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To a desire to deceive the dead man I would also refer the curious custom amongst the Bohemians of putting on masks and behaving in a strange way as they returned from a burial.1 They hoped, in fact, so to disguise themselves that the dead man might not know and therefore Inight not follow them. Whether the widespread mourning customs of smearing the body with ashes, mud, or paint, mutilating it by gashes, cutting off the hair or letting it grow, and putting on beggarly attire or clothes of an unusual colour (black, white, or otherwise), may not also have originated in the desire to disguise and therefore protect the living from the dead, I cannot here attempt to determine.2 This much is certain, that mourning customs are always as far as possible the reverse of those of ordinary life. Thus at a Roman funeral the sons of the deceased walked with their heads covered, the daughters with their heads uncovered, thus exactly reversing the ordinary usage, which was that women coverings on their heads while men did not. Plutarch, who notes this, observes that similarly in Greece men and women during a period of mourning exactly inverted their usual habits of wearing the hair-the ordinary practice of men being to cut it short, that of women to wear it long.3

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The objection, deeply rooted in many races, to utter the names of deceased persons, sprang no doubt from a fear that the dead might hear and answer to his name. In East Prussia if the deceased is called thrice by his name he appears." This reluctance to mention the names of the dead has modified whole languages. Thus among the Australians, Tasmanians, and Abipones, if the name of a deceased person happened to be a common name, e.g., the name of an animal or plant, this name was abolished and a new one substituted for it. During the residence of the Jesuit missionary Dobritzhoffer amongst the Abipones, the name for tiger was thus changed three times." Amongst the Indians of Columbia near relatives of the deceased often change their names, in the belief that the ghost will return if he hears the familiar names.

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1 Bastian, "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," II, p. 328.

2 See note I at end.

3 Plutarch, "Quæstiones Romanæ," p. 14.

Tylor, "Early History of Mankind," p. 142. Amongst some Indian tribes of North America whoever mentions a dead man's name may be compelled to pay a heavy fine to the relatives (Bancroft, "Native Races," I, p. 357, note). Wuttke, "Deutscher Aberglaube," § 754.

Tylor, op. cit., p. 144 sqq.

7 Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," II, p. 99; Dobritzhoffer, "The Abipones," II, p. 208 sqq.

9 Bancroft, "Native Races," I, p. 248. Cf. Waitz, "Anthropologie," VI, p. 811. When a survivor bears the same name as the deceased he drops it during the time of mourning (Charlevoix, "Journal Historique d'un Voyage dans

With a similar object, the corpse is carried out of the house feet foremost, for if he were carried out head foremost his eyes would be towards the door and he might find his way back. This custom is observed and this reason is assigned for it in many parts of Germany and among the Indians of Chile.' Conversely in Persia when a man is setting out on a journey he steps out of the house with his face turned towards the door, hoping thereby to secure a safe return.2 In Thüringen and some parts of the North of England it used to be the custom to carry the body to the grave by a roundabout way. In Voigtland there are special "church roads" for carrying the dead to the graveyard; a corpse is never carried along the high road. In Madagascar no corpse is allowed to be carried along the high road or chief thoroughfare of the capital. In Burma a corpse is never carried towards the centre of a town, much less taken into it; if a man dies in the jungle and the funeral has to pass a village it skirts the outside of it. The Chinese are not allowed to carry a corpse within the gates of a walled city."

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I venture to conjecture that the old Hawaiian, Roman, German, and Mandingo practice of burying by night or in the dusk may have originally been intended, like the customs I have mentioned, to keep the way to the grave a secret from the dead man, and it is possible that the same idea gave rise to the practice of masking the dead-a practice common to the prehistoric inhabitants of Greece and to the Aleutian Islanders." The Aztecs masked their dead kings, and the Siamese do so still.10 Among the Shans the face of a dead chief is invariably covered with a mask of gold or silver."

1 Wuttke, "Deutscher Aberglaube," § 736; Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," II, p. 101. On the other hand, in modern Egypt the corpse is carried out head foremost (Lane, "Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," II, p. 291, ed. 1836. 2 Monier's "Hajji Baba," c. i, fin.

3 F. Schmidt, "Sitten und Gebraüche in Thüringen," p. 94. The English custom was verbally communicated to me.

4 Köhler, "Volksbrauch im Voigtland," p. 258.

5 Ellis, "History of Madagascar," I, p. 241.

6"The Burman: his Life and Notions," by Shway Yoe, II, p. 342 seq.

