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important manifestation of this kind is these prelates clearly indicate their per-
the pastoral letter issued by the assem-sonal aversion to the doctrine of the in-
bly of nineteen German Bishops at Fulda. fallibility of the Pope.
They wish to remind the faithful of their Cable dispatches inform us that the
dioceses that

council was duly opened by the Pope on
Never and never shall or can a Gen. the eighth of December. The solemni-
eral Council establish a dogma not con- ties are, of course, said to be of extraor-
tained in Scripture or in the Apostolical dinary brilliancy. The Pope delivered
Traditions. Never and never shall an allocution, of the contents of which
or can a General Council proclaim doc- the cable gives us a very vague idea. It
trines in contradiction to the principles is reported that about seven hundred
of justice, to the right of the State and bishops attended the opening of the
its authorities to culture. (Gesittung)
and the true interests of science, (Wish Council. This, if correct, would be a
senschaft,) or to the legitimate freedom large number, for, according to the offi.
and well-being of nations. : .. Neither cial Papal Almanac, the total number of
need any one fear that the General Coun- cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, and
cil will thoughtlessly and hastily frame bishops entitled to a seat in the Council
resolutions which needlessly would put amounted in 1869 to about one thousand.
it in antagonism to existing circum- The numerous American element in the
stances, and to the wants of the present Council is especially notable. While at
times ; or that it would, in the manner
of enthusiasts, endeavor to transplant

the last Ecumenical Council, that of into the present times views, customs, Trent, the new world, only recently disand institations of times gone by.covered, was not yet represented by a

In reply to the insinuation that there single prelate, now the American bishwould not be the fullest liberty of de ops, numbering in all one hundred and bate, they say:

sixty-seven, would constitute almost one The Bishops of the Catholic Church fifth of the entire hierarchy. Among will never and never forget at the them there are seven archbishops from General Council, on this most impor- the United States, three from British tant occasion of their office and call- | America, three from Mexico, one each ing, the holiest of their duties, the from Cuba, San Domingo, Hayti, Guateduty of bearing testimony to truth; mala, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, they will, remembering the Apostolic Chili

, Peru, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, vow, that he who desires

to please

Brazil. men is not the servant of Christ-remembering the account which they will soon

None of the secular powers was rephave to give before the throne of the resented at the opening of the Council Divine Judge-know no other line of by an official representative. All of the conduct but that dictated by their faith Catholic State governments are known and their conscience.

to be entirely at variance with the tendAll these words, like the whole of the encies prevailing in Rome, and which letter, are, with admirable skill, so it is expected may lead to the promulgaframed as to avoid any direct assertion tion of Papal infallibility as a doctrine that would give offense in Rome; but of the Church. Most of them have both parties—the ultra-inontane as well clearly intimated that if the Council as their opponents—feel that the lan- should promulgate such doctrine, or pass guage of the German Bishops is very resolutions contrary to the rights claimed different from that of the spokesmen of by the State government, it will lead to the Papal infallibility. The declaration a radical change in the present relations of the German Bishops is the more im- between Church and State. portant as—with the exception of the Soon after its meeting the sessions of Jesuits and a few of their friends—it has the Council were adjourned until after been received by the scholars, the press, Epiphany of the disposition of the and the intelligent laity with great joy Bishops little is yet known, except that as a momentous testimony against an the German and French Bishops mean to opinion which, among the Catholics of offer a determined opposition to the docGermany, is extremely unpopular. The trine of the Papal infallibility. example of the German Bishops has been

THE EASTERN CHURCHES. followed by similar letters of several prominent French Bishops, among whom THE INTERCOMMUNION QUESTION. are Archbishop Darboy, of Paris, and One oť the most important letters which Bishop Dupanloup, of Orleans. Both | has recently been published is one from

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year 1870.

the Patriarch of Constantinople to the icism on the Nineteenth Article [“ As Archbishop of Canterbury, in reply to the Churches of Jerusalem, Alexandria, one written by his Grace (of Canterbury) and Antioch have erred, so also the to his Holiness, (of Constantinople,) for- Church of Rome hath erred"] is dewarding, as appears from this reply, a clared to be natural and deserved, since copy of the English prayer book. The indeed, as the Patriarch says, accusaPatriarch's letter is dated September 26, tions of our neighbor are out of place in 1869, and concludes as follows:

a distinguished confession of faith.” On descending to the particulars of

The Church News, an organ of the Ritthe contents of the prayer book, and of ualists, assures the Patriarch that "the the distinguished confession of the thirty- great majority of really devout and loyal nine articles contained in it-since in the Anglican Churchimen, clergy and laity, perusal of them, both the statements would not regret a modification of that concerning the eternal existence of the Article, so as to remove the obstacle Holy Spirit and those concerning the altogether with regard to the East.” divine eucharist, and furtber, those concerning the number of the sacraments, celebrated Dr. Rothe was one containing

