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£ s. d. Inquiry into the Performance of Steam-vessels ........

124 0 0 Explorations in the Yellow Sand.

stone of Dura Den............. 20 0 0 Chemico-mechanical Analysis of

Rocks and Minerals ............. 25 0 0 Researches on the Growth of Plants.........

10 0 0 Researches on the Solubility of Salts...........

30 0 0 Researches on the Constituents of Manures

25 0 0 Balance of Captive Balloon Ac. counts......

1 13 6

£1241 7 0

1861. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory

500 0 0 Earthquake Experiments......... 25 0 0 Dredging North and East Coasts of Scotland..........

23 0 Dredging Committee:1860 ...... £50 0 0

72 0 0 1861 £22 0 05 Excavations at Dura Den......... 20 0 0 Solubility of Salts

20 0 0 Steam-vessel Performance

150 0 0 Fossils of Lesmahago

15 0 0 Explorations at Uriconium

20 0 0 Chemical Alloys

20 0 0 Classified Index to the Transactions

100 0 0 Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 0 0 Dip Circle

30 0 0 Photoheliographic Observations 50 0 0 Prison Diet

20 0 0 Gauging of Water..................

10 0 0 Alpine Ascents

6 5 1 Constituents of Manures

25 0 0

£1111 5 10

1862. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory

500 0 0 Patent Laws

21 6 0 Mollusca of N.-W. America...... 10 0 0 Natural History by Mercantile Marine

0 0 Tidal Observations

25 0 0 Photoheliometer at Kew

40 0 0 Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 0 0 Rocks of Donegal.

25 0 0 Dredging Durham and Northumberland .........

25 0 0 Connexion of Storins..

20 0 0 Dredging North-east Coast of Scotland......

6 S 6 Ravages of Teredo

3 11 0 Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 0 0 Railway Accidents

10 0 Balloon Committee

200 0 0 Dredging Dublin Bay

10 0 0 Dredging the Mersey

5 0 0 Prison Diet

20 0 0 Gauging of Water.....

12 10 0

1863. Maintaining the Establishment

of Kew Observatory.......... 600 0 0 Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 0 0 Entozoa .....

25 0 0 Coal Fossils

20 0 0 Herrings

20 0 0 Granites of Donegal......... 5 0 0 Prison Diet.....

20 0 0 Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 0 0 Dredging Shetland

50 0 0 Dredging North-east coast of Scotland

25 0 0 Dredging Northumberland and Durhan...

17 3 10 Dredging Committee superintendence.

10 0 0 Steamship Performance

100 0 0 Balloon Committee

200 0 0 Carbon under pressure....

10 0 0 Volcanic Temperature

100 0 0 Bromide of Ammonium

8 0 0 Electrical Standards....... 100 0 0

Construction and distribu. tion

40 0 0 Luminous Meteors

17 0 0 Kew Additional Buildings for Photoheliograph

100 0 0 Thermo-Electricity

15 0 0 Analysis of Rocks

8 0 0 Hydroida

10 0 0

£1608 3 10

1864. Maintaining the Establishment

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 Coal Fossils

20 0 0 Vertical Atmospheric Movements...

20 0 0 Dredging Shetland

75 00 Dredging Northumberland 25 0 0 Balloon Committee

............... 200 0 0 Carbon under pressure.

10 0 0 Standards of Electric Resistance 100 0 0 Analysis of Rocks.................. 10 0 0 Hydroida

10 0 0 Askham's Gift

50 0 0 Nitrite of Amyle

10 0 0 Nomenclature Committee

5 0 0 Rain-Gauges ....

19 15 8 Cast-Iron Investigation

20 0 0 Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 00 Spectral Rays

45 0 0 Luminous Metcors

20 0 0

£1289 15 8

1865. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory.

600 0 0 Balloon Committee

100 0 0 Hydroida

13 0 0

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50

8. d. Rain-Gauges ....

30 0 0 Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 0 Hexylic Compounds...

20 0 0 Amyl Compounds...

