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ROMAN CATHOLICISM. an opposition to the doctrine of Infalli

bility. HISTORY OF THE VATICAN COUNCILThe New DOCTRINE OF INFALLI- and in influence were the Gallicans, prop

First in conviction, in determination, OF BILITY Our account of the Vatican erly so called, who beld and taught the Council in the last number of the very opposite of the proposed dogma. “Methodist Quarterly Review” closed They were mostly men who had been with the adoption of the schema de fide bred in this teaching, and who deeply on the 26th of April. On the 29th of reverenced the memories of those who April the Council took a fresh start, Class was not very numerous, though it

held and taught it in past times. This the general congregation of that day be. ginning to discuss the reformed schema by the accession of those whose examina

grew larger in the course of the Council on the Little Catechism. The discussion tion of the question convinced them of was closed in the general congregation the claim of Gallicanism to their adherof April 30, and on May 11 the vote was taken, which resulted in its adoption.

The second class comprised those who, The total number of votes given was believing the doctrine themselves, or, at 591.

least, favoring it speculatively, did not In the general congregation of the

think it capable of definition, not deem13th of May the oral discussion on the enough on this point.

ing the tradition of the Church clear important question of Papal Infallibility A tbird class, the most numerous, recommenced. The schema was comprised garded the definition as possible,' but in a preamble and four chapters, and practically fraught with peril to the was known to form the first part of the Church, as impeding conversions, as ex. dogmatic constitution de Ecclesia Christi. asperating to governments. For the sake Before being submitted to discussion the would not see it proclaimed as of faith.

peace, and for the good of souls, they text of the schema bad been distributed to the fathers, who in due course of

The regulations of the Council made time transmitted their observations upon it lawful for ten prelates to petition for it to the deputation de fide. These ob- the closing of a discussion; the propos-1 servations were then maturely examined i being then put to the vote of all the by the members of the deputation, and a fathers, and the majority deciding. printed report of their views on them When fifty-five speeches had been made was sent to the residence of each Bishop. on the schema in general, one bundred The debate itself is known to have been and fifty Bishops sent a petition for long and animated, many Bishops en- closing the general discussion, which tering a very earnest protest against the was accordingly done, to the great dispromulgation of such an innovation. satisfaction of the opponents of InfalliAuthentic reports of the speeches have bility, a number of whom addressed to not yet been published; all correspond. the Pope a protest against the closing ents from Rome designate Bishop Stross- of the general discussion, as it had demayer, of Bosnia and Illyricum in prived the Council of the opportunity to Croatia ; Bishop Dupanloup, of Orleans hear all the arguments against the view in France; Archbishop Darboy, of Paris; doctrine. Bishop Hefele, of Rottenburg in Wür- The secrecy which was enjoined upon temberg; Cardinal Archbishop Rem- all the members of the council has not scher, of Vienna ; Cardinal Archbishop been fully observed. A number of Prince Schwatzfenberg, of Prague, as papers, and in particular the Gazette those Bishops which spoke with the of Augsburg, succeeded not only in greatest effect against the proposed doc- obtaining fuli accounts of the speeches, trine. The Roman correspondent of the but even important documents wbicha Catholic World, of New York, Father were to be kept secret. Several works Hecker, who gives the most interesting even appeared, giving a detailed account account of the Council which we have of all the proceedings of the Council, and, yet met in any Roman Catholic paper, though it must not of course be expected thus classifies the Bishops who showed that works of this kind are wholly freu from inaccuracies, it was hardly denied there were not a few of the fathers who by any adherent of Rome that every thought otherwise than the majority in a important fact connected with the Coun- matter about to be made binding on the cil had found its way to the public prints. conscience of all, was not calculated to

heighten the external manifestations of Special irritation was produced in Rome cheerfulness, whatever feelings of thankby a work published in Paris under the fulness to Providence for the event was title, ce qui se passe du Concile, because in the heart. the minuteness of its statements was in

At nine o'clock Cardinal Barili began itself conclusive proof that they were derived from members of the Council. of it the small throne for the Gospels was

a low mass without chant. At the end These works specially impugned the freedom of the Council on three grounds: of the Scriptures. In a few moments the

placed on the altar and upon it the copy 1. The appointment of the congrega- Pope entered, preceded by the Senate and tion, the members of which were named the officers of the court, and went to his by the sovereign pontiff, and who received throne in the apsis of the aula. The or rejected the postulaca, or propositions, to be presented to the Council for customary prayers were recited by him; discussion.

the litany of the saints was chanted and 2. The dogmatic deputation having the “ Veni Creator Spiritus" intoned, the been composed of those in favor of the people present taking part; after which definition, and the members having been the Bishop of Fabriano ascended the pulput on it by management; moreover, this pit and read the schema to be voted on, depntation exercised a controlling in- and finished with asking the fathers fluence in the Council.

