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parts, viz. :-(1) a steam-nozzle of annular cross section, discharging steam in the form of a hollow cylindrical body of a thickness of wall of not more than 02 (one fiftieth) of an inch; (2) a mixing-chamber, with contracted annular inlets for the air, equal in area to its least sectional area, and of a length equal to from five to six diameters; (3) a parabolic delivery-pipe of considerable length, in which the mixed current is gradually brought to the condition of comparative rest, and its momentum or living force is reconverted into potential force or pressure.

The result of a long series of experiments leads to the conclusions :-(1) That the quantitative effect

of a steam-blower depends upon the amount of contact surface between the air and steam, irrespective of the steam pressure, up to a certain limit of compression, where the impelling action ceases; (2) that the maximum attainable differences of pressure increase, under otherwise similar circumstances, in direct proportion with the steam pressure employed; (3) that the quantitative effect produced is regulated (within the limits of efficient action of the instrument) by the weight of air impelled, and that therefore a better dynamical result is realized in exhausting than in compressing air; (4) that the limits of difference of pressure attainable are the same in exhausting and in compressing.

It was stated that with this apparatus a vacuum of 24 inches of mercury had been obtained, and that with two of these apparatus a working vacuum of 10 inches of mercury had been maintained at one end of a pneumatic despatch-tube 3 inches in diameter, through which carriers were propelled at the mean rate of about 1000 feet per minute.

Automatic Gauge for the Discharge of Water over Waste Weirs.

By Thomas STEVENSON, F.R.S.E., M.I.C.E., C.E. The author stated that, in order to ascertain the amount of available rainfall, which is so important in questions of water supply, it is necessary to gauge the quantity of water which escapes at the waste weirs of reservoirs. Observations made only once or twice a day cannot supply the information. It is proposed to place a tube perforated vertically with small holes, the lowest of which is on a level with the top of the waste weir, so that, whenever water passes over the weir, it also passes through the holes in the tube. The water is collected in a tank capable of holding the discharge for a certain number of hours; the quantity so collected is a known submultiple of what passes over the weir. The discharge through the holes is ascertained by experiment. This self-acting apparatus will render the continuous observations of floods unnecessary.

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Thermometer of Translation for recording the Daily Changes of Temperature.

By Thomas STEVENSON, F.R.S.E., M.I.C.E., C.Ě. The author described what he termed a thermometer of translation, which con. sisted of an expansible body with a needle-point at its upper end, and which, when expanded by the sun, is fixed at its upper end by a needle-point catching into fine teeth cut in a sheet of glass or other material of small expansibility placed below. When the sun is obscured, the upper end being fixed, the contraction raises the centre of gravity of the bar. In this way the daily march or creep of the bar chronicles the change or changes of temperature. _Mr. Stevenson also described two different methods, suggested by his friends Professors Tait and Swan, for increasing the amount of expansion of the material employed.

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On improved Ships of War. By MICHAEL SCOTT.

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On a Road Steamer. By W. Thomson. The great feature in the construction of this machine is the use of a very thick. india-rubber tire, to the outer circumference of which is attached a chain of flat plates of iron. These india-rubber tires not only completely prevented hard shocks 1871.

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to the machinery, but saved the road from the grinding-action of the iron wheels which was so injurious to bye-ways. There had been serious objections made to the use of these engines with rigid tires; but the author ventured to assert that the india-rubber tires not only did not injure, but actually improved the roads. The only ground upon which india-rubber tires did not work well was where the soil was extremely wet, or of a very soft and sloppy nature. For farm work, the wheels of the engine required a much thicker coat of india-rubber.

APPENDIX.