20 0 0 Irish Flora

25 0 0 American Mollusca

3 90 Organic Acids

20 0 0 Lingula Flags-Excavation 10 0 0 Eurypterus

50 0 0 Electrical Standards...... 100 0 0 Malta Caves Researches

30 0 0 Oyster Breeding

25 0 0 Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 0 0 Kent's Hole Excavations ...... 100 0 0 Moon's Surface Observations 35 0 0 Marine Fauna

25 0 0 Dredging Aberdeenshire

25 0 0 Dredging Channel Islands 50 0 0 Zoological Nomenclature...... 5 0 0 Resistance of Floating Bodies in Water

100 0 0 Bath Waters Analysis

8 10 0 Luminous Meteors

40 00

€1591 7 10

1866. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory

600 0 0 Lunar Committee...

64 13 Balloon Committee

50 0 Metrical Committee..

50 0 British Rainfall......

0 Kilkenny Coal Fields

16 0 0 Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 0 0 Luminous Meteors

50 0 0 Lingula Flags Excavation 20 0 0 Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron

50 0 0 Amyl Compounds.....

0 0 Electrical Standards..

100 0 0 Malta Caves Exploration.. 30 0 0 Kent's Hole Exploration 200 0 0 Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and Cornwall

25 0 0 Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 0 0 Dredging Hebrides Coast... 50 0 0 Dredging the Mersey

5 0 0 Resistance of Floating Bodies in Water

50 0 0 Polycyanides of Organic Radicals

20 0 0 Rigor Mortis

10 0 0 Irish Annelida

15 0 0 Catalogue of Crania

50 0 0 Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 00 Typical Crania Researches 30 0 0 Palestine Exploration Fund...... 100 0 0

£1750 13 4

1867. Maintaining the Establishment

£ S. d. Metrical Committee .....

30 0 0 Kent's Hole Explorations 100 0 0 Palestine Explorations..... 50 0 0 Insect Fauna, Palestine

30 0 0 British Rainfall..

50 0 0 Kilkenny Coal Fields

25 0 0 Alum Bay Fossil Leaf.Bed 25 0 0 Luminous Meteors

50 0 Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds 30 0 0 Dredging Shetland

75 0 0 Steamship Reports Condensation 100 0 0 Electrical Standards................ 100 0 0 Ethyle and Methyle series 25 0 0 Fossil Crustacea

25 0 0 Sound under Water

24 4 0 North Greenland Fauna

75 00 Do.

Plant Beds 100 0 0 Iron and Steel Manufacture 25 0 0 Patent Laws

25

............

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 Meteorological Instruments, Pa. lestine

50 0 0 Lunar Committee.......

120 00

....................

30 0 0

£1739 40

1868. Maintaining the Establishment

of Kew Observatory.... 600 0 0 Lunar Committee....

120 00 Metrical Committee............... 50 0 0 Zoological Record

100 0 0 Kent's Hole Explorations 150 0 0 Steamship Performances

.......... 100 0 0 British Rainfall

50 0 0 Luminous Meteors

50 0 0 Organic Acids

60 0 Fossil Crustacea

25 0 0 Methyl series

25 0 0 Mercury and Bile.

25 0 0 Organic remains in Limestone Rocks

25 0 0 Scottish Earthquakes

20 0 0 Fauna, Devon and Cornwall 30 0 0 British Fossil Corals.......... 50 0 0 Bagshot Leaf-beds

50 0 0 Greenland Explorations 100 0 0 Fossil Flora

25 0 0 Tidal Observations

100 0 0
Underground Temperature 50 0 0
Spectroscopic investigations of
Animal Substances

5 0 0 Secondary Reptiles, &c.

30 0 British Marine Invertebrate Fauna

100 0 0

£1940 0 0

1869. Maintaining the Establishment

of Kew Observatory.......... 600 0 0 Lunar Committee ...

50 0 0 Metrical Committee..

25 0 0 ical Record....

100
Committee on Gases in Deep-
well Water

25 0 0 British Rainfall..

50 0 0 Thermal Conductivity of Iron, &c......

30 0 0 Kent's Hole Explorations 150 0 0 Steamship Performances.......... 30 0 0

.......

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£ 8. d. Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron

80 0 0 Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 0 0 Methyl Series

30 0 0 Organic remains in Limestone Rocks......

10 0 0 Earthquakes in Scotland.. 10 0 0 British Fossil Corals

50 0 0 Bagshot Leaf-Beds

30 0 0 Fossil Flora

25 0 0 Tidal Observations

100 0 0 Underground Temperature 30 0 0 Spectroscopic Investigations of Animal Substances

5 0 0 Organic Acids

12 0 0 Kiltorcan Fossils

20 0 0 Chemical Constitution and Phy

siological Action Relations 15 0 0 Mountain Limestone Fossils ......

