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migrate temporarily to a new camping ground.' The Altaians in Siberia make a practical distinction between a hut which is portable (a felt hut) and one which is not so (a hut of bark or wood). After a death they abandon the latter, but carry the former away with them after it has been purified by the shaman.2 In Panama and Darien they send the sick into the woods, just as in Persia they sent them into the wilderness, to die. In Madagascar no one except the sovereign is allowed if ill to stay within the palace. There are traces in Greece, Rome, China, and Corea of this custom of carrying dying persons out of the house."

But in case the ghost should, despite of all precautions, make his way back from the grave, steps were taken to barricade the house against him. Thus in some parts of Russia and East Prussia an axe or a lock is laid on the threshold, or a knife is hung over the door, and in Germany as soon as the coffin is carried out of the house all the doors and windows are shut, whereas so long as the body is still in the house the windows (and sometimes the doors) are left open to allow the soul to escape. In some parts of England every bolt and lock in the house is unfastened, that the ghost of the dying man may fly freely away.

But if primitive man knew how to bully he also knew how to outwit the ghost. For example, a ghost can only find his way

1 E. H. Man, "Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands," pp. 74, 77. 2 Radloff, "Aus Siberien," I, p. 321. Cf. Klemm, “ Culturgeschichte," III, p. 174. On the huts, see Radloff, p. 267 sqq.

3 Bancroft, "Native Races of the Pacific States," I, p. 781; Agathias, ii, 23.

4 Ellis, "History of Madagascar," I, p. 242.

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5 Euripides, Alcestis," v. 234 sqq. cf. 205; Scholiast on Aristophanes, "Lysistrata," v. 611; Seneca, "Epist.," I, xii, 3; Gray, "China," I, p. 279. In modern Greece the corpse is laid out in the entrance hall (Wachsmuth, "Das alte Griechenland im neuen," p. 108). In Corea no one is allowed to die on the kang (ordinary sleeping place), but is placed on a board (J. Ross, "History of Corea," p. 321).

6

Ralston, "Songs of the Russian People," p. 318; Wuttke, "Deutsche Aberglaube," §§ 736, 766; Töppen, "Aberglaube aus Masuren," p. 108.

7 Rochholz, "Deutscher Glaube und Brauch," I, p. 171; Schleicher, "Volksthumliches aus Sonnenberg," p. 152; Sonntag, "Todtenbestattung," p. 169; Wuttke, §§ 737, 725; Gubernatis, "Storia comparata degli usi funebri in Italia e presso gli altri popoli Indo-Europei," p. 47; G. Lammert, " Volksmedizin und medizinischer Aberglaube in Bayern," pp. 103, 105, 106; F. Schmidt, "Sitten und Gebrauche," pp. 85. 92; Strackerjan, "Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg," II, p. 129; Tettau und Temme, "Volkssagen," p. 285; A. Kuhn, "Märkische Sagen und Mährchen," p. 367; Nork, Die Sitten und Gebrauche der Deutschen und ihrer Nachbarvölker," pp. 479, 482; Köhler, op. cit., pp. 251, 254; F. Panzer, “Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie," I, p. 263; Kuhn und Schwartz, op. cit., p. 435. In Masuren, on the other hand, the doors and windows are left open for some time after the corpse has been carried out in case the ghost may be lingering in the house (Töppen, “Aberglauben aus Masuren," p. 108).

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Popular Antiquities." II,

8 Dyer, English Folk-lore," p. 230; Brand, 231. Cf. Henderson, “ Folk-lore of the Northern Counties," pp. 53, 56 seq.

p.

