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and Mr Galton's composites say in a glance more than the most skilful physiognomist could express in many pages. "The best definition," said the old logicians, "is pointing with the finger" (demonstratio optima definitio); and the composites here given will doubtless form for a long time to come the best available definition of the Jewish expression and the Jewish type.

DISCUSSION.

The Rev. Dr. HERMANN ADLER (Delegate Chief Rabbi) congratulated the President on having chosen a subject of such profound interest to the student of anthropology. He agreed with the view propounded by Mr. Jacobs in his exhaustive paper, that on the whole there had not been any large foreign admixture with the Jewish race. As a theme for further inquiry, he drew attention to the copies in Dr. Wright's "Empire of the Hittites" of the representations discovered near Carchemish of the ancient inhabitants of that country. Their features bore an extraordinary resemblance to the inferior Hebraic type, with low forehead, hooked nose, and thick lips. If the hypothesis of Professor Sayce and Dr. Wright were accepted as correct, might the existence of this type, which argued kinship with the Mongolian race, and which differed so materially from the characteristic features of the Semitic race-the expanded forehead and symmetrical lineaments-be traced to intermarriage with the Hittites who are represented in the Bible as descended from Ham? The dark and the blonde type, the speaker believed, should be regarded as original, dating from Bible times and described respectively in Canticles v, 11, and 2 Samuel xvi, 12. That the existence of the blonde type was not due to intermarriage might be proved by the fact that it was to be found among the Jews of North Africa, Syria, Arabia, and Persia, where, owing to the prevalence of fanaticism, mixed marriages had rarely, if ever, taken place. Goethe, a man of science as well as a poet, had pithily summed up the main anthropological characteristic of the Hebrew race in the words: "Es ist das beharrlichste Volk der Erde. Es ist, es war, es wird sein."

Dr. BEHREND observed that M. Littré had well said that all springs of human conduct arose from two instincts, that of selfpreservation, and the reproductive instinct for the preservation of the race. The rightful cultivation of these two instincts led to the primary desire of all humanity-happiness, and the chief element in human happiness was health. Health, both of body and

1 Note by Mr. Jacobs.-These Jewish-looking "Hittites" were probably the Semitic vassals of the genuine Hittites. Mr. T. Tyler has pointed out to me at the British Museum two types on the monuments, one of Mongolian features and a kind of Chinese tail, the other of the ordinary Semitic type. The later he conjectures to be the vassals of the former, and thus their Jewish appearance is simply another example of the identity of the Jewish and the Semitic type.

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mind, depended mainly upon conduct, not only of the individual, but also from heredity. Therefore we should expect that as conduct (and through conduct, health; and through health, happiness) was the object of religion, a code of religion should lay down laws, which would be a guide of conduct, and thereby conduce to health and happiness. These primary instincts, that of self-preservation and the reproductive instinct, were mainly regulated in the Jewish code by laws concerning diet, circumcision, and the sexual relations. The speaker had shown elsewhere at length (in a series of papers "On the Communicability to Man of the Diseases from Animals used as Food") that the Hebraic dietary laws preserved from the transmission of such diseases, and especially from the ravages of tuberculosis, which in its various forms was accountable for at least one-fifth of the entire mortality in this country. The sexual relations were regulated in the Hebrew code by laws which aimed at conserving the highest attainable degree of virility, by restraining undue indulgence, and ensuring procreation only at a specially healthy period. We need hardly pause to dwell on the enormous advantages such a start in the battle of life must give towards the "survival of the fittest."

The special biostatic privileges of Jews might be summed up in the proved facts that they married less, had fewer births, died less (that is, lived longer), increased at a greater rate, and had fewer stillborn and illegitimate children than any other race. It was quite unnecessary to repeat the statistics upon these points: they had been given over and over again, as by Hoffmann, Kolb, Bergmann, Legoyt, Bernouilli, Lagneau, Loeb, and many others; but it was interesting, and to the Jews vitally instructive, to note that in proportion as they mixed with other races-either of their own accord or by the spread of social tolerance-they lost these biostatic privileges, and the differences became effaced. Thus M. de Bergmann ("Beiträge zur Geschichte der Bevölkerung in Deutschland") showed that the relation of the sexes among the Jews in Posen had of late become much modified: that while from 1819 to 1864 it was as 111.94 boys to 100 girls, it fell to 106.39 to 100 from 1864 to 1873; similarly, the proportion of illegitimate births among them had increased, showing a relaxation in their adherence to the Mosaic code. In every one of the biostatic privileges they enjoyed, the penalty had to be paid for laxity of observances, and either in their own persons or in their descendants those who transgressed had to submit to the inexorable law of "being cut off from their own people," as far as was concerned in their share of the physical advantages of their race.

Mr. F. D. MOCATTA remarked that in addition to the two greater divisions of the Jewish race, Sephardim (Spanish) and Ashkenazim (German), not to mention the Italian Jews, there were various other families of Jews, such as those of the interior of Morocco, speaking Arabic, and not Spanish, those of Persia and of Yemen, and others. Besides these were large numbers of Jews in various countries, who might be considered not to be of the seed of

Abraham, or only to be to a greater or lesser degree crossed with it. Such were the Beni-Israel of Bombay, those of Foo-Choo-Foo (now nearly obliterated), the Riff Jews of the north of Morocco (an armed warlike set, loosely adhering to Judaism, but differing in physique and habit from other Jews), the nearly black and crispy Malabar Jews, &c. Also the Jews of South-East Russia in Europe who speak Russian, and are a well-developed, hardy, and generally ruddy race, are probably a different family from those of Poland and Central Russia, who still speak a dialect of German, their ancestors having been driven out of Germany at the period of the Crusades. This family might possibly represent, as the Karaites of the Crimea were often supposed to do, the descendants of the Khozars, a tribe on the Caspian, who about the seventh century founded a state and maintained it for the best part of two centuries, adopting the Jewish religion. All these, so to speak, outlying families of Jews might be regarded as descendants of proselytes, but as they had blended but very little with the general mass of the Jews, they did not much affect the subject then under consideration. In Biblical times the Jews frequently made matrimonial alliance with the surrounding populations, and it was a constant theme of the reproach of prophets and reformers, notably of Ezra and Nehemiah. Later on, at the time of the conquest of Titus, and when Christianity was only dawning on the Latin world, many Jews were carried to Rome, the bulk being the common people, who were put to labour on public works, and often devoured at gladiatorial shows; but some of whom being scholars and persons of refinement were admitted into Roman society, and by the purity of their doctrine won over to their philosophy and religion many of the higher classes, notably women, who were becoming tired of the superstitions and worldliness into which the pagan religions had degenerated. This probably led to alliances, and such is M. Renan's opinion. The Jews also, ever prone to adopt the habits aud manners of surrounding nations, became lax, Romanised and Hellenised their names, as was evidenced in the Jewish catacombs at Rome, and probably contracted marriages with the people around them. All these sources might have led to an admixture of nonJewish blood, the extent of such admixture (the alliances being at all times exceptional rather than general, and having become rarer with the persecutions which set in in the earlier ages of the Christian Church) was not likely to have essentially modified either the type or the physical or moral characteristics of the Jewish race, which might therefore be regarded for all practical purposes as pure. This was all the more probable since a large number of the issues of such mixed alliances naturally fell back to the dominant religions of the various times and countries, and ceased to have anything to do with Judaism. The speaker said he had not alluded to alliances made between Jews and Oriental peoples, Mohammedans, &c., in earlier times, firstly because it would be difficult to prove their frequency or the contrary, and secondly, because these peoples, being for the most part Semitic themselves, the changes thus induced would have been far less accentuated.

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