Among the manuscripts left by the concerning apostolic and ecclesiastical tradition, the authority of the truly gen- a "System of Christian Doctrines," ready uine Ecumenical Councils, the position for the press. The work will be pubaud mutual relations of the Church on lished by Dr. Schenkel. The first part, earth and that in heaven; and, more which is entitled, The Consciousness of over, the honor and reverence due from Sin, has just appeared. The second and us to those who are in theory and prac- third parts, which are to complete the tice the heroes of the faith--the adaman. work, will appear in the course of the tine martyrs and athletes-since, we say, these statements appeared to us to savor too much of novelty; and that which is

A “History of the Religious Sects of said, (p. 592, Art. 19,)“ As the Churches the Middle Ages," from the pen of Proof Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch fessor Döllinger in Munich, is announced have erred, so also the Church of Rome as forthcoming, (Geschichte der Religiöhath erred, not only in their living and sen Sekten des Mittelalters.) It will manner of ceremonies, but also in matters contain two volumes. Professor Döllinof faith,” deprives the Eastern Churches of the orthodoxy and perfection of the faith ger, who, as a Church historian, has no --- let us be permitted to say that accusa- superior in the Roman Catholic Church, tions of our neighbors are out of place has also prepared a strong pamphlet in a distinguished confession of faith against the infallibility of the Pope, and these statements throw us into suspense, sent a copy of it to every Bishop of so that we doubt what we are to judge Catholic Germany. of the rule of Anglican orthodoxy. We Dr. Hefele, hitherto Professor of Cathwould, therefore, pray with our whole olie Theology at Tübingen, and now soul to the Author and Finisher of our salvation to enlighten the understanding Bishop, elect of Rottenburg, has pubof all with the light of his knowledge, lished the first part of the seventh voland to make of all nations one speech of ume of his great work on the History of the one faith, and of the one love, and of the Councils, containing the History of the one hope of the Gospel; that with the Council of Constance, (Conciliengeone mouth and one heart, as merciful schichte. Freiburg, 1869.) children of one and the same mother, the Church-the Catholic Church of the works of Germany, the Commentary of

One of the great Protestant Bible first begotten—we may glorify the triune Meyer to the New Testament, has just God.

been completed in a new edition by the The High Church party in the Angli- appearance of the fifth edition of the can Church are elated with the letter, Commentary of the Gospel according to which they regard as the most impor-John. This work was begun thirtytant missive received by an Archbishop seven years ago by H. A. W. Meyer, of Canterbury from an Oriental Patriarch. and bas been continued by Dr. LüneAs a step toward a reunion of the East- mann, Dr. Huther, and Dr. Diesterdiek, ern to the Anglican Churches, it is con- all of whom enjoy a great reputation as sidered a most valuable and important exegetical writers of great ability. event, not the less so because the Patri. Though of late this work has been arch points out, in definite language, the eclipsed by the Bible work of Lange, obstacles that hinder, or seem to hinder, which embraces within its scope a comintercommunion. The Patriarch's crit- mentary to the Old as well as the New

Testament, and which, in the greatly im- in Germany, the commentary of Dr. proved shape which the English transla- Meyer has, by general consent, secured tion has received from the hands of Pro- forever a conspicuous place among fessor Schaff, has had in England and the many great works of German theAmerica an even larger circulation than ology.

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depends on him.” Not a single ques

