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schools abolished. The following are some extracts from the report. Let freemen note the progress of the rebellion:



Governments are instituted for the protection of the rights of persons and property; and any system must be radically defective which does not give ample security to both. The great interests of every community may be classed under the heads of labor and capital, and it is essential to the well-being of society that the proper equilibrium should be established between these important elements. The undue predominance of either must eventually prove destructive to the social system. Capital belongs to the few-labor to the many. In those systems in which capital has the ascendency, the Government must, to some extent, partake of the character of oligarchy, whilst in those in which labor is predominant the tendency is to what Mr. John Randolph graphically de-stitutes a partial restriction on the right of sufscribed as "the despotism of king numbers." frage. In the North men of every class and It is the office of enlightened statesmanship to condition of life are entitled to vote. In the secure to each its appropriate influence, but to South all who are in a condition of servitude give the absolute control to neither. are necessarily excluded from the exercise of political privileges, and the power of the country is wielded by the more intelligent classes, who have a permanent interest in the well-being of society.

In the opinion of your committee no system of government can afford permanent and effectual security to life, liberty, and property, which rests on the basis of unlimited suffrage, and the election of officers of every department of the Government by the direct vote of the people. The tendency of such a system is to demoralize the masses; to encourage the habit of office-seeking; to foster corruption at the polls, and to place unworthy and incompetent men in positions of trust and responsibility. These, however, are the vital principles of the social organization of the North, and, as before stated, their bitter fruits are already in a course of rapid development.

In the Southern States more conservative and rational principles still prevail. This is due mainly to the institution of slavery, which con


The political condition of the Northern States presents a striking illustration of the evils incident to the preponderance of the element of labor. In the early periods of their history these evils were not so apparent as they have since become. Their population was sparse, and the Western Territories afforded a convenient outlet for their restless citizens; property was easily acquired, and consequently the line of demarcation between labor and capital was not strictly drawn, because the laborer of to-day might readily become the capitalist of to-morrow. But within the last twenty years a marked change has taken place in the North. Population has become dense, and the safetyvalve afforded by emigration to the Western Territories has been greatly obstructed. Wages have not kept pace with the cost of subsistence, and the difficulty of acquiring property has greatly increased. The tendency of this new condition of things has been to divide society into two distinct classes, and to array the one against the other.

and of the institution of matrimony; and more distinctly in the form of abolitionism.


This tendency to a conflict between labor and capital has already manifested itself in many forms, comparatively harmless, it is true, but nevertheless clearly indicative of a spirit of licentiousness which must, in the end, ripen into agrarianism. It may be seen in the system of free schools, by which the children of the poor are educated at the expense of the rich; in the various forms of exemption and homestead bills; in the popular cry of "lands for the landless," and "homes for the homeless" in Fourierism and communism; in the habitual disregard of the ordinances of religion,

Slavery also constitutes an effectual barrier against that tendency to antagonism between labor and capital which exists in the North. There capital is the usual employer of labor, and is interested in diminishing its wages. Here capital is the owner of labor, and naturally seeks to enhance its rewards.

[The above report emanates from a committee which was appointed by the Convention in May last to consider such amendments to the Constitution of Virginia as may be necessary and proper. The Hon. A. H. H. Stuart, of Augusta County, is the chairman of the committee.]—National Intelligencer, Dec. 3.

Doc. 181.

AT HATTERAS, N. C., NOV. 20, 1861.
To the People of North Carolina:

On Monday, the 18th of November, 1861, a provisional or temporary Government for this Commonwealth was instituted at Hatteras, Hyde County, by a convention of the people, in which more than half the counties of the State were represented by delegates and authorized proxies. Ordinances were adopted by the Convention declaring vacant all State offices the incumbents whereof have disqualified theinselves to hold them by violating their official oaths to support the Constitution of the United States, which North Carolina has solemnly accepted as the supreme law of the land; pro


nouncing void and of no effect the ordinance of secession from the Federal Union, passed by the Convention assembled at Raleigh, May 20, 1861; continuing in full force the Constitution and laws of the State, as contained in the revised code of 1855-6, together with all subsequent acts not inconsistent with our paramount allegiance to the United States; appointing a Provisional Governor, and empowering him to fill such official vacancies and to do such acts as in his judgment might be required for the safety and good order of the State.

der of the rights of man and a craven recantation of the holy creed of freedom.

