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DEATH OF KING EDWARD VI.
exhibited in his public actions and his private Journal, we can scarcely fail to be impressed with its more than youthful proportion of the coldness and pertinacity of his race. The stoical indifference with which he records the unhappy deaths of his two uncles is not more remarkable than the egoism with which he discards his sisters from the succession. They are but of the half-blood." The daughters of the lady Frances are "very nigh of our whole blood, of the part of our father's side." His enthusiastic adherence to the doctrines and usages of the Reformed Church had made him, to a certain extent, as intolerant as education and long habit had rendered his sister Mary. He was no doubt worked upon to this unjust resolve-unjust, even upon his own principles, in the corresponding exclusion of his sister Elizabeth-by the influence of Northumberland, who appears to have possessed an extraordinary control over his actions. But, under the guidance of his own sense of religious duty, Edward manifested a desire to repair some of the injustice attendant upon the destruction of the ancient church. Ridley, in a sermon before him, exhorted the rich to be merciful to the poor, and by charitable works to comfort and relieve them. The noble institutions of St. Thomas's Hospital, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and of Christ's Hospital, sprung out of the practical effect of these words upon the mind of the young king. When the chantries were swept away, the intention to apply their revenues to purposes of education was set aside. But from 1551 to 1553 Edward founded twelve grammar-schools; of which those of Birmingham, Shrewsbury, Macclesfield, Bedford, are especial examples of the lasting good of such endowments. His dying prayer is a proof of his earnest and abiding love for the faith which had made such rapid progress during his brief reign: "O Lord God, save thy chosen people of England. O my Lord God, defend this realm from papistry, and maintain thy true religion."
TABLE SHOWING THE HEIRS FEMALE IN REMAINDER TO THE CROWN, NAMED IN THE WILL OF HENRY VIII. AND THE DEVISE OF EDWARD VI.*
HEIRS FEMALE TO THE CROWN.
Queen Elizabeth, when she died in 1603, was the survivor of all these ladies.
The descendants of Margaret, queen of Scots, who were passed over by Henry and Edward, were :- Her granddaughter, Mary, queen of Scotland, affianced to the Dauphin of France, she being in 1553 eleven years old; Margaret's daughter, the countess of Lennox; and Henry Darnley, the son of the countess.
We have taken the liberty of extracting this Table from the interesting documents given by Mr. Nichols in the "Chronicle of Queen Jane."
The Lady Jane proclaimed Queen-Northumberland leaves London-Queen Mary proclaimed in London-Northumberland and others tried-Northumberland's execution and apostasyLady Jane Grey in the Tower-Coronation of Mary-Her person and qualities-Parliament -Sweeping changes in religion-Proposed marriage with Philip-Popular hatred of the marriage Ambassadors arrive to arrange a treaty-Insurrection of Wyat-Conduct of the Queen-Wyat's march to London-The insurrection defeated.
A CONTEMPORARY chronicler of the events that filled the anxious days from the 7th to the 17th of July, 1553, heads his brief account, JANA REGINA."* Edward died on the evening of Thursday, the 6th. It had been intended to keep the event strictly secret, till the persons of the princesses Mary and Elizabeth had been secured. Nevertheless, the Council could not shut themselves up within the palace of Greenwich, without some indirect
THE LADY JANE PROCLAIMED QUEEN.
