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Targum or Chaldaic paraphrase on 1 Sam. xvi, 12, makes David "red-haired" instead of "ruddy," and the mistranslation has passed into Luther's version. This shows at least that the Jews of the time when the Targum was written (about 600 A.D.) were not averse to regarding the typical Jewish king as rufous. The light hair given to the Christ in early Art,' the traditional red hair attributed to Judas Iscariot, as well as the golden locks of Mary Magdalene, require further investigation. Later on I find Jehuda Halevi (c. 1140 A.D.) speaking of the golden hair of his beloved, a Spanish Jew, Roven Salomo, 1349 A.D., with light brown hair, and Rembrandt's Rabbi in the National Gallery has a red beard. All these indications serve to show that red hair at least is no late importation into Jewish anthropology. Evidence about blue eyes is more difficult to obtain, as it is still a doubtful point among scholars whether either Bible or Talmud has any word to express blue.

Altogether, then, the two chief arguments hitherto urged to prove intermixture-which may be roughly summarised as proselytism and red hair-cannot be said to be decisive, while there are other more positive arguments tending to show the comparative purity of the Jewish race, and to these I now turn.

I. The first and perhaps chief of these is the existence of a class of Jews who are not permitted by Jewish law to marry even full proselytes. These are the priests, or Cohanim, the Beni Aaron or sons of Aaron. We have already seen that at the time of the Maccabees, Jews were addressed in the Psalms under three appellatives-Israelites, Aaronites, and Proselytes. The sons of Aaron could only intermarry with the daughters of Aaron or of Israel. The discussion about the comparative purity of Babylon and the surrounding districts which gave rise to the saying, "Babylon is sound, Mesene dead, Media ill, and Elam on its last legs" (Kidd. 71 a), was probably concerned with the purity of Cohanite marriages, for which any perceptible amount of paste" or intermixture was considered as objectionable. The

1 See "Dict. Christ. Antiq.," art. "Christ, Early Representations of," and authorities there quoted.

2 Geiger, "Divan," p. 123. The poet uses, I regret to observe, the same words as are used in the Bible to represent the discoloration of the hair on the leprous spot (Lev. xiii, 30).

3 Figured in

Rev. d. Et. Juives," No. 12.

4 It is worth while remarking that the Cozars, according to Ibn Foslan, had black hair (cf. Lagneau, "Denombrement," p. 49, note).

5 Upon the difficult question of Issah, or "paste," there are two papers in Graetz, “Monatsft," one by Graetz himself, "Illegitime Mischehen in Judäa,” 1879, pp. 481-508, and one by F. Rosenthal, "Ueber Issah," 1881, pp. 38-48, 713-723, 207-217. Cf., too, Graetz "Das Königreich Mesene," pp. 31-33. I fancy that the custom of consanguineous marriages may be connected with the desire to preserve purity of descent; cf. R. Meir's recommendation (Kidd. 71 a, Monats," 1879, p. 507), and Tobit, who marries of his own kindred (i, 9).

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saying and similar ones cannot be pressed to prove any wide admixture, and only serve to show how carefully the purity of Cohanite marriages was preserved, and the notice taken of any deviations from endogamy. It will be of interest to ascertain the number of these Cohanim who are themselves pure, and must have set an example of exclusiveness to their fellow-Jews. In the return under Nehemiah, the four families of priests numbered 4,289, out of 49,942 (Neh. vii, 39-42, 66, 67). In two lists of martyrs killed at Nurnberg in the years 1298 and 1349, the Cohanim number 91 out of 1,300, almost exactly the same proportion as in Ezra's time, though one may expect to find the Cohanim more ready to suffer martrydom than other Jews. In Jewish ritual it is customary that the first "called up" to the reading of the Law should be a Cohen, and there are only five on ordinary days and eight on Sabbaths and festivals," thus indicating that a large supply of Cohanim was regarded as usual. Among the two hundred inscriptions of the Venice "House of Life" or burial ground collected by Dr. Berliner (“Heb. Grabschriften," 1881), there are thirteen Cohens (6.5 per cent.), though here again it is probable that a greater proportion of these would be honoured with tombstones. The descendants of such Cohanim live and flourish at the present day, but it is impossible to determine their number, as their civil surname may not be Cohen. Thus Dr. N. M. Adler, the present Chief Rabbi of England, is a Cohen, though it is not necessary for a Jew to be a Cohen in order to be a minister. In lists of 4,720 English Jews I found the Cohens to form 3 per cent., while in a Continental list of 4,600 they were but 2:3 (my " Studies," p. 4). The latter is probably somewhat misleading, as in a list of 335 Jewish celebrities in all European lands, culled from dictionaries of contemporary biography, the Cohens number eleven, or very nearly 4 per cent., while I know of at least five of the remainder who might call themselves Cohen. Altogether I am inclined to think that there are about 5 per cent. of Cohanim among Jews, and these cannot have had any direct mixture with the outer world.*

