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Sir JOSEPH FAYRER had no criticisms to make on the erudite papers which had been read that evening, but would ask one or two questions, first remarking that he had known Jews in Calcutta where one member of the family had light hair and grey eyes, another dark hair and complexion. It struck him that the Armenians presented those peculiar characteristics of physiognomy which were usually attributed to the Jew. Was this not simply a question of race, both being Semitic, and should not the so-called Jewish physiognomy rather be called Semitic than be regarded as the special attribute of the Hebrew as distinct from other Semitic races such as the Armenian? The speaker would ask the learned author of the second paper (Mr. Jacobs) if he could give any information as to the relation of the Afghans to the Jews? They undoubtedly had the physiognomy strongly marked,-it was often said they were descendants of the lost tribes, and there was a tribe among them calling themselves Beni-Israel. What was known and accepted among erudite Jews as to the origin of the Afghans? Again, what was the origin of the race of Black Jews on the Malabar coast ? Were these not a mixed race, and were they not the result of admixture with the Teluigan races of Southern India? Pure as the Jewish race is, it would seem that it must be recognised that evidences of such admixture with other races did exist, and it would also seem that they had taken more or less an impression from their surroundings and from the character of the races among which they had settled.

Mr. LUCIEN WOLF did not agree with Mr. Jacobs' view of the physiological characteristics of Jews. Mr. Jacobs practically denied the existence of these characteristics, whereas the speaker felt inclined not only to assert their existence, but to assert that they were as well defined as to form real race distinctions. This view could be proved by statistics, and figures could also be given to prove the immunity of Jews from phthisis, which Mr. Jacobs contested. The purity of the race could not be demonstrated by anthropological measurements, for, physically, Jews varied enormously. It was different with their vital characteristics, and while we found that these were maintained at a high average we might rest assured that the race was being conserved. The evidence brought forward by Dr. Neubauer in favour of his view that the Jewish race had not kept itself pure told against the proposition it was intended to support when it was tested by other evidence. Thus it might be asked how was it that, notwithstanding these large accessions to Judaism, the race had not increased, and that in spite of these large infusions of alien blood, so important a vital characteristic as its high reproductive power has not become modified. It must be obvious that had the remarkable multiplying power of the Jews been left unchecked they must have increased far beyond their present numbers, and if they could receive accessions from other races without diminishing this power, then by this time they ought to have peopled the world. The conclusion must be then that the mixed marriages referred to had

not affected the purity of the race. By their tendency to sterility they have periodically carried off the perpetually growing fringe of Judaism, leaving always a pure nuclens to repropagate itself. Thus by bringing to light the fact that mixed marriages were generally sterile, the evidence cited by Dr. Neubauer, instead of telling against the purity of the Jewish race, revealed the most powerful argument in its favour. Nor was this theory of sterility a theory only. The speaker had investigated a large number of cases of mixed marriages-not quite so many as Mr. Jacobs-and in every single case he had found, if not absolute sterility, at least a falling off in the vital power of the offspring, placing them far below the average obtaining in the Jewish community. This falling off was only postponed sterility, as he had had occasion to prove himself by investigating the history through several generations of a few mixed marriages.

Mr. MARCUS N. ADLER said that in his capacity as Actuary he had had opportunities of examining various statistics bearing on the subject under discussion. He agreed with Mr. Jacobs' remark that in the case of Jews mixed marriages were not so productive as ordinary marriages. On this point Herr von Fircks had published some interesting statistics in the official Journal of the Statistical Bureau of Prussia, and a good deal of weight must be attached to these figures, inasmuch as the entire population of Prussia is compared with the Jewish population, which exceeds 300,000. It would appear, dealing with the averages from the year 1875 to the year 1881, that out of 100 marriages— Where both parents were Protestants

there were 430 children.

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If we bore in mind that out of the number born not one-half attained marriageable age, and a still less number actually married, it followed that the descendants of mixed marriages were comparatively few, and this consideration became an important element in the argument as to the comparative purity of the Jewish race at the present day. With regard to insanity, there was little doubt but that it was more prevalent amongst Jews than among the Christian population. M. Legoyt published some statistics which would show that while one person was insane out of every 1,200 Protestants, and one person insane out of every 1,000 Roman Catholics, amongst the Jews one person was insane out of every 760. It would not do to ascribe this to marriages amongst near relations being rather frequent amongst Jews, for if so, why should there be a larger number of insane amongst Roman Catholics than amongst Protestants, seeing

that amongst the Roman Catholics marriages between cousins are prohibited? Moreover, Mr. George Darwin, in an interesting article which appeared in the Fortnightly Review in 1875, showed that insanity is not more prevalent in the offspring of marriages of cousins than in the offspring of other marriages. It was, however, found that persons living in towns were more subject to insanity than those living in the open country, and since the Jews mostly inhabit towns, the speaker was disposed to ascribe the more numerous cases of insanity among the Jews to the fact of their living among densely populated districts, also to their being more addicted to head work than to manual labour, and to many of them being of rather a nervous temperament.