3. The interruption of those who were whether it pleased them. Next the rame giving expression to their opinions in of each prelate was called, when 534 anthe exercise of their right to speak.

swered placet, 2 replied non-placet, and

106 were absent, some because sick, the These charges have, however, not been far greater number not willing to vote fa-. brought only by the above pamphlets, vorably. As soon as the result was made but a number of Bishops have publicly known officially to Pius IX., he announcexpressed the same accusations, and in ed the fact of all with the exception of two particular with regard to the third point having given a favorable vote, “ Wherea protest signed by a large number of ore," he continued, " by virtue ofouraposBishops was presented to the Pope. tolic authority, with the approval of the

The discussion of the schema as re- sacred Council, we detine, contirm, aud gards the whole and the several parts approve the decree and canons just read." having been completed, a vote was taken The crowd outside of the hall shouted according to the regulations in a general Viva Pio Nono ; Papa infallibile, and the congregation on the 13th of July, on the Pope intoned the Te Deum. The session whole schema by name, with placet, or ended with the apostolic benediction placet juxta modum or non-placet. The from the Pope, accompanied by an inresult was as follows: 45l placets, 62 dulgence for all assisting. placets juxta modum, and 88 non-placets. The following is a faithful translation Some of the placets juxta modum recom- of Chapter IV. of the schema, which mended the insertion of words that treats of Papal infallibility: would make the decree clearer and OF THE INFALLIBLE AUTHORITY OF stronger. The schema was accordingly altered and the amendments were re


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This holy see hath ever heldthe untained in the general congregation, held broken custom of the Church doth prove Saturday, July 16th. On Sunday morn-1-and the Ecumenical Councils, those ing was distributed a monitum, by which especially in which the East joined with the fathers were notified that the fourth the West in union of faith and of charity, public session would be held on Monday, have declared that in this apostolic priJuly 18th, at nine o'clock. The 18th of macy, which the Roman Pontitf holds over

the universal Church, as successor of July will henceforth be a memorable day Peter the prince of the Apostles, there is in the history of the Church. The feeling also contained the supreme power of auamong the Bishops appears not to have thoritative teaching. Thus the Fathers been a very joyous one. Even Father of the fourth Council of Constantinople, Hecker writes in his report:

following in the footsteps of their pred

ecessors, put forth this solemn profess The thought that, although a great and sion : most beneficial act was to be done, still “ The first law of salvation is to keep


the rule of true faith. And whereas the held, which, by the aid of God, they knew words of our Lord Jesus Christ cannot to be conformable to the holy Scriptures be passed by, who said: Thou art Peter, and the apostolic traditions. For the and upon this rock I will build my Holy Ghost is not promised to the succesChurch, (Matt. xvi, 18,) these words, sors of Peter, that they may make known which he spake, art proved true by facts ; new doctrine revealed by him, but that, for in the apostolic see the Catholic re- through his assistance, they may sacredligion has ever been preserved unspotted ly guard and faithfully set forth the and the holy doctrine has been announced. revelation delivered by the Apostles, that Therefore, wishiig never to be sepa- , is, the deposit of faith. And this their rated from the faith and teaching of this apostolic teaching all the venerable fasee, we hope to be worthy to abide in thers have embraced, and the holy orthothat one communion which the apostolic dox doctors have revered and followed, dee preaches, in which is the full and true knowing most certainly that this see of St. firmness of the Christian religion." Peter ever remains free from all error, ac(Formula of St. Flormisdas, Pope, as pro- cording to the divine promise of our Lord posed by Hadrian II. to the Fathers of the and Saviour made to the prince of Eighth General Council, (Constantinop. the Apostles: I have prayed for thee IV.,) and subscribed by them.]

that thy faith fail not, and thou, being So too, the Greeks, with the approval once converted, confirm thy brethren. of the second Councli of Lyons, pro- (Conf. St. Agatho, Ep. ad Imp. a Conc. fessed that the holy Roman Church holds Eenm. VI. approbat.) over the universal Catholic Church a su- Therefore, this gift of truth, and of preme and full primuey and headship, faith which fails not, was divinely be. which she truthfully and humbly ac- stowed on Peter and his successors in knowledges that she received, with full- this chair, that they should exercise their ness of power, from the Lord himself in high office for the salvation of all, that blessed Peter, the prince or head of the through them the universal flock of Christ Apostles, of whom the Roman Pontiff is should be turned away from the poisonthe successor ; and as she, beyond the ous food of error and should be nourished others, is bound to defend the truth of with the food of heavenly doctrino, and the faith, so, if any questions arise con- that, the occasion of schism being removcerning faith, they should be decided ed, the entire Church should be preserved by her judgment. And, finally, the one, and, planted on her foundation, Council of Florence defined that the should stand tirm against the gatos of Roman Pontiff is the true vicar of Christ, hell. and the head of the whole Church, and the Nevertheless, since in this present age, father and teacher of all Christians, and when the saving efficacy of the apostolic that to him, in the blessed Peter, was office is exceedingly needed, there are given by our Lord Jesus Christ full power not a few who carp at its authority, we of feeding and ruling and governing the judge it altogether necessary to solemnly universal Church, (John xxi, 15–17.) declare the prerogative which the only

