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been in the extreme north, and the extreme south; I have gone to both extremities by land and sea; I have travelled through the centre of her great basin; I am intimately acquainted with her richest agricultural districts; I know something of her mining and agriculture by experience and practice; and, finally, I have endeavored to compress into this book all the important attainable facts. Amidst so much information, there are undoubtedly some little errors; but the fair critic, before condemning and expatiating upon minor faults, will pass judgment upon the question whether the book is or is not more comprehensive and instructive than any other, or than all others relating to the same subject.

Of course, when I quote from the writings of others, I use quotation marks, and give credit according to the rules of honorable authors; but I have adopted, without quotation marks, various passages from articles written by myself, and published in different newspapers and magazines. Since the work is intended for popular use, and should be free from every thing not intelligible and interesting to the general reader, I have made no references to authorities; and, indeed, I have drawn my information from so great a variety of sources (in many instances newspapers), that it would have been very inconvenient for me, and cumbersome to the book, to cite the authority for every statement.

. In case, however, that the accuracy of any statement in the work should be called in question, I think that I can produce in every case credible evidence, and in most cases the conclusive proof. While I have drawn my material from many different sources, I claim as much originality as is possible for so comprehensive a collection of facts, in so many and so distinct branches of knowledge.

J. S. H. SAN FRANCISCO, March, 1862.

INDEX OF CHAPTERS.

Page

1

19

47

72

91

108

Chapters.

1. CHOROGRAPIIY.
II. CLIMATE..
III. GEOLOGY
IV. SCENERY..

V. BOTANY...
VI. ZOOLOGY
VII. AGRICULTURE
VIII. MINING
IX. OTHER BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY...

X. COMMERCE....
XI. CONSTITUTION AND LAWS...
XII. SOCIETY....
XIU. TOPOGRAPHICAL NAMES....
XIV. THE PAST AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE...

151

238

304

326

349

359

422

431

INDEX OF SECTIONS.

CHOROGRAPHY-CHAP. I.

GEOLOGY-CHAP. III.

ter ...

Sec.
Page Sec.

Page
1. General Remarks...

1 34. General Geological Charac-
2. Coast Mountains..
2

47
3. Coast, Peaks, and Passes.. 3 35. Diluvium.

48
4. Coast Rivers...
5 36. Gold....

50
5. Coast Lakes.
6 37. Auriferous Lodes.

51
6. Capes...
7 38. Placers ...

52
7. Islands..

7 39. Mineralogy of Gold.. 54
8. Bays and Harbors.
7 40. Silver.

60
9. Sacramento Basin..
10 41. Platinum..

61
10. Rivers of the Sacramento 42. Quicksilver..

61
Basin...

12
43. Copper..

62
11. Tule Laud.
13 44. Coal...

63
12. Sierra Nevada..
13 45. Asphaltum.

63
13. Peaks and Passes of the 46. Other Minerals..

65
Sierra....
14 47. Artegian Wells..

67
14. Lakes of the Sierra..
15 48. Paleontology..

69
15. Plateau of the Sierra Ne- 49. Relics of Early Humanity. 70
vada...
15 50. Mineral Springs.

70
16. Klamath Basin.
16 51. Cortes Shoal..

71
17. Utah Basın...

16
18. Colorado Desert..

17

SCENERY-CHAP. IV.
19. Area of the State..

18
52. Introductory.

72
CLIMATE_CHAP. II.
53. Coast Valleys.

72
54. Yosemite Valley

73
20. General Remarks.... 19 55. Mammoth Tree Groves. 78
21. Temperature of the Middle 56. Geysers..

84
Coast.
20 57. Mud Volcanoes.

85
22. Clear Days.
25 58. Santa Cruz Ruins.

86
23. The Sirocco..

59. Mirage..

86
24. Temperature of the South- 60, ('aves..

88
ern Coast....
27 61. Waterfalls.

88
25. Sacramento Basin
27 62. Solfataras.

89
26. Comparative Tables..
28 63. Mount Shasta.

89
27. Rain.....

30
28. Dryness of Climate.

38

BOTANY-CHAP. V.
29. Length of Days.

39
30. Thunderstorins..

39 64. Peculiar Fauna and Flora.. 91
31. Hail ......

40 65. Distribution of Plants.. 92
32. Earthquakes..

40 66. Superiority of Conifers.. 92
33. Sand-Storms.
45 67. Redwood...

92

25

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