Dr. ASHER believed that the figures supplied by Mr. Joseph Jacobs as to the prevalence of phthisis among Jews were entirely fallacious. Jews had an extraordinary power of resistance to phthisis, but when exposed for sufficient time to all those surroundings which lower vitality beyond the limits which their constitutions could bear, they necessarily succumb, but they endured and resisted far far beyond what would kill those not of their race. From an experience of several years as surgeon to the Jewish Board of Guardians, the speaker was enabled to say tha phthisis among English Jews was almost unknown: the vast majority of those who died from tuberculosis were Russians or Poles, who in their own countries had been herded together under the most insanitary conditions. It was no more fair to accuse Jews of special liability to tuberculosis on account of those deaths than it would be to say that Brompton is a district specially liable to that disease because there were so many deaths therefrom in the hospitals with which the district abounded. Figures and facts substantiating the above would be found in the report for 1859 of Dr. Septimus Gibbon, Medical Officer of Health.

Mr. JOSEPH JACOBS, in reply, expressed his regret at the absence of Dr. Neubauer, which had deprived the meeting of his valuable criticism, though it had doubtless freed himself from a formidable opponent. He was under the impression that the translation "redhaired" in 1 Sam. xvi, 12, was mistaken, and that the word edmoni simply implied "ruddy," which might apply to a dark as to a fair complexion. He had only referred to the mistranslation of the Targum as showing that Jews of the sixth century A.D. saw no objection to a Jewish king being red-haired. There was no special Jewish theory of the origin of the Afghans. They shared with many other races of uncertain origin the doubtful honour of being connected with the Ten Tribes about whom so many wild theories had been broached. This was possible; or their Semitic appearance might be due to descent from the tribes of North Arabia or Mesopotamia. The Black Jews of Malabar were known to be proselytes of the White Jews who had arrived there. Mr. Wolf's remarks seemed to him to overlook the great complexity of the problems dealing with the origin of the biostatic and physical characteristics of the Jews. These might be due either to common

race or to common customs, and he was inclined to attribute them mainly to the latter. He had not denied their existence, indeed he hoped he had exhibited them with a larger body of evidence than had hitherto been collected. But he doubted whether they could be adduced to prove the purity of the Jewish race, which was the immediate question before them. There was no evidence to prove that the Jews in medieval times had increased with the rapidity they are doing at present, and in any case their increase would be much checked by their persecutions which had carried off, he had calculated, over 382,000 victims. As regards phthisis, notwithstanding the remarks that had fallen from the medical gentlemen present, he could not ascertain any definite facts proving that Jews possess any racial immunity from the disease, though he had not "accused" them of any special liability to it. As Dr. Asher had owned, Jews were sometimes more and sometimes less afflicted by tubercle than their neighbours, showing that environment had most to do with their liability to consumption. In conclusion, he expressed a desire to hear the opinion of trained anthropologists on the main question. If light hair and eyes amidst a race generally dark necessarily proved intermixture, then one-fifth of contemporary Jews afforded that proof, though he had shown that these existed at a very early date. But if not, he saw no reason from history for denying that the Jews of the present day were the direct descendants of the Jews of the Bible.

Note by Mr. F. Galton.

The individual photographs were taken with hardly any selection from among the boys in the Jews' Free School, Bell Lane. They were the children of poor parents. As I drove to the school through the adjacent Jewish quarter, the expression of the people that most struck me was their cold, scanning gaze, and this was equally characteristic of the schoolboys.

The composites were made with a camera that had numerous adjustments for varying the position and scale of the individual portraits with reference to fixed fiducial lines; but, beautiful as those adjustments are, if I were to begin entirely afresh, I should discard them, and should proceed in quite a different way. cannot be described intelligibly and at the same time briefly, but it is explained with sufficient fulness in the Photographic News, 1885, p. 244.

This

MARCH 10TH, 1885.

FRANCIS GALTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and signed.

The following presents were announced, and thanks voted to the respective donors:

FOR THE LIBRARY.

From the AUTHOR.-Biographical Sketch of James Aitken Meigs, M.D. By George Hamilton, M.D.

Estudio Prehistórico sobre la Cueva del Tesoro. By Eduardo J. Navarro.

From the GERMAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY.-CorrespondenzBlatt. 1885, Nos. 1, 2.

From the ACADEMY.-Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Serie Quarta, Vol. I, Fas. 5.

From the ASSOCIATION.-Proceedings of the Geologists' Association Vol. IX, No. 1. Title-page and Index to Vol. VIII.

From the SOCIETY.-Proceedings of the Royal Society. No. 235. Bulletins de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. 1884, Fas. 4.

Journal of the Society of Arts. 1685.

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. LII, Part 2. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. November, 1884.

From the EDITOR.-" Science," Nos. 106, 107.

"Nature," Nos. 800, 801.

"Knowledge," No. 175.

Revue Scientifique. Tom. XXXV, Nos. 9. 10.
Revue Politique. Tom. XXXV, Nos. 9, 10.

The election of GEORGE FRANCIS LEGG, Esq., was announced.

The folloving paper was read by the author:

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