In order to fulfill this pastoral charge begotten Son of God has designed to our predecessors have ever labored un- unite to the supreme pastoral office. weariedly to spread the saving doctrine Wherefore, faithfully adhering to the of Christ among all the nations of the tradition handed down from the comearth, and with equal care bave watched mencement of the Christian faith, for the to preserve it pure and unchanged where glory of God our Saviour, the exaltation it had been received. Wherefore the of the Catholic religion, and the salvation Bishops of the whole world, sometimes of Christian peoples, with the approbasingly, sometimes assembled in synods, tion of the sacred council, we teach and following the long established custom of define it to be a doctrine divinely revealthe Churches, (s. Cyril, Alex. and S. ed, that, when the Roman Pontiff speaks Celest. Pap.,) and the form of ancient ex cathedra, that is, when in the exercise rule, (St. Innocent I. to Councils of of his ottice of Pastor and teacher of all Carthage and Milevi,) referred to this Christians, and in virtne of his supreme apostolic see those dangers especially apostolical authority, he defines that a which arose in matters of faith, in order doctrine of faith or morals is to be held that injuries to faith might best be healed by the universal Church, he possesses, there where the faith could never fail. through the divine assistance promised (St. Bernard ep. 190.) And the Roman to him in the blessed Peter, that infalliPontiff's, weighing the condition of times bility with which the Divine Redeemer and circumstances, sometimes calling to willed his Church to be endowed, in de gether general councils, or asking the tining a doctrine of faith and morals ; and judgment of the Church scattered therefore that such definitions of the Rothrough the world, sometimes consulting man Pontiff are irreformable of themparticular synods, sometimes using such selves, and not by force of the consent of other aids as Divine providence supplied, the Church thereto. detined that thuse doctrines should be And if any one shall presume, which God forbid, to contradict this our defini- tions. A letter from Cardinal Antonelli tion ; let him he anathema.

to one of the Papal Nuncios declared in Given in Rome, in the Public Session, the name of the Pope that Rome resolemnly celebrated in the Vatican Basilica, in the year of the Incarnation of garded Infallibility as a doctrine of the our Lord one thousand eight hundred Church from the moment of its promuland seventy, on the eighteenth day of gation, and that it would regard as a July, in the twenty-fifth year of our heretic every body who would refuse Pontificate.

Ita est.

submission. JOSEPH, BISHOP OF St. Polten, The great war which broke out soon Secretary of the Council of the after the promulgation of Papal InfalliVatican.

bility averted public opinion both from A large number of the Bishops re- the Council and from the attitude of the turned home immediately after the pro- Opposition. The Bishops belonging to mulgation of the doctrine, and it is an- the Opposition acted with great reserve. nounced that the regular proceedings of Many theological scholars, on the conthe Council will not be taken up again trary, were very outspoken in rejecting until some time in November.

both the doctrine and the claims of the There appeared to be a difference of Council to an æcumenical character. opinion as to whether the Infallibility of Among those who publicly refused subthe Pope was to be regarded as a doc- mission were Father Hyacinthe, of France, trine of the Church immediately after and a large number of theological scholthe promulgation, or only after the sign- ars in Germany, one of whom, Protesing of all of the acts of the Council by sor Michelis, of France, declared the the Bishops at the close of the transac. Pope to be a heretic.



American Quarterly Reviews. AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN REVIEW, July, 1870. (New York.)-1. Sin and Suffer

ing in the Universe. (Concluded.) Oosterzee's Theology of the New Testament. 3. Farrar on the Constitution. 4. The Problem of History. 5. The Mather Papers. 6. Protoplasm, or the Physical Basis of Life. 7. The Relation of Theology to the Preparatory Sciences. 8. The Felicity of God. 9. A New

Analysis in Fundamental Morals. 10. New German Theological Literature. BAPTIST QUARTERLY, July, 1870. (Philadelphia.)--1. Miracles. 2. Subterranean

Rome. 3. Bible Chronology. 4. Gladstone's Juventus Mundi. 5. Exegesis of

Hebrews xii, 18–24. 6. The True Humanity of Christ. 7. Exegetical Studies. BIBLICAL REPERTORY AND PRINCETON REVIEW, July, 1870. (New York.)

1. Tholuck's View of the Right Way of Preaching. 2. Heathen Views on the Golden Age, etc., compared with the Bible. 3. The Brothers Valdés. 4. Eccles. iastical History of the Venerable Bede. 5. The Trial Period in History. 6. The General Assembly. 7. The Delegation to the Southern General Assembly. 8. The

Evangelical Alliance. 9. Minority Representation in the Diocese of New Jersey. BIBLIOTHECA SACRA, July, 1870. (Andover.)-1. The Crucifixion on Thursday

not Friday. 2. The Doctrine of the Apostles. 3. The Creative Period in History. 4. Recent Questions of Unbelief. 5. Demosthenes, and the Rhetorical Principles Established by his Example. 6. Revelation and Inspiration. 