In North Germany, if a ghost persistently intrudes on your premises, you can get rid of him very simply. You have only to throw a sack over him, and having thus bagged him to walk off with your sack to some other place (as a rule the back garden of a neighbour is selected) and there empty it out, having first clearly explained to the ghost the exact bounds which you wish him to keep. Of course no sooner is your back turned than the ghost starts for home too. His plan is to jump on the back of the first person he sees and ride him in, but when he comes to the boundary, off he falls; and so it goes on, the ghost falling off and jumping on again most gamely, to all eternity. I nearly forgot to say that you had better not try to sack a ghost unless you have been born on a Sunday night between eleven and twelve o'clock.1

The favourite haunt of the ghost is usually the spot where he died. Hence in order to keep him at least from the house it has been a common practice to carry dying persons to lonely places and leave them there; but if the man dies in the house, it is deserted and left to its ghostly tenant. Thus the Kaffirs carry a sick man out into the open air to die, and the Maoris and Esquimaux remove their sick into special sheds or huts. If a Kaffir or Maori dies before he can be carried out the house is tabooed and deserted. If an Esquimaux is present at the death of a relative he has to throw away his clothes and never use them again. The Bakalai in Central Africa drive sick people from the village, but if several people should happen to die in the village it is deserted.3 Amongst the Balondas, when a chief or his principal wife dies, the village is deserted; but when an ordinary man dies it is only his house which is abandoned. In England up to the end of last century it was a common practice to shut up a room in which a member of the family had died." Amongst the Damaras, when a chief dies, the tribe deserts the neighbourhood; but after a time they return, the new chief offers sacrifice at the grave of his predecessor, and the village is occupied as before. After a death the Andaman Islanders

Kuhn und Schwartz, "Norddeutsche Sagen, Märchen und Gebraüche,"

p. 120.

2 Lichtenstein, "Travels in Southern Africa," I, pp. 258, 259; J. Campbell, "Travels in South Africa," p. 515 seq.; G. Fritsch, "Die Eingeborenen SüdAfrika's," p. 116; R. Taylor, "Te ika a maui; or, New Zealand and its inhabitants," p. 170; Yate, "New Zealand," p. 86; J. G. Wood, "Natural History of Man," II, p. 719.

3 Du Chaillu, "Equatorial Africa," pp. 384, 385. So with the Ashira, ib. p. 413.

Wood, "Natural History of Man,” I, p. 419.

Dyer, "English Folk-lore," p. 231.

6 G. Fritsch, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's,” p. 236; Wood, "Natural History of Man," I, p. 349.

migrate temporarily to a new camping ground.' The Altaians in Siberia make a practical distinction between a hut which is portable (a felt hut) and one which is not so (a hut of bark or wood). After a death they abandon the latter, but carry the former away with them after it has been purified by the shaman." In Panama and Darien they send the sick into the woods, just as in Persia they sent them into the wilderness, to die. In Madagascar no one except the sovereign is allowed if ill to stay within the palace. There are traces in Greece, Rome, China, and Corea of this custom of carrying dying persons out of the house."

But in case the ghost should, despite of all precautions, make his way back from the grave, steps were taken to barricade the house against him. Thus in some parts of Russia and East Prussia an axe or a lock is laid on the threshold, or a knife is hung over the door, and in Germany as soon as the coffin is carried out of the house all the doors and windows are shut, whereas so long as the body is still in the house the windows (and sometimes the doors) are left open to allow the soul to escape. In some parts of England every bolt and lock in the house is unfastened, that the ghost of the dying man may fly freely away."

But if primitive man knew how to bully he also knew how to outwit the ghost. For example, a ghost can only find his way

1 E. H. Man, "Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands," pp. 74, 77. Radloff, "Aus Siberien," I, p. 321. Cf. Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," III, p. 174. On the huts, see Radloff, p. 267 sqq.

* Bancroft, "Native Races of the Pacific States," I, p. 781; Agathias, ii, 23. Ellis, "History of Madagascar," I, p. 242.

5 Euripides, "Alcestis," v. 234 sqq. cf. 205; Scholiast on Aristophanes, "Lysistrata," v. 611; Seneca, "Epist.," I, xii, 3; Gray, "China," I, p. 279. In modern Greece the corpse is laid out in the entrance hall (Wachsmuth, "Das alte Griechenland im neuen," p. 108). In Corea no one is allowed to die on the kang (ordinary sleeping place), but is placed on a board (J. Ross, "History of Corea," p. 321).