Notes on Dredging at Madeira. By the Rev. ROBERT Boog Watson, B.A., F.R.S.E., F.G.S. The difficulties of shell-gathering at Madeira are very many and very great

. As the result of several years' work, the author has to record that six or seven species mentioned in MacAndrew's List have hitherto escaped him; that to the one hundred and twenty-seven species named by MacAndrew (besides these he gives twenty-nine unnamed=one hundred and fifty-six in all) the author has succeeded in adding something like two hundred and fifty more, or from three hundred and fifty to four hundred in all ; and while these strongly confirm MacAndrew's generalization of the Mediterranean character of the Mollusca, yet a few of them present forms belonging some of them to the tropics, and others to very distant localities, as, for instance, Ranella rhodostoma and Triton chlorostoma, which Reere, not perhaps very reliably, assigns, the first to the Islands of Capul and Masbate of the Philippines, and the second to the Island of Annaa in the Pacific. Further, among these two hundred or two hundred and fifty species, eighty or, perhaps, ninety may probably prove to be new species, and three or four new genera.

It is somewhat curious that only one of the author's new species has been recognized by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys as obtained by him from the Porcupine dredgings.

The publication of full details is contemplated by the author.

On the Ciliated Condition of the Inner Layer of the Blastoderm and of the

Omphalo-mesenteric Vessels in the Egg of the Common Fowl. By B. T. Lowxe.

Mr. Lowne stated that the number of observations he had at present made were insufficient to substantiate his opinion beyond a doubt, but that he thought it ertremely probable, from what he had seen, that, Ist, the inner layer of the blastoderni is ciliated, at least in tracts of its surface. He had several times observed the most marked currents, and he believed, but was not certain, that he had distinguished the cilia.

2ndly. From a single observation he thought that the interior of the omphalomesenteric vessels is ciliated. He saw in a portion of the blastoderm of a five-day chick the most marked circulation in the omphalo-mesenteric vessels. In one large vessel, especially where the two cut extremities were blocked with bloodcorpuscles, a rapid movement was taking place.

Mr. Lowne stated that he was still investigating the subject.

INDEX I.

TO

REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.

OBJECTS and rules of the Association, Adderley (Rt. Ilon. Sir O. B.) on a
xyii.

uniformity of weights and measures
Places and times of meeting, with names 198.

of officers from commencement, xxiv. Aërolites, 37.
List of former Presidents and Secretaries Anhydrous chloral, on the physiological
of the Sections, xxx.

action of, 148.
List of evening lectures, xxxix.

Ansted (Prof. D. T.) on the treatment
Lectures to the Operative Classes, xli. and utilization of sewage, 166.
Table showing the attendance and re- Arterialization, on the heat generated

ceipts at the Annual Meetings, xlii. in the blood during the process of,
Treasurer's account, xliv.

137.
Officers and Council for 1871-72, xlv. Astronomy, meteoric, papers relating to ,
Officers of Sectional Committees, xlvi. 44.
Report of Council to the General Com-
mittee at Edinburgh, xlvii.

Balfour (Prof. J. H.) on physiological
Report of the Kew Committee, 1870-71, experimentation, 144.
1.

Barnes (Rev. H.) on the practicability
Accounts of the Kew Committee, 1870– of establishing "a close time" for
71, lxviii.

the protection of indigenous animals,
Recommendations adopted by the Gene- 197.

ral Committee at Edinburgh :-invol- Bateman (J. F.) on the rainfall of the
ving grants of money, lxix; applica- British Isles, 98.
tions for reports and researches, Ixxii; Baxter (R. Dudley) on a uniformity of
application to Government, lxxiii; plan for the census of the United
communications to be printed in ex- Kingdom, 57.
tenso, lxxiii; resolutions referred to Bazalgette (J. V. N.) on a uniformity of
the Council by the General Committee, weights and measures, 198.
lxxiii.

Beyer (C. F.) on steam-boiler explo-
Synopsis of grants of money appropriated

sions, 166.
to scientific purposes, lxxiv.

Binney (E. W.) on the rate of increase
General statement of sums which have of underground temperature, 14.

been paid on account of grants for Birt (W.R.) on the discussion of obser-
scientific purposes, lxxvi.

vations of spots on the surface of the
Arrangement of General Meetings, lunar crater Plato, 60.
Ixxxiii.