7 Gray, "China," I, p. 323.

8 Ellis, "Polynesian Researches," IV, p. 361 (cf. Cook's "Voyages,” VII, p. 149 sqq., ed. 1809); Servius on Virgil," Æn.," I, p. 186; F. Schmidt, loc. cit.; Mungo Park, "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa," p. 414. Night burial was sometimes practised in Scotland (C. Rogers," Social Life in Scotland,” I, p. 161). In Benguela (West Africa) the corpse is burned at (Waitz, Anthropologie," II, p. 196).

9 Schliemann, "Mycenae," pp. 198, 219-223, 311 seq.; Bancroft Races of the Pacific States," I, p. 93. Cf. Miss A. W. Buckland p. 229, of this Journal. I regret that I have not seen the standar Benndorf, "Antike Gesichtshelme und Sepulcralmasken," Wien 1878. 10 Bancroft, "Native Races," II, p. 606; Pallegoix, Siam," I, p. 24 A. S. Colquhoun, "Amongst the Shans," p. 279.

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To a desire to deceive the dead man I would also refer the curious custom amiegst the Bohemians of parting a masks and behaving in a strange way as they refimed in az a benal? They hoped, in fact, so to disuse themetines that the dead man might not know and therefore migha me did them Whether the widespread mearning custodils of stammy the body with ashes, mud, or paint, mang it by gishes, runing of the hair or letting it grow, and patting in begrarly attire or clothes of an unusual colour Clack, white & odervise may do also have originated in the desire to disse and therefore protect the living from the dead. I cannot bere attempt to determine This much is certain, that morning customs are always as far as possible the reverse of those of ordinary He. Thus at a Roman funeral the sons of the deceased walked with their heads covered, the daughters with their bea is uncovered, thus exactly reversing the ordinary usage, which was that women wore coverings on their heads while men did not. Plutarch, who notes this, observes that similarly in Greece men and women during a period of mourning exactly inverted their usual habits of wearing the hair-the ordinary practice of men being to cut it short, that of women to wear it long.3

The objection, deeply rooted in many races, to utter the names of deceased persons, sprang no doubt from a fear that the dead might hear and answer to his name. In East Prussia if the deceased is called thrice by his name he appears. This reluctance to mention the names of the dead has modified whole languages. Thus among the Australians, Tasmanians, and Abipones, if the name of a deceased person happened to be a common name, e.g., the name of an animal or plant, this name was abolished and a new one substituted for it. During the

residence of the Jesuit missionary Dobritzhoffer amongst the Abipones, the name for tiger was thus changed three times." Amongst the Indians of Columbia near relatives of the deceased often change their names, in the belief that the ghost will return if he hears the familiar names.

1 Bastian, "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," II, p. 328.

2 See note I at end.

3 Plutarch, "Quæstiones Romanæ,” p. 14. 4 Tylor, “Early History of Mankind,” p. 142. of North America whoever mentions a dead m pay a heavy fine to the relatives (Bancroft, " Wuttke, "Deutscher Aberglaube,” § 751. Tylor, op. cit., p. 144 sqq.

7 Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," II, p. 99 ; p. 208 sqq.

8 Bancroft, "Native Races," I, p. 248. C. 811. When a survivor bears the same name : the time of mourning (Charlevoix, "Journa

some Indian tribes

While no pains were spared to prevent the dead man from returning from the grave, on the other hand precautions were taken that he should not miss the way to it. The kings of Michoacan were buried at dead of night, but the funeral train was attended by torch-bearers and preceded by men who swept the road, crying, "Lord, here thou hast to pass, see that thou dost not miss the way." In many Wallachian villages no burial takes place before midday, because the people believe that if the body were buried before noon the soul might lose its way and never reach its place of rest. But if it is buried in the afternoon they think that the sun, descending to his rest, will guide the tired spirit to its narrow bed.2

"Soles occidere et redire possunt :

Nobis cum semel occidit brevis lux,
Nox est perpetua una dormienda."

I must pass lightly over the kindlier modes of barring the dead by providing for the personal comforts of the poor ghost in his long home. That the dead still think and feel in the grave is a very old opinion, the existence of which is attested by many customs as well as by the evidence of the poets, those lovers of the past, and by no poet more vividly than by Heine, where he tells us how the French grenadier lies in his quiet grave, listening, listening, till his ear catches the far-off thunder of the guns, and with a clatter of horse-hoofs and clash of steel the cavalry rides over his grave. Hades, or the common abode of all the dead, whether beneath the earth or in a far island of the sea, is probably the later dream of some barbaric philosopher, some forgotten Plato; and the partition of Hades into heaven and hell is certainly the latest, as it is possibly the last, development of the belief in a life hereafter.

