGINALD STUART POOLE spoke of the great value of Mr. Theodore Bent's researches as a scientific effort to trace the evidence of the continuous existence of the Hellenic race. Such labours were no less valuable than the archæological explanation which accom

panied them. In confirmation of the tenacity of the Greeks to their old customs, and the vitality of the race, Mr. Poole cited the remarkable fact observed by Mr. Flinders Petrie in Egypt, that the women of Naucratis, who reminded him of the Hellenic type, went unveiled, whereas the Shemite population of San (Zoan) were unusually strict for Egyptians in the custom of veiling. It was often carelessly alleged by the enemies of a race with great qualities, especially in domestic life, that their loss of the characteristic brightness of the ancient Hellenes was due to a Slav origin, whereas the centuries of Turkish oppression were enough to account for so natural a consequence. It may be added, as another illustration of continuity, that travellers agree in recording the zeal of the Greeks in education, and the care taken to provide schools even in the remotest villages. It is said that Greek girls at Athens, when engaged as servants, frequently stipulate for leave to attend lectures. respect to the special bearing of the legends of Charon in modern Greece on ancient belief, Mr. Poole thought that Charon's horse might, as Mr. Bent suggested, be connected with the much debated appearance of the horse in Greek sepulchral reliefs.


The following paper was read by the author:

By J. W. CROMBIE, Esq., M.A.


Ir is a notorious fact that children's games are often imitations of the more serious occupations of the grown-up people they see around them, and that a game once introduced is handed down from generation to generation of children long after its original has ceased to exist. Thus children continue to play with bows and arrows though their parents have long ago discarded those weapons; and many innocent-looking children's games conceal strange survivals of past ages and pagan times.

The game of Hop-Scotch' is one of considerable antiquity. As it is mentioned in Poor Robin's Almanac for 1667 it must have been a prominent game in England for several centuries; and it has spread over the whole of Europe, appearing under numerous aliases in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Finland, and other places.

The main features of the game are too familiar to need description. An enclosure is marked off on the ground and

1 Probably a corruption of Hop-score.-Halliwell.

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