Black (Dr.), Letters from M. Lavoisier
Address by the President, Professor

Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., Blood, effects of some narcotic vapours
lxxxiv.

on the minute circulation of the, 159.

-, report on the heat generated in
Adams (Prof. J. C.) on the rainfall of the, during the process of arterializa-

the British Isles, 98; on tidal obser- tion, 137.
vations, 203.

Boiler-explosions, report on the various

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to, 189.

plans proposed for legislating on the | Danson (J. T.) on a uniformity of plan
subject of, 166.

for the census of the United Kingdom,
Bowring (Sir John) on a uniformity of

57.
weights and measures, 198.

Dawkins (W. Boyd) on the exploration
Bramwell (F.J.) on steam-boiler explo- of Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, 1.
sions, 166.

Denton (J. Bailey) on the treatment and
British Isles, report on the rainfall of utilization of sewage, 166.
the, 98.

Dewar (James) on the thermal equira-
Bromal hydrate, on the physiological lents of the oxides of chlorine, 193.
action of, 150.

Dircks (H.) on a uniformity of weights
Bronchial surface during narcotism, on and measures, 198.

the condensation of water on the, 164. | Dohrn (Dr. Anton) on the foundation of
Brooke (Charles) on luminous meteors, zoological stations in different parts of

26; on the rainfall of the British the world, 192.
Isles, 98.

Dresser (H. E.) on the practicability of
Brough (J.) on earthquakes in Scotland, establishing "a close time” for the
197.

protection of indigenous animals, 197.
Brown (Samuel) on a uniformity of Duncan (Dr.) on the structure and clas-
weights and measures, 198.

sitication of the fossil crustacea, 53 ;
Bryce (Dr.) on earthquakes in Scotland, report on the British fossil corals, 116.

197.
Busk (George) on the exploration of Earthquakes in Scotland, report of the
Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, 1.

committee on, 197.

Etheridge (R.) on the structure and clas-
Census of the United Kingdom, report sification of the fossil crustacea, 53.

of the committee on a uniformity of Evans (John) on the exploration of
plan for the, 57.

Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, l.
Chemical papers, report on the publica- Everett (Prof.) on the rate of increase of
tion of abstracts of, 59.

underground temperature, 14.
Chloral hydrate, on the physiological
action of, 145.

Fairbairn (Sir W., Bart.) on steam-
Chlor-ethylidene, monochloruretted chlo- boiler explosions, 166; on a uniformity

ride of ethyle, on the physiological of weights and measures, 198.
action of, 157.

Farr (Dr.) on a uniformity of weights
Circulation of the blood, effects of some and measures, 198.
narcotic
vapours

on the minute, 159. Fellowes (F. P.) on a uniformity of
Close time for the protection of in- weights and measures, 198.

digenous animals, report on the prac- Field (Rogers) on the rainfall of the
ticability of establishing a, 197.

British Isles, 98.
Cobbold (Dr. T. Spencer), report on the Fletcher (Lavington E.) on steam-boiler

post-mortem examination of an ox explosions, 168.
fed on sewage-grown grass,

188.

Flower (William) on physiological ex-
Convulsive movements during narcotism, perimentation, 144.
163.

Fossil corals, British, Prof. P. M. Dun-
Cooke (M. C.), microscopical examina-

can on, 116.
tion of slime and mud from bottom Fossil crustacea, fifth report on the
and sides of carriers at Earlswood structure and classification of, 53.
farm, 182.