I therefore call upon all the good people of this Commonwealth to return to their allegiance to the United States, and to rally around the standard of State loyalty, which we have reerected and placed side by side with the glorious flag of the republic. I adjure you as North Carolinians, mindful of the inspiring tradition of your history, and keeping in view your true interests and welfare as a people, to rise and assert your independence of the wicked tyrants who are seeking to enslave you. Remember the men of Mecklenburg and the martyrs of Alamance-dead, but of undying memory-and endeavor to repeat their valor and their patriotism. MARBLE NASH TAYLOR, Provisional Governor of North Carolina. HATTERAS, Nov. 20, 1861.

Doc. 182.

NOVEMBER 19, 1861.



We have attempted no revolutionary innovations; we have made no change in the organic law, or sought to overthrow or disturb any of the institutions of the State. In repudiating and resisting the wanton usurpation which has flagrantly defied the will and now crushes the liberties of the people of this Commonwealth, we act in the pursuance of a sacred duty to North Carolina, and to that great republic, our common country, which invested them with the high dignity of American citizenship. We fulfil, moreover, an imperative obligation to God, to civilization, to freedom, and to humanity. We obey that cardinal maxim of sound government THE Confederate States steamer Nashville, which affirms that the popular welfare is the Captain Pegram, left Charleston on the night highest law. The good and loyal men of North of the 26th of October, at eleven o'clock, passCarolina have been for months past without anying over the bar at twelve. When she started domestic Government which they were bound the weather was thick and cloudy, but just as to respect, and the apparent consent of a large she was crossing the bar the weather cleared majority of the citizens to the armed power of up, and the moon rose brightly, lighting up in the revolutionists and traitors, who have un- full view to the eastward, distant about four warrantedly arrogated the governing authority miles, two steamers of the blockading squadron of the State, has been not a voluntary and cheer- -one the United States steam frigate Susqueful acquiescence, but a compelled and protesting hanna, of twelve guns, the other a powerful submission to a military despotism. The lives propeller gunboat. The Nashville, being under of citizens and their rights of property and per- the land and from the moon, was not seen by son have had no protection amidst the anarchy, them. She then encountered strong northmisrule, and disorder which have prevailed easterly winds and very heavy seas, but made throughout the Commonwealth. It had, there- the passage to Bermuda in three and a half days. fore, become necessary for the most ordinary On arriving at Bermuda she received a pilot on interests of society, as well as in vindication of board, who took the vessel to the dock-yard, our loyalty to the national authority, that our stating that, in consequence of her length, she municipal government, suppressed and over- could not go into St. George's. The next day borne as it was by reckless and irresponsible Captain Pegram, not being satisfied, obtained a usurpers, should be revived and maintained under second pilot from the dock-yard, who took the the protection of the banner of the Union. The Nashville safely round into St. George's, at temporary State Government which we have which place the vessel coaled. During their accordingly set on foot has the approval in ad- stay at Bermuda the commander and officers vance of thousands of good and faithful North were treated with the greatest hospitality and Carolinians, and should command the prompt kindness, both by the citizens and the officers and cordial adhesion of all loyal citizens of the of the English army and navy stationed there, State. Of the desperate and ill-starred fortunes and every facility for getting stores, coals, &c., of the rebellion, and of its ultimate and thorough was afforded them by the inhabitants. A few suppression, no rational man can entertain a days prior to the arrival at Bermuda of the doubt. It has the recognition of no nation un- Nashville the United States steamer Connectider heaven, and the world's sympathies are cut had called at the island for the purpose of unanimous in its condemnation; it is every- ascertaining if the Nashville had been there. where regarded as not only a revolt against a She had a crew of four hundred men, with six most beneficent and paternal Government, but guns mounted. Not hearing any thing of the as assailing also law, order, progress, and all steamer they were in search of, they again prothe great interests of mankind throughout the ceeded to sea, without stating their destination. globe. It is an aggressive war upon popular The Nashville sailed again for Bermuda on the liberty in the United States, and its claims can 5th instant, and from the next day until the never be conceded short of an absolute surren- 17th she experienced a succession of gales from

all points of the compass. Nothing of interest further transpired until the 19th, when she destroyed the United States ship Harvey Birch.


