Evolution 101

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Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 - Всего страниц: 219
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What should the average person know about science? Because science is so central to life in the 21st century, science educators and other leaders of the scientific community believe that it is essential that everyone understand the basic concepts of the most vital and far-reaching disciplines. Evolution 101 does exactly that. This accessible volume provides readers - whether students new to the field or just interested members of the lay public - with the essential ideas of evolution using a minimum of jargon and mathematics. Concepts are introduced in a progressive order so that more complicated ideas build on simpler ones, and each is discussed in small, bite-sized segments so that they can be more easily understood.

Evolution 101 provides an introduction for non-scholars to this most powerful scientific theory, covering such issues as: the history of evolutionary thought, from before Darwin to the present day; the evidence for evolution, from fields as diverse as geology, molecular biology, paleontology, and more, that show how strongly supported evolution is; how evolution works, including topics ranging from behavior (e.g., sexual selection) to molecular biology (e.g., mutation); and evolution in our daily lives, including how evolution accounts for phenomena such as antibiotic resistance and pesticide resistance. This essential resource will answer the questions students and lay people have regarding evolution, and will point them on the path to further understanding.

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THE HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT
1
NAMING LIFE
4
LAMARCK PROPOSES THE FIRST TESTABLE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
10
CHARLES DARWIN
13
Darwin Sets Sail Aboard the Beagle and Sees the World
15
Darwins Life Back in England
20
DOWN HOUSE
25
Wallace Provokes Darwin to Announce His Idea
29
Sexual Reproduction Increases Genetic Variation
96
THE RED QUEEN AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
97
Mate Choice Can Be Adaptive
98
Selection for One Extreme Both Extremes or the Middle
100
Nice Guys Dont Have to Finish Last
103
CALCULATING COEFFICIENTS OF RELATEDNESS
105
MUTUALISM
107
SUMMARY
108

THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION AFTER DARWIN
38
DARWINS BOLD PREDICTION
40
SUMMARY
41
EVIDENCE FDR EVOLUTION
43
THE EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
46
DETERMINING THE AGES OF FDSSILS AND ROCKS
49
Fossils
50
Extinctions
55
Artificial Selection
56
Embryology
59
Biogeography
60
Comparative Anatomy
61
Vestigial Structures
65
Molecular Biology
67
WE CAN WATCH EVOLUTION HAPPEN
70
THE EVOLUTION OF DRUG RESISTANCE
72
CAN EVOLUTION BE STOPPED?
75
CONTRADICTORY EVIDENCE?
76
EVOLUTION IN THE COURTROOM
77
SUMMARY
78
HOW EVOLUTION WORKS
81
PESTICIDE RESISTANCE
82
DNA AND CHROMOSOMES
84
THE FREQUENCIES OF GENES CAN CHANGE
85
Mutation Can Cause Genetic Variation
87
Genetic Mixing Can Cause Genetic Variation
88
CONSERVATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY
91
Natural Selection Produces Adaptive Change in Gene Frequencies
92
THE SCALE AND PRODUCTS OF EVOLUTION
109
MACROEVOLUTION PRODUCES SPECIES DIVERSITY
112
WHAT IS A SPECIES?
113
Species Form When Shifts in Resources Disturb Gene Flow
115
Species Form When Mate Choice Restricts Gene Flow
116
THE COMMON THEME OF SPECIATION IS REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
117
A PHYLOGENY TRACES THE HISTORY OF SPECIATION
118
SHARED TRAITS REVEAL SHARED ANCESTRY
123
THREE TYPES BRANCHES OF LIVING ORGANISMS
124
THE EVOLUTION OF MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS
126
ADAPTIVE RADIATION FUELS BIODIVERSITY
133
POISONOUS OCEANS DEATH STARS AND MASS EXTINCTION
134
SUMMARY
137
EVOLUTION AND DUR DAILY LIVES
141
SOCIAL DARWINISM
143
EUGENICS
144
THE EVOLUTION OF PATHOGENS
147
SOCIOBIOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
149
SUMMARY
154
THE GEOLOGICAL TIMESCALE
155
LEGAL DECISIONS INVOLVING THE TEACHING OF EVOLUTION AND CREATIONISM IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
161
A TIMELINE FOR EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT
167
MEIOSIS AND CROSSING DVER
189
THE PRODUCTS OF EVOLUTION
193
GLOSSARY
205
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
211
INDEX
215
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Стр. 30 - Beagle," as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent.
Стр. 31 - It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent upon each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
Стр. 8 - ... would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warmblooded animals have arisen from one living filament...
Стр. 31 - There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.
Стр. 45 - There is no exception to the rule that every organic being naturally increases at so high a rate that, if not destroyed, the earth would soon be covered by the progeny of a single pair.
Стр. 20 - As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, }if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected.
Стр. 36 - We must, however, acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system- with all these exalted powers- Man still bears in his bodily...
Стр. 18 - I have not as yet noticed by far the most remarkable feature in the natural history of this archipelago; it is that the different islands to a considerable extent are inhabited by a different set of beings.
Стр. 29 - I thought of the enormously rapid multiplication of animals, causing these checks to be much more effective in them than in the case of man ; and while pondering vaguely on this fact there suddenly flashed upon me the idea of the survival of the fittest — that the individuals removed by these checks must be on the whole inferior to those that survived.
Стр. 97 - A slow sort of country!" said the Queen. "Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!

Об авторе (2006)

Randy Moore is H.T. Morse-Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor of Biology at the University of Minnesota. He had edited The American Biology Teacher and Journal of College Science Teaching, and serves on the editorial board of Journal of Biological Education. He has won numerous grants and teaching awards, including the Teacher Exemplar Award (Society for College Science Teachers). Moore, an Honorary Member of the National Association of Biology Teachers, has written over 200 articles and books, including numerous textbooks and Evolution in the Courtroom: A Reference Guide (2002).

Janice Moore is professor of Biology at Colorado State University. She is the author of numerous scholarly articles and the book Parasites and the Behavior of Animals (2002). She is also co-editor of Host-Parasite Evolution (1997) and serves on the editorial board of BioScience.

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