demonstration of the real circumstances. The French ambassador, Noailles, wrote to his government on the 8th, that on the day following the death of the king, being Friday, the marquis of Northampton and others took possession of the Tower, at two o'clock in the morning. The princess Mary was at Hunsdon in Hertfordshire; and there were not wanting friends to apprise her of the position of affairs, and of her consequent danger. She hastily took horse for her manor of Kenninghall, from which place she addressed a letter to the Council, dated the 9th, in which she expresses her surprise that information of her brother's death, of which she has received sure advertisement, was not communicated to her; and calls upon them, on their allegiance, immediately to proclaim her right and title to the crown. The Council on the 8th had sent for the lord mayor and six aldermen and other citizens of London, and had read to them the letters-patent, and sworn them to abide by the same. Having answered the letter of Mary, declaring that Jane was invested with the true title to the crown, and recommending to the princess to be "quiet and obedient," the Council caused queen Jane to be proclaimed on the 10th. Some historians have recorded the circumstances of an interview between Northumberland, Suffolk, and their daughter; her surprise at their unusual homage; her tears; and her scruples to accept the crown. This is the dramatic decoration of a few bare facts. The most charming of all usurpers, was, in all likelihood, an unwilling instrument for the ambition of a few; and the only fact that we certainly know at this point of her story is, that she came by water to the Tower on the day when she was proclaimed. The people in anxious silence saw her pass. It was in every mouth that the young king had been poisoned. "He was poisoned, as everybody says." Northumberland was odious to the people. The ragged
bear is glad of the king's death, they said. Gilbert Pot, a vintner's drawer, had his ears cut off in the pillory, "for words speaking at time of proclamation of lady Jane." Cecil, the secretary of state, and other crafty counsellors, saw the signs of the time; and as we learn from Cecil's own confession of his double dealing, left Northumberland, and his few daring friends, to perform the more obnoxious acts of these nine days. "I eschewed," says Cecil, "the writing of the queen's highness bastard, and therefore the duke wrote the letter himself which was sent abroad in the realm." This letter, in the writing of Northumberland, is in existence; and is signed "Jane the queene." §
On the 12th of July the Council, who surrounded the lady Jane in the Tower, received intelligence that Mary had been joined at Kenninghall by the earl of Bath, and other leading men; and that the earl of Sussex and his son were marching to her aid. It was determined, upon the first receipt of this intelligence, that the duke of Suffolk should set forward, "to fetch her up to London." The forebodings of the lady Jane led to another determination. She, “taking the matter heavily, with weeping tears made request to the whole Council that her father might tarry at home in her company; whereupon the Council persuaded with the duke of Northumberland to take that voyage upon him "|| There is a spirited narrative of the proceedings of this
* Mostyn's Diary, p. 35. Also "Grey Friars' Chronicle."
NORTHUMBERLAND LEAVES LONDON.
interesting time, in a "Chronicle of Queen Jane," written by a resident in the Tower of London, which was formerly in the possession of Stow, and of which he made liberal use. Holinshed followed Stow, as "from the report of an eye-witness." The setting forth of the duke is minutely described. He made a strong appeal to the fidelity of the Council in these words:
"Now upon the only trust and faithfulness of your honours, whereof we think ourselves most assured, we do hazard and jeopard our lives; which trust and promise if ye shall violate, hoping thereby of life and promotion, yet shall not God count you innocent of our bloods, neither acquit you of the sacred and holy oath of allegiance made freely by you to this virtuous lady, the queen's highness, who by your and our enticement is rather of force placed therein than by her own seeking and request. Consider also that God's cause, which is the preferment of His word, and the fear of papist's re-entrance, hath been as ye have herebefore always said, the original ground whereupon ye even at the first motion granted your good wills and consents thereunto, as by your handwriting evidently appeareth. And think not the contrary, but if ye mean deceit, though not forthwith yet hereafter God will revenge the same. I can say no more; but in this troublesome time wish you to use constant hearts, abandoning all malice, envy, and private affections.' Therewith-all the first course for the lords came up. Then the duke did knit up his talk with these words: 'I have not spoken to you on this sort upon any distrust I have of your truth, of the which always I have ever hitherto conceived a trusty confidence; but I have put you in remembrance thereof, what chance of variance soever might grow amongst you in my absence; and this I pray you, wish me no worse good-speed in this journey than ye would have to yourselves.' 'My lord (saith one of them) if ye mistrust any of us in this matter, your grace is far deceived; for which of us can wipe his hands clean thereof? And if we should shrink from you as one that were culpable, which of us can excuse himself as guiltless? Therefore herein your doubt is too far cast.' 'I pray God it be so (quoth the duke); let us go to dinner. And so they sate down.'"
Northumberland received from queen Jane the commission for the lieutenantship of the army, " sealed." The earl of Arundel "prayed God be with his grace; saying, he was very sorry it was not his chance to go with him and bear him company, in whose presence he could find in his heart to spend his blood, even at his foot." The next morning Northumberland departed, with six hundred men. "And as they went through Shoreditch, sayeth the duke to one that rid by him, the people press to see us, but not one sayeth God speed us." He was to have received succour at Northampton, but the promised aid of men and munition never arrived. Meanwhile the cause of Mary was prospering in every quarter. At Yarmouth the crews of six ships that had been sent to intercept her expected flight to the continent, declared that their captains should go to the bottom of the sea unless they would serve queen Mary. "After once the submission of the ships was known in the Tower, each man then begun to pluck in his horns; and, over that, word of a great mischief was brought to the Tower-the noblemen's tenants refused to serve their lords against queen Mary." Suspicion began to prevail amongst
* Harl. MS., reprinted by the Camden Society, edited by J. G. Nichols.