The following is the report of Commander Pegram: On the morning of the 19th instant at eight A. M., sighted the packet-ship Harvey Birch, of New York; immediately bore down upon her; when near enough, hailed her, having unlimbered guns and cleared decks for action. Then spoke the vessel and ordered the captain to haul down his colors and bring his papers on board. The Stars and Stripes immediately went down slowly, and Captain Nelson and his crew came on board the Nashville. Captain Pegram then informed him that he demanded an unconditional surrender, but all private effects would be respected. The crew were then brought on board, and with the exception of Captain Nelson, his two mates, and a passenger, were placed in irons. The captain and mates were allowed to retain their revolvers, but put upon parole. A few provisions were then brought on board, and the Harvey Birch committed to flames. Before the Nashville left her the three masts were seen to fall, and the entire vessel enveloped in a burning mass. Captain Pegram states that the burning of the ship and hauling down of her flag was the most painful act of his life, having for a period of thirty-two years fought and served under the United States flag. The crew of the burnt ship describe the officers of the Nashville as young and inexperienced, and their disgust is beyond expression at being taken by such a set of "brats of boys," as they describe them. To use the expression of one of them, he said, "By, if only half a dozen of us had been loose, we would have cowhided the whole of the lot over the stern, clean." A good joke is told of the captain of the Nashville, who, it appears, belonged to the American navy for thirty years before Half-past Six P. M.-I saw the masts go over he joined the secessionists. In relating the the side. The Nashville then proceeded to capture of the ship to a gentleman at South-Southampton to land the crew of the Harvey ampton, he observed that he felt bound to treat JAMES STEWART, Second Officer. the captain and officers with every attention and kindness, that he invited them daily to his own table, and behaved with true hospitality and courtesy; "but," said he, "my mortification was great when I sent them on shore to find that they did not acknowledge my kindness by even expressing their thanks."

Eleven A. M.-The crew left their ship and went on board the Nashville. The lieutenant of the Nashville, with his crew, went on board the Harvey Birch, and set her on fire.


-London Times.

Captain Pegram held the following commis

sion under the "Confederate" seal:

He is therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of lieutenant by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging, and I do strictly charge all officers and others under his command to be obedient to his orders as lieutenant.

And he is to observe and follow such orders and directions as from time to time he shall receive from me, the future President of the Confederate States of America, or the superior officers set over him, according to the rules and discipline of war.

Given under my hand at the city of Richmond, this 20th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1861. JEFFERSON Davis.

The President of the Confederate States of America,

To all who shall see these presents, greeting: Know ye that, reposing special trust and confidence in the patriotism, valor, fidelity, and abilities of Robert B. Pegram, I do appoint him a lieutenant in the navy of the Confederate States, to rank as such from the 10th day of June, A. D. 1861.

By the President,
S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy.

The following statement was taken by the Quarantine officer at Southampton, Eng., from the second mate of the Harvey Birch:



On Tuesday morning, at nine A. M., about forty miles off Cape Clear, the steamer Nashville came alongside the Harvey Birch, Capt. Nelson, from Havre, in ballast, bound to New York. He ordered us to haul our flag down, the United States color, and the captain to come on board. The captain went on board, and remained about fifteen minutes. He then returned to his ship, and gave James Stewart, second officer of the ship, orders to tell the crew to pack their things up, and bring them to the gangway, (bags only.) with the exception of the officers, who were allowed to bring their chests.


The following is the protest of Captain W. H. Nelson, master of the Harvey Birch:

I, William Henry Nelson, of the city of New York, in the United States of America, Master Mariner, do solemnly, sincerely, and truly swear that I sailed from the said city of New York, on the 20th day of September last, as master of, and in, the ship Harvey Birch, of New York, a ship owned and registered in New York, in conformity with the laws of the United States, bound for the port of Havre de Grace, in France, with a cargo consisting of wheat. About the 9th day of October I arrived at Havre, and having discharged the cargo of my ship and ballasted her, I sailed in her again for the port of New York, on the 16th day of November, first having received the register, crew list,