The nearly universal practice of leaving food on the tomb or of actually passing it into the grave by means of an aperture or tube is too well known to need illustration. Like the habit of dressing the dead in his best clothes,' it probably originated in l'Amerique Septentrionnale," II, p. 109; Lafitau, "Mœurs des Sauvages Ameriquains," II, p. 434).

1 Bancroft, II, p. 621. Cf. Charlevoix, op. cit., p. 107.

2 Schott, "Wallachische Mährchen," p. 302. The custom is perhaps a relic of night burial. The reason assigned for it is too beautiful to be old. În Russia also the sun is regarded as uxожоμлóя; but it is apparently enough if the burial takes place by daylight (Ralston, “Songs of the Russian People,” p. 319). 3 It is interesting to find the three strata of belief still clearly existing side by side in modern Greece. See B. Schmidt, "Das Volksleben der Neugriechen,' p. 235 sqq.

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4 Charlevoix," Journal Historique,” II, p. 107; W. Radloff, "Aus Siberien,” I, pp. 321, 379; Spenser St. John, "Life in the Forests of the Far East," I, p. 57; Klemm, "Culturgeschichte," II, pp. 104, 225; ib. IV, p. 38; J. G. Scott, · France and Tongking," p. 97; Schoolcraft, “Indian Tribes,” II, p. 68; ib. IV, 54; Wood, "Natural History of Man," I, p. 562; ib. II, 190, 512, 542;

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the selfish but not unkindly desire to induce the perturbed spirit to rest in the grave and not come plaguing the living for food and raiment. One instance, however, of the minute care with which the survivors will provide for the wants of the departed, in order that he may have no possible excuse for returning, I cannot refrain from mentioning. In the Saxon district of Voigtland, with its inclement sky, people have been known to place in the coffin an umbrella and a pair of goloshes." Whether these utensils are meant for use in heaven or elsewhere is a question which I must leave to theologians.

A pathetic example is furnished by some Indian tribes of New Mexico, who drop milk from the mother's breast on the lips of her dead babe. Similarly in Africa we hear of a Myoro woman who bore twins that died; so she kept two little pots to represent the children, and every evening she dropped milk from her own breast into them, lest the spirits of the dead babes should torment her.

In the Mili Islands in the Pacific, after they have committed the body to the earth, they lade a small canoe with cocoa-nuts, hoist a sail, and send it out to sea, hoping that the soul will sail away with the frail bark and return no more."

Bancroft, "Native Races," I, p. 86; "The Burman." by Shway Yoe, II, p. 338; P. Bouche, "La Côte des Esclaves," p. 213; Lafitau, "Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains," II, p. 389; Schott, "Wallachische Mährchen," p. 302; Wachsmuth, op. cit., p. 108; Taylor, " New Zealand," p. 218; Köhler," Volksbrauch im Voigtlande," p. 252; Baron's "Description of the Kingdom of Tonqueen," in Pinkerton's "Voyages and Travels," IX, pp. 698, 700, 730. In modern Greece the corpse is arrayed in its best clothes, but at the grave these are entirely destroyed, or at least rendered valueless, by being snipped with scissors or saturated with oil ("Folk-lore Journal," II, p. 168 sq.). This may be (as the writer half suggests) a modern precaution against thieves. On the destruction of the property of the dead, see next note.

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1 The fear of the dead, which underlies all these burial customs, may have sprung from the idea that they were angry with the living for dispossessing them. Hence, rather than use the property of the deceased and thereby incur the anger of his ghost, men destroyed it. The ghost would then have no motive for returning to his desolated home. Thus we are told by the careful observer, Mr. G. M. Sproat, that the Ahts of Vancouver's Island bury a man's personal effects with him, and burn his house, in the fear that if these were used, the ghost would appear and some ill consequences would follow." He adds: "I have not found that any articles are deposited in burying grounds with the notion that they would be useful to the deceased in an after time, with the exception of blankets" ("Scenes and Studies of Savage Life," p. 260). The idea that the souls of the things thus destroyed are despatched to the spirit-land (see Tylor, "Primitive Culture," I, p. 480 sqq.; and for an additional example of "killing the things placed in the grave, see H. H. Johnston, "The River Congo,” p. 246) is less simple and therefore probably later. For in the evolution of thought as of matter the simplest is the earliest.

Köhler, "Volksbrauch im Voigtland," p. 441; Wuttke, § 734.

3 Bancroft, I, p. 360; cf. III, 543.

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J. H. Speke," Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile," p. 541. 5 Waitz, V, ii, p. 152 seq. Gerland remarks that this is a remnant of the

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