6 Ralston, "Songs of the Russian People," p. 318; Wuttke, "Deutsche Aberglaube,” §§ 736, 766; Töppen, “ Aberglaube aus Masuren,” p. 108.

7 Rochholz, "Deutscher Glaube und Brauch," I, p. 171; Schleicher, "Volksthumliches aus Sonnenberg," p. 152; Sonntag, "Todtenbestattung," p. 169; Wuttke, §§ 737, 725; Gubernatis, "Storia comparata degli usi funebri in Italia e presso gli altri popoli Indo-Europei," p. 47; G. Lammert, " Volksmedizin und medizinischer Aberglaube in Bayern," pp. 103, 105, 106; F. Schmidt, "Sitten und Gebrauche," pp. 85. 92; Strackerjan, "Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg," II, p. 129; Tettau und Temme, "Volkssagen," p. 285; A. Kuhn, "Märkische Sagen und Mährchen," p. 367; Nork, Die Sitten und Gebrauche der Deutschen und ihrer Nachbarvölker," pp. 479, 482; Köhler, op. cit., pp. 251, 254; F. Panzer, "Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie," I, p. 263; Kuhn und Schwartz, op. cit., p. 435. In Masuren, on the other hand, the doors and windows are left open for some time after the corpse has been carried out in case the ghost may be lingering in the house (Töppen, “Aberglauben aus Masuren," p. 108).

Dyer, English Folk-lore," p. 230; Brand, "Popular Antiquities." II, p. 231. Cf. Henderson, "Folk-lore of the Northern Counties," pp. 53, 56 seq.

In North Germany, if a ghost persistently intrudes on your premises, you can get rid of him very simply. You have only to throw a sack over him, and having thus bagged him to walk off with your sack to some other place (as a rule the back garden of a neighbour is selected) and there empty it out, having first clearly explained to the ghost the exact bounds which you wish him to keep. Of course no sooner is your back turned than the ghost starts for home too. His plan is to jump on the back of the first person he sees and ride him in, but when he comes to the boundary, off he falls; and so it goes on, the ghost falling off and jumping on again most gamely, to all eternity. I nearly forgot to say that you had better not try to sack a ghost unless you have been born on a Sunday night between eleven and twelve o'clock.1

2

The favourite haunt of the ghost is usually the spot where he died. Hence in order to keep him at least from the house it has been a common practice to carry dying persons to lonely places and leave them there; but if the man dies in the house, it is deserted and left to its ghostly tenant. Thus the Kaffirs carry a sick man out into the open air to die, and the Maoris and Esquimaux remove their sick into special sheds or huts. If a Kaffir or Maori dies before he can be carried out the house is tabooed and deserted. If an Esquimaux is present at the death of a relative he has to throw away his clothes and never use them again. The Bakalai in Central Africa drive sick people from the village, but if several people should happen to die in the village it is deserted. Amongst the Balondas, when a chief or his principal wife dies, the village is deserted; but when an ordinary man dies it is only his house which is abandoned. In England up to the end of last century it was a common practice to shut up a room in which a member of the family had died." Amongst the Damaras, when a chief dies, the tribe deserts the neighbourhood; but after a time they return, the new chief offers sacrifice at the grave of his predecessor, and the village is occupied as before. After a death the Andaman Islanders

Kuhn und Schwartz, "Norddeutsche Sagen, Märchen und Gebraüche,"

p. 120.

2 Lichtenstein, "Travels in Southern Africa," I, pp. 258, 259; J. Campbell, "Travels in South Africa," p. 515 seq.; G. Fritsch," Die Eingeborenen SüdAfrika's," P; 116; R. Taylor, "Te ika a maui; or, New Zealand and its inhabitants," p. 170; Yate, "New Zealand," p. 86; J. G. Wood, "Natural History of Man," II, p. 719.