signed it. I was frequently told that an oath would be exacted, of us "not to take up arms against the Confederate States" before I could be liberated, but I was liberated without any such being taken. The steamer steamed up the English channel, and arrived at Southampton at about eight A. M. on the 21st instant, and came to anchor in the river. Captain Pegram then told me that I and my crew were at liberty, and might go on shore, but he refused to put us on shore, and I therefore employed a steamtug at my own expense, and landed my crew in Southampton docks between nine and ten A. M., and they were taken charge of by the United States consul there. Repeatedly while on board the steamer, in conversations with her officers, I was told that she was not fitted out as a vessel of war, that she was on a special mission to England, but naval officers were in command of her. I was told by one of the crew, that the crew originally signed articles at Charleston, South Carolina, to go to Liverpool, but that before sailing the officers were all changed, and new articles were brought on board, which the crew were compelled to sign by threats of force. I was also informed that the crew was composed of English and Irish.

articles, and all papers belonging to the ship in proper form from the United States consul there. On the morning of Tuesday, the 19th instant, the ship then being in about lat. 49° 6' N., long. 9° 52′ W., a steamer was made out bearing for the Harvey Birch, which, on getting nearer, was found to be an armed vessel, and hoisted at the peak the flag of the so-called Confederate States; and when within hailing distance a person on board, who I learned was the captain, hailed my ship, saying, "Haul down your colors and heave the ship to," the ensign of the United States being at this time set at the peak of my vessel. This order was complied with, and I then received the order, "Lower your boat and come on board," which I also complied with, taking my ship's papers with me. After arriving on board the steaner I was introduced by the first lieutenant, by name Fauntleroy, to Captain Pegram, as commander of the Confederate States steamer Nashville, to whom I produced all the papers of my ship for examination, to show that I was engaged in legal trade. Captain Pegram took the ship's papers. He did not return them, and still holds them, and then told me that he should hold me a prisoner of war by authority of the Confederate States. He then told me I might go on board my ship, and I was ordered to send my crew on board the steamer as quick-gram, who refuses to deliver them up. The ly as possible. I returned to my ship, and at Harvey Birch was a ship six years old, and of once made preparations to leave her, but orders 1,482 tons register. Before we lost sight of were repeatedly given from the steamer to the ship her masts had gone over the side, and hurry up, and sufficient time was not given to she was burnt to the water's edge. enable either myself or my crew to get our ef W. H. NELSON. fects out of the ship. The second lieutenant, Sworn before me in the consulate of the with other officers, came on board the ship and United States at London this 22d day of Notook charge of her, and orders were given to vember, 1861. seize fresh stores, etc., and in consequence thereof all the fresh meat, poultry, pigs, eggs, and butter were taken out and put on board the steamer, and especially it was ordered that all the oil, tea, coffee, and sugar should be put on board the steamer, which was done.

The chronometer and barometer belonging to the Harvey Birch, were taken by Captain Pe

When all this had been accomplished, the crew left the ship by order of the second lieutenant, I being last on board, leaving the second lieutenant and his boat's crew in charge of the ship. After arriving on board the steamer we saw that the Harvey Birch was in flames, and the second lieutenant returned on board the steamer with his boat, which was secured, but the ship's quarter boats, which had been used in communicating, were cast adrift. Captain Pegram now said, "Now, as it is all over, we will give her a gun," or words to that effect, and a gun was discharged at the ship, but without apparently hitting her. The steamer then was put on an easterly course, the crew of the ship having been previously put in irons. I, with my officers, was summoned to the captain's cabin, and there signed, at the request of the captain, a document stating that we would not take up arms against them while in their custody; he having said that I and my officers should have our liberty on board when we had

Captain Nelson stated that Commander Pegram endeavored to compel himself and crew to take the oath of allegiance and not to take up arms against the Southern States. This was denied by Commander Pegram and officers, who stated that the only document that Captain Nelson and officers were requested to sign was one of which the following is a copy:

AT SEA, November 19, 1861.
We, the undersigned, officers and passengers
on board the United States ship Harvey Birch,
being now prisoners on board the Confederate
States steainer Nashville, do pledge to our own
captain our sacred honor not to bear arms
against or in any manner to countenance hostili-
ties against such Confederate States till our
regular exchange or discharge.