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25 0 0 Utilization of Sewage

10 0 0 Products of Digestion

10 0 0 €1622 0 0

1871. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory

........ 600

0 0 Monthly Reports of Progress in Chemistry ...

100 0 0 Metrical Committee...

25 0 0 Zoological Record......

100 0 Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlorine

10 0 0 Tidal Observations

100 0 0 Fossil Flora

25 0 0 Luminous Meteors

30 0 0 British Fossil Corals.....

25 9 0 Heat in the Blood

7 2 6 British Rainfall....

50 0 0 Kent's Hole Explorations 150 00 Fossil Crustacea

25 0 0 Methyl Compounds

25 0 0 Lunar Objects

20 0 0 Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho. tographing........

20 0 Bagshot Leaf-Beds

20 0 0 Moab Explorations

100 0 0 Gaussian Constants

40 0 0 €1472 2 6

1870. Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory.

600 0 0 Metrical Committee ..

25 0 0 Zoological Record

100 0 0 Committee on Marine Fauna 20 0 0 Ears in Fishes

10 0 0 Chemical nature of Cast Iron 80 0 0 Luminous Meteors

30 0 0 Heat in the Blood

15 0 0 British Rainfall.........

100 0 0 Thermal Conductivity of Iron &c. 2000 British Fossil Corals......

50 0 0 Kent's Hole Explorations 150 0 0 Scottish Earthquakes

4 0 0

...............

General Meetings.

On Wednesday Evening, August 2, at 8 P.M., in the Music Hall, Professor T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President, resigned the office of President to Professor Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page lxxxiv,

On Thursday Evening, August 3, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, F. A. Abel, Esq. F.R.S., Director of the Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, delivered a Discourse on “ Some Recent Investigations and Applications of Explosive Agents."

On Friday Evening, August 4, at 8 P.M., a Soirée took place in the University Library.

On Monday Evening, August 7, at 8.30 P.M., in the Music Hall, E. B. Tylor, Esq., delivered a Discourse on “ The Relation of Primitive to Modern Civilization."

On Tuesday Evening, August 8, at 8 P.M., a Soirée took place in the Museum of Science and Art.

On Wednesday, August 9, at 2.30 P.M., the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. The Meeting was then adjourned to Brighton*.

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 14, 1872.

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ADDRESS

OF

SIR WILLIAM THOMSON, Knt., LL.D., F.R.S.,

PRESIDENT.

66

For the third time of its forty years' history the British Association is assembled in the metropolis of Scotland. The origin of the Association is connected with Edinburgh in undying memory through the honoured names of Robison, Brewster, Forbes, and Johnston.

In this place, from this Chair, twenty-one years ago, Sir David Brewster said :-"On the return of the British Association to the metropolis of Scot“ land I am naturally reminded of the small band of pilgrims who carried “ the seeds of this Institution into the more genial soil of our sister land.”

“Sir John Robison, Professor Johnston, and Professor J. D. Forbes were the earliest friends and promoters of the British Association. They went to York to assist in its establishment, and they found there the

very men who were qualified to foster and organize it. The Rev. Mr. “ Vernon Harcourt, whose name cannot be mentioned here without grati“ tude, had provided laws for its government, and, along with Mr. Phillips, “ the oldest and most valuable of our office-bearers, had made all those “ arrangements by which its success was ensured. Headed by Sir Roderick “ Murchison, one of the very earliest and most active advocates of the “ Association, there assembled at York about 200 of the friends of science.”

The statement I have read contains no allusion to the real origin of the British Association. This blank in my predecessor's historical sketch I am able to fill in from words written by himself twenty years earlier. Through the kindness of Professor Phillips I am enabled to read to you part of a letter to him at York, written by David Brewster from Allerly by Melrose, on the 23rd of February, 1831:

~ Dear Sir,—I have taken the liberty of writing you on a subject of con“siderable importance. It is proposed to establish a British Association of “ men of science similar to that which has existed for eight years in Ger“ many, and which is now patronized by the most powerful Sovereigns of that part of Europe. The arrangements for the first meeting are in

and “ it is contemplated that it shall be held in York, as the most central city for “ the three kingdoms. My object in writing you at present is to beg that you “ would ascertain if York will furnish the accommodation necessary for so

progress;

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