3 Du Chaillu, “Equatorial Africa," pp. 384, 385. So with the Ashira, ib.

p. 413.

Wood, "Natural History of Man," I, p. 419.

5 Dyer, "English Folk-lore," p. 231.

6 G. Fritsch, "Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's," p. 236; Wood, "Natural History of Man," I, p. 349.

migrate temporarily to a new camping ground.' The Altaians in Siberia make a practical distinction between a hut which is portable (a felt hut) and one which is not so (a hut of bark or wood). After a death they abandon the latter, but carry the former away with them after it has been purified by the shaman." In Panama and Darien they send the sick into the woods, just as in Persia they sent them into the wilderness, to die.3 In Madagascar no one except the sovereign is allowed if ill to stay within the palace. There are traces in Greece, Rome, China, and Corea of this custom of carrying dying persons out of the house."

But in case the ghost should, despite of all precautions, make his way back from the grave, steps were taken to barricade the house against him. Thus in some parts of Russia and East Prussia an axe or a lock is laid on the threshold, or a knife is hung over the door, and in Germany as soon as the coffin is carried out of the house all the doors and windows are shut, whereas so long as the body is still in the house the windows (and sometimes the doors) are left open to allow the soul to escape. In some parts of England every bolt and lock in the house is unfastened, that the ghost of the dying man may fly freely away.

But if primitive man knew how to bully he also knew how to outwit the ghost. For example, a ghost can only find his way

1 E. H. Man, "Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands," pp. 74, 77. 2 Radloff, "Aus Siberien," I, p. 321. Cf. Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," III, p. 174. On the huts, see Radloff, p. 267 sqq.

3 Bancroft, "Native Races of the Pacific States," I, p. 781; Agathias, ii, 23. Ellis, "History of Madagascar," I, p. 242.

66

5 Euripides, Alcestis," v. 234 sqq. cf. 205; Scholiast on Aristophanes, "Lysistrata," v. 611; Seneca, "Epist.," I, xii, 3; Gray, "China," I, p. 279. In modern Greece the corpse is laid out in the entrance hall (Wachsmuth, "Das alte Griechenland im neuen," p. 108). In Corea no one is allowed to die on the kang (ordinary sleeping place), but is placed on a board (J. Ross, "History of Corea," p. 321).

6 Ralston, 66 Songs of the Russian People," p. 318; Wuttke, "Deutsche Aberglaube," §§ 736, 766; Töppen, "Aberglaube aus Masuren," p. 108.

7 Rochholz, "Deutscher Glaube und Brauch," I, p. 171; Schleicher, "Volksthumliches aus Sonnenberg," p. 152; Sonntag, "Todtenbestattung," p. 169; Wuttke, §§ 737, 725; Gubernatis, "Storia comparata degli usi funebri in Italia e presso gli altri popoli Indo-Europei," p. 47; G. Lammert, "Volksmedizin und medizinischer Aberglaube in Bayern,” pp. 103, 105, 106; F. Schmidt, “Sitten und Gebrauche," pp. 85. 92; Strackerjan, "Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg," II, p. 129; Tettau und Temme, "Volkssagen,” p. 285; A. Kuhn, "Märkische Sagen und Mährchen," p. 367; Nork, Die Sitten und Gebrauche der Deutschen und ihrer Nachbarvölker," pp. 479, 482; Köhler op. cit., pp. 251, 254; F. Panzer, "Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie," I, p. 263 Kuhn und Schwartz, op. cit., p. 435. In Masuren, on the other hand, the d and windows are left open for some time after the corpse has been car in case the ghost may be lingering in the house (Toppen," Aber Masuren," p. 108).

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Dyer, English Folk-lore," p. 230; Brand, " 231. Cf. Henderson, "Folk-lore of the Northern Counties," I

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