W. H. NELSON, Master.
J. B. BLYDENBURGH, Passenger.
PAUL F. HALLETT, Carpenter.
THOMAS W. LOFBYS, Boatswain.


The remainder of the crew, not having signed the above document, were placed in irons until their arrival at Southampton.

-London Times, Nov. 23.

Doc. 183.



MAYOR'S OFFICE, November 22, 1861. I, Charles Macbeth, Mayor of the city of Charleston, do hereby most earnestly appeal to the citizens of this city to come forward and assist the military and civil authorities in putting Charleston in a proper state of defence. A large number of laborers are wanted, and called for, on the works now progressing around the city; and surely there is a sufficient number of unemployed laborers to supply the demand. Proper arrangements will be made for the superintendence and subsistence of all laborers that may be tendered, and I confidently hope that every citizen of the city will, without any further appeal, come forward promptly and report at the City Hall the number of laborers CHARLES MACBETH, Mayor. By the Mayor-JOHN R. HORSEY,

he can contribute.

Clerk of the Council.

Doc. 184.

NOVEMBER 22, 1861.

A correspondent of the Philadelphia Enquirer gives the following particulars of the attack upon the rebel camp at Warwick by the gunboats Cambridge and Hertzel.

An intelligent deserter from the Tenth Georgia regiment reached Newport News on the morning of Friday last, and was taken to headquarters at Fortress Monroe, where, upon being interrogated, he made known the location of a number of important rebel camps on the right bank of the James River.

Acting upon this information, an expedition, consisting of two gunboats, was prepared on Friday, in readiness to proceed at nightfall to the junction of the James and Warwick rivers, about five and one-half miles above Newport News. The Cambridge led the way and steamed without interruption until reaching the point designated, where the white tents of the enemy could be plainly discerned on a low wooded triangular piece of land. This was near midnight.

Almost before the rebel pickets could give the alarm, the gunboats were in position, and had opened fire upon the camps, the guns following each other in rapid succession.

No effectual resistance was made by the enemy, and the discharges were continued for

over an hour, at which time the camps appeared nearly deserted. The darkness of the night and the want of sufficient men prevented a landing being effected. Indeed, this was not the object of the expedition, the sole aim being to destroy the camps by an efficient cannonade, and this was successfully accomplished. It is believed that the loss of life on the part of the rebels was heavy, owing to the suddenness of the attack, and their comparatively defenceless


After the exploit the gunboats returned to Newport News and anchored in the stream, the result being communicated to Gen. Wool and Commodore Goldsborough.

The rebel deserter alluded to was about twenty years of age. He managed to elude the vigilance of the outer rebel pickets, and followed the sandy shore of James River, from the camp which he was deserting to Newport News, where he was met by five men of one of the Massachusetts regiments, and taken in charge. He desired to return to his parents in the time of the blockade was attached to a Boston. He was a sailor by profession, and at the blockade, she was unable to get to sea, and Massachusetts vessel Savannah. Owing to the lad found himself without employment. He finally visited Augusta, Georgia, and being entirely destitute of money, and attracted by the placards covering the walls of the city, promising eleven dollars per month to those who would enlist, he became a member of the Tenth Georgia regiment, Col. Cummins.

The regiment was armed principally with smooth-bore muskets. It was composed of sailors and the laboring men of Augusta, and after its organization was located at many different points without seeing active service, until finally, about two months ago, it left Richmond and came down the James River to a place known as Young's Mills, in Warwick County, Va., on the banks of Deep Creek. Here a camp was formed, and in this same neighborhood were, and still are (except those scattered by the gunboats) the following regiments: Tenth Georgia, Col. Cummins; Second Louisiana, Col. Farnaw; Fifteenth Virginia, Second Florida, Tenth Louisiana, Sixth Georgia, Louisiana Zouaves, five hundred cavalry, one battery of eight pieces.

The Second Louisiana regiment had the most exposed position, the camp being on the point of land at the confluence of the Warwick and James rivers and Deep Creek. It was this regiment which sustained the fire of the gunboats, as already stated. On the point they have thrown up an earthwork, and procured two howitzers for its defence. They have also brought a number of old canal boats down from Richmond, and sunk them across the entrance to Warwick River, a stream one mile in width at its mouth.

The Tenth Georgia camp adjoins that of the Second Louisiana, being further up the shore of Warwick River. Adjoining these, and still

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