Frankland (Prof.) on the publication of
Corals, British fossil, Prof. P. M. Dun- abstracts of chemical papers, 59; on
can on, 116.

a uniformity of weights and measures,
Mountain-limestone, report on

198.
cutting and preparing sections of, for
the purpose of showing their struc- Gamgee (Dr. Arthur) on the heat gene-

ture by means of photography, 105. rated in the blood during the proces
Corfield (Prof.) on the treatment and of arterialization, 137; on physiologi-
utilization of sewage, 166.

cal experimentation, 144.
Crossley (Edward) on lunar objects sus- Geikie (Prof. A.) on the rate of increase
pected of change, 60.

of underground temperature, 14.
Crustacea, fossil, report on the structure Gilbert (Dr. J. H.) on the treatment and
and classification of, 53.

utilization of sewage, 166,

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Glaisher (James) on the rate of increase | Lawson (Prof. M. A.) on physiological

of underground temperature, 14; on experimentation, 144.
luminous meteors, 26; on the rainfall | Leach (Lieut.-Colonel) on the treatment
of the British Isles,
98.

and utilization of sewage, 166.
Glover (George) on a uniformity of Levi (Prof. Leone) on a uniformity of
weights and measures, 198.

weights and measures, 198.
Graham (Rev. Dr.) on the rate of in- Lubbock (Sir John, Bart.) on the ex-

crease of underground temperature, ploration of Kent's Cavern, Devon-
14.

shire, 1; on the treatment and utiliza-
Grantham (R. B.) on the treatment and tion of sewage, 166.
utilization of sewage, 166.

Lunar crater Plato, W. R. Birt on the
Greg (R. P.) on luminous meteors, 26. discussion of observations of spots on

the surface of the, 60.
Harkness (Prof.) on cutting and prepa- Lunar objects suspected of change, re-

ring sections of Mountain-limestone port of the committoe for discussing
corals, 165.

observations of, 60.
Harrison (J. H.) on the treatment and Lyell (Sir Charles) on the exploration
utilization of sewage, 166.

of Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, 1 ; on
Harting (J. E.) on the practicability of the rate of increase of underground
establishing “a close time” for the

temperature, 14.
protection of indigenous animals, 197.
Hawksley (T.) on the rainfall of the Macfarlane (P.) on earthquakes in Scot-

British Isles, 98; on the treatment land, 197.

and utilization of sewage, 166. Mackie (S. J.) on the rate of increase of
Ileat generated in the blood during the underground temperature, 14.

process of arterialization, on the, 137. Macrory (Edmund) on a uniformity of
Hennessy (Prof.) on a uniformity of plan for the census of the United
weights and measures, 198.

Kingdom, 57.
Herschel (Alexander) on luminous me- Mason (Hugh) on steam-boiler explo-
teors, 26.

sions, 166.
Heywood (James) on a uniformity of Maw (George) on the rate of increase of

plan for the census of the United underground temperature, 14.
Kingdom, 57; on a uniformity of Maxwell (Prof. J. Clerk) on the rate of
weights and measures, 198.

increase of underground temperature,
Hodgson (Dr. W. B.) on a uniformity 14.

of plan for the census of the United Metachloral, on the physiological action
Kingdom, 57.

of, 149.
Hope (William) on the treatment and Metals, Prof. Tait on the thermal con-
utilization of sewage, 166.

ductivity of, 97.
Hull (Edward) on the rate of increase Meteoric astronomy, papers relating to,
of underground temperature, 14.

44.
Humphry (Prof. G. M.) on physiological showers, 38.
experimentation, 144.

Meteors, luminous, report on observa-
Hydram yle, on the physiological action tions of, 26; doubly observed, 27;
of, 157.

large, 31.

Milne-Home (D.) on earthquakes in
Indigenous animals, report on the prac- Scotland, 197.
ticability of establishing a

Mountain-limestone corals, report on
time for the protection of, 197. cutting and preparing sections of, for

the purpose of showing their struc-
Jevons (Prof.) on a uniformity of plan for ture by means of photography, 165.
the census of the United Kingdom, 57. Mylne (R. W.) on the rainfall of the

British Isles, 98.
Kane (Sir R.) on a uniformity of weights
and measures, 198.

Napier (J. R.) on a uniformity of weights
Kent's Cavern, seventh report of the

and measures,

198.
committee for exploring, 1,

Narcotic vapours, effects of some, on

the minute circulation of the blood,
Lavoisier (M.), Letters from, to Dr. 159.
Black, 189,

Narcotism, on convulsive movements du-

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