3

But though they may never marry a proselyte, they may

I calculate these from the lists given by Dr. Neubauer, "Memorbuch de Mayence," Revue, No. 7, p. 10; and the Rev. W. Lowe, "Memorbuch of Nurnberg," 1880.

2 This and the priestly benediction are the only two functions now performed by Cohanim; it would be interesting to learn the origin of the position of the fingers in the latter function, which are spread so as to leave a gap between the first and the last two.

3 Lippe's "Bibliog. Lexicon" contains a large proportion of names of ministers, and small congregations object to a Cohen as a minister, as he must not approach a dead body (Lev. xxi, 1).

There are said to be less Cohanim among Sephardim.

VOL. XV.

E

marry the daughters of proselytes, and thus introduce alien blood. R. Jose was for allowing them even to marry proselytes, while R. Jehuda declared against their marriage with any child of a proselyte: the law, however, went with the opinion of R. Eleasar ben Jacob in the early part of the second century, who permitted marriage between a priest and a woman one of whose parents had been a proselyte (Mishna, Kidd. iv, 7). Owing to this decision, later authorities doubted whether there were any true Cohanim, e.g., Isaac ben Shesheth, of the thirteenth century, while R. Samuel b. Modena, of the sixteenth, even allowed a Cohen to transgress the Law on this ground (Löw, "Lebensalter," p. 114, and notes p. 391). There is also an amusing tradition told in the Talmud, aspersing the purity of Cohanite descent. It is said of Pashur ben Immer (in whom two of the four Cohanite branches appear to be conjoined), that he had four hundred female slaves, and that if you find an impudent Cohen nowadays, he is certainly descended from Pashur ben Immer (Kidd. 70, b.) I may add that even at the present day Cohens have the reputation of being hotter-tempered than other Jews. All these indications may modify any claim for absolute purity among Cohanim; and the fact that they do not differ perceptibly from other Jews may serve as an argument either for the general purity of the race, or, on the other hand, for the mixed origin of the Cohens, which would be very difficult to prove to any large extent.

II. Another point on which I would lay stress, if the suggestion I make is borne out by facts, is with regard to the comparatively small variation of type among Jewesses as compared with Jews. I seem to observe that Jewesses have more uniformly what we term the Jewish face than Jews have. It is a universal law of animal life that, owing to sexual selection and other causes, the males of a species vary considerably more than the females. And, conversely, where we find the females varying less than the males we may conjecture that we have a case of true species. Even more in Jewesses than in Jews, we can see that cast of face in which the racial so dominates the individual that whereas of other countenances we say, (6 That is a kind, a sad, a cruel, or a tender face," of this our first thought is, "That is a Jewish face." That the difference should be almost innately perceived by Jews who have for nearly two thousand years associated all that is kindly with this type would be natural. But the difference is almost as readily discerned by Gentiles, and even the negroes of Surinam, when they see a European and a Jew approach, do not say, "Here are two whites," but " Here is a white and a Jew" (Duttenhofer ap. Andree, "Volks.," p. 38). 1 I owe this reference to the kindness of my friend Mr. Schechter.

I lay stress upon this point of expression because it is after all the chief external trait that can be fixed upon as typically Jewish. We have the evidence of the monuments for its persistence through the ages, and the scientific evidence of its typical character in the "composites" produced by Mr. Galton's process, and given with this paper. Mr. Galton agrees with me that he has been more successful in producing definite types with Jewish boys than with any other of his subjects (cf. the plate prefixed to his "Inquiries into Human Faculty"). It must be allowed, however, that there is great force in the argument which would attribute the Jewish expression to the influence of isolation, so that we might define it as Semitic features with ghetto expression. But against this reasoning may be urged the early appearance of the Jewish type in the Assyrian monuments, and further, the fact of its appearing among the results of mixed marriages, where it must be racial, I have already pointed out what I consider to be the part of the Jewish expression due to isolation-the intensity of the gaze shown so well in the adult "composite" D, a fitting expression of a severe struggle for existence.

The earlier period at which "the custom of woman" (Gen. xxxi, 35) appears among Jewesses (supra, p. 39, note) is another trait which, if substantiated by wider induction, must be regarded as distinctly racial. If Darwin's explanation of its origin ("Descent," 1st edit., I, p. 212) be correct, it must have preserved its periodicity for an incalculable time, and it may be surmised that any other temporal relation, such as the age of its appearance, would be equally persistent. If it appears among Jewesses of St. Petersburg at the same early age as among Southern Asiatics, the Eastern origin of the former may be considered as well established.' But I fear that I am here falling into the same error that has misled so many inquirers into Jewish biostatics: I may be trusting to statistics derived from a few hundred subjects to decide on a question affecting several millions. I will therefore content myself with pointing out the importance of the subject and the need of further investigations."

III. And, finally, in dealing with the question of the racial purity of Jews, as in the main we must deal with it, historically,

1 On the other hand, the Talmud fixes the age of puberty for girls at the beginning of the thirteenth year, i.e., when twelve years old (Nidda 46 a; Low, "Lebensalter," p. 142); this seems earlier than at present.

2 There is probably something distinctive about the gait of Jewish women. Here in England, at any rate, most Jewesses can be distinguished at once by their swaying walk, due to their walking from the hip, not from the knee. I am uncertain whether this distinction is merely a Continental habit imported into England, or whether it can be traced back to the times of Isaiah (iii, 16).

marry the daughters of proselytes, and thus introduce alien blood. R. Jose was for allowing them even to marry proselytes, while R. Jehuda declared against their marriage with any child of a proselyte: the law, however, went with the opinion of R. Eleasar ben Jacob in the early part of the second century, who permitted marriage between a priest and a woman one of whose parents had been a proselyte (Mishna, Kidd. iv, 7). Owing to this decision, later authorities doubted whether there were any true Cohanim, e.g., Isaac ben Shesheth, of the thirteenth century, while R. Samuel b. Modena, of the sixteenth, even allowed a Cohen to transgress the Law on this ground (Löw, "Lebensalter," p. 114, and notes p. 391). There is also an amusing tradition told in the Talmud, aspersing the purity of Cohanite descent. It is said of Pashur ben Immer (in whom two of the four Cohanite branches appear to be conjoined), that he had four hundred female slaves, and that if you find an impudent Cohen nowadays, he is certainly descended from Pashur ben Immer (Kidd. 70, b.)1 I may add that even at the present day Cohens have the reputation of being hotter-tempered than other Jews. All these indications may modify any claim for absolute purity among Cohanim; and the fact that they do not differ perceptibly from other Jews may serve as an argument either for the general purity of the race, or, on the other hand, for the mixed origin of the Cohens, which would be very difficult to prove to any large extent.

II. Another point on which I would lay stress, if the suggestion I make is borne out by facts, is with regard to the comparatively small variation of type among Jewesses as compared with Jews. I seem to observe that Jewesses have more uniformly what we term the Jewish face than Jews have. It is a universal law of animal life that, owing to sexual selection and other causes, the males of a species vary considerably more than the females. And, conversely, where we find the females varying less than the males we may conjecture that we have a case of true species. Even more in Jewesses than in Jews, we can see that cast of face in which the racial so dominates the individual that whereas of other countenances we say, "That is a kind, a sad, a cruel, or a tender face," of this our first thought is, 'That is a Jewish face." That the difference should be almost innately perceived by Jews who have for nearly two thousand years associated all that is kindly with this type would be natural. But the difference is almost as readily discerned by Gentiles, and even the negroes of Surinam, when they see a European and a Jew approach, do not say, "Here are two whites," but "Here is a white and a Jew" (Duttenhofer ap. Andree, "Volks.,” p. 38). 1 I owe this reference to the kindness of my friend Mr. Schechter.

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