tion of doctrine for the first thousand The Roman Council has called forth years was finally decided by the Popes; an immense literature. The fourth in none of the early controversies did number of a German periodical, specially they take any part at all; and their indevoted to the Council, carries the num- terposition, when they began to interber of books on the Council, which it pose, was often far from felicitous. Pope has reviewed, up to 57, and its list Zosimus commended the Pelagian teachdoes not yet contain one half the total ing of Celestius, Pope Julian affirmed number. The great scholars of the the orthodoxy of the Sabellian Marcellus Roman Catholic Church are almost of Ancyra, Pope Liberius subscribed an unanimous in opposing very earnestly Arian creed, Pope Vigilius contradicted the Papal tendencies now prevailing himself three times running on a quesin the Church, and particularly the tion of faith, Pope Honorius lent the proposed promulgation of the doc- whole weight of his authority to the trine of Papal infallibility. The ablest support of the newly-introduced Monowork in this respect is on “ The Pope thelite heresy, and was solemuly anathand the Council," (The Papst 'und das ematized by three Ecumenical Councils Concil) the author of which styles him for doing so. Nor do these “errors and self Janus. The work has made a pro- contradictions of the Popes " grow by found sensation. It is so manifestly a any means fewer or less important as work of immense scholarship that at time goes on; but for further examples first some ascribed it to the celebrated we must refer our readers to the book Dollinger. This, however, proved to be itself. The blundering of successive an error, and another professor of the Popes about the conditions of valid orUniversity of Munich, Professor Huber, dination-on which, according to Cathis now generally regarded as the author. olic theology, the whole sacramental The work is a history of the authority system, and therefore the means of salpossessed in the Church by the Pope on vation, depend—are alone sufficient to the one hand and the Council on the dispose forever of their claim to infalliother, and the relation of the two to bility. Neither, again, did the Roman each other. Even the champions of ul. Pontiffs possess, in the ancient constitutramontane views must admit that they tion of the Church, any of those powers are unable to answer the book, because which are now held to be inherent in it would take years to study the thou- their sovereign office, and which must sands of individual cases which the au- undoubtedly be reckoned among the esthor cites to show that no one can for a sential attributes of absolute sovereignty, moment believe in this doctrine without They convoked none of the General falsifying the whole history of the Councils, and only presided, by their Church. “For thirteen centuries," says legates, at three of them, nor were the our author, "an incomprehensible silence canons enacted there beld to require

this fundamental article reigned their confirmation. They had neither throughout the whole Church and her legislative, administrative, nor judicial literature. None of the ancient con- power in the Church, nor was any furfessions of faith, po catechism, none of ther efficacy attributed to their excomthe patristic writings composed for the munication than to that of any other instruction of the people, contain a syl. Bishop. No special prerogatives were lable about the Pope, still less any hint held to have been bequeathed to them that all certainty of faith and doctrine | by Saint Peter, and the only duty con


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sidered to devolve on them in virtue of "To prove the doctrine of Papal infalli. their primacy was that of watching over bility nothing less is required than a the observance of the canons. The lim- complete falsification of Church history." ited right of hearing appeals, granted to An overwhelming mass of evidence them by the Council of Sardica in 347, against the infallibility of the Pope is was avowedly an innovation, of purely collected in the work before us. The ecclesiastical origin, and moreover was chapters on “Forgeries," “Encroachnever admitted or exercised in Africa or ments," “Interdicts," "The Inquisithe East. Many national Churches, like tion," “The Cardinals," and "The the Armenian, the Syro-Persian, the Curia," contain the pith of the story. Irish, and the ancient British, were inde. The edifice, based on a huge substructpendent of any influence of Rome. ure of forgeries, was gradually reared When first something like the Papal sys- through the patient toil of centuries of tem was put into words by an Eastern chicanery and violence-each weapon Patriarch, St. Gregory, the greatest and being employed in turn, as occasion best of all the early Popes, repudiated served, with a persistent cruelty and the idea as a wicked blasphemy. Not cunning which it would be difficult to one of the Fathers explains the passages parallel in history—till it now only of the New Testament about St. Peter awaits its final consummation, when the in the ultramontane sense; and the Tri- darling dream of the infallibilists shall dentine profession of faith binds all the have been erected by the approaching clergy to interpret Scripture in accord- Council into an article of faith. ance with their unanimous consent.



American Quarterly Reviews. BAPTIST QUARTERLY, October, 1869. (Philadelphia.)-1. University Corporations

2. F. W. Robertson on Baptismal Regeneration. 3. Growth and History of Language. 4. Mr. Lowell's Poetry. 5. Balaam, the Prophet of Syria. 6. Ex

egetical Studies. BIBLIOTHECA SACRA, October, 1869. (Andover.)-1. The Resurrection of the

Body. 2. The Natural Theology of Social Science. 3. The Königsberg Religious Suit. 4. Mount Lebanon. 5. The Doctrine of the Apostles. 6. The Brethren of our Lord. 7. Rival Editions of the Text of the New Testament as

contained in the Codex Vaticanus. CHRISTIAN QUARTERLY, October, 1869. (Cincinnati.)-1. The Church of the Fu

ture. 2. Life and Times of Alexander Campbell. 3. Ancient Hymnody.

4. Ecumenical Councils. 5. Women's Work in the Church. 6. Jerusalem. EVANGELICAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, October, 1869. (Gettysburgh.)-1. Justifica.

tion by Faith. Article Fourth of the Augsburg Confession. 2. The Sabbath Question in its Historical Relations, and Bearings upon the Faith and Life of the Church. 3. Communion with God. 4. Ecclesiastical Purity. 5. Daniel and his Prophecies. 6. The Relation of the Text to the Sermon. By Dr. Kable,

Pastor at Caymen. Translated from the German. 7. Patrick Henry. FreewILL BAPTIST QUARTERLY, July, 1869. (Dover, N. H.)-1. The Divine Pre

rogative to Save and to Destroy. 2. The First Resurrection. 3. Christ's Exaltation and Universal Drawing. 4. Rationalism. 5. The Doctrine of God's Special Providence. 6. Christianity a Mission Work. 7. The Doctrine of Paul aud James on Faith and Works, compared with the Teachings of Christ.

8. God's Way of Salvation. 9. Impediments to Self-Knowledge. MERCERSBURG REVIEW, October, 1869. (Philadelphia.)-1. The True Idea of

Liberal Education. 2. Image and Likeness. 3. Priestly Mediation. 4. The Relation of the Present to the Past and to the Future. 5. The Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth. 6. The Liturgical Movement

in the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches. NEW ENGLAND HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL REGISTER, October, 1869,

(Boston.)-1. Hon. Calvin Fletcher. 2. Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Portsmouth, N. H., 1706-1742. 3. Miss Frances Manwaring Caulkins. 4. The Spooner Family. 5. The Usher Family. 6. Emery-Amory. 7. Philip Welch, of Ipswich, Mass. 8. Epitaphs from "Burying Hill,” Weymouth, Mass. 9. Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Lyme, Conn. 10. Papers relating to the Haines Family. 11. Church Records of Newington, N. H. 12. First Record-Book of First Church, Charlestown, Mass. 13. Milton (M8.) Church Records, 1678–1754. 14. Letters from Joshua Henshaw, Jr., to William Henshaw. 15. Documents relating to the Colonial History of Connecticut, with Notes. 16. Bibliography

of the Local History of Massachusetts. PRINCETON REVIEW, October, 1869. (New York.)-1. Morrell on Revelation and

Inspiration. 2. Christian Work in Upper Egypt. 3. Recent Scholarship. 4. The Church Question. 5. Smaller Bodies of American Presbyterians. 6. Recent Discussions on the Representation of Minorities. 7. Oberlin Ethics and Theology; their Latest Exposition. 8. Materialism.-Physiological Psy.

chology. UNIVERSALIST QUARTERLY, October, 1869. (Boston.)-1. Hindu Philosophy and

the Bhagavad-Gita. 2. The Pacific Railroad. 3. John Murray. 4. Religion and Science. 5. The Huguenots. 6. The Province and Uses of Ecclesiastical

History. NORTH AMERICAN REview, October, 1869. (Boston.)-1. The Genesis of Lan

guage. 2. The Writings of Mr. Rowland G. Hazard. 3. Indian Migrations. 4. Civil-Service Reform. 5. The Coast of Egypt and the Suez Canal. 6. Paraguay and the Present War. In the first article Mr.

Wo-man is identical with Lat. fe-min-a, Skr, we-man, a 'weaver;' with which may be compared our use of spinster. It was hardly more strange that the primitive Aryans should call the woman a "weaver,' than that they should call the daughter of the household a “milkmaid ;' yet this derivation of the latter word has beer minutely and incontrovertibly proven.”

Is not fe-min-a plainly the feminine form of homo, (Gen. homin-is,) being the word man preceded by the article, and succeeded by the sex termination ?

Fiske says:


English Reviews. BRITISH AND FOREIGN EVANGELICAL REVIEW, October, 1869. (London.)

1. Lightfoot on the Epistle to the Philippians. 2. Hugh Broughton. 3. Pilate and his Times viewed by Indian Light. 4. The English New Testament-Revision and Retranslation. 5. Curiosities of Later Biography-Crabb Robinson and W. Savage Landor. 6. "The Song of Songs ”-A New Roading of its Plot. 7. Kennedy on Man's Relations to God. 8. The Philosophy of Nes

cience; or, Hamilton and Mansel on Religious Thought. NORTH BRITISH REVIEW, October, 1869. (Scott's Republication, New York,

140 Fulton-street.)--1. Juventus Mundi. 2. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 3. The Different Schools of Elementary Logic. 4. Mr. Browning's Latest Poetry. 5. The Pope and the Council. 6. The Constitutional Development of Austria. 7. Literature of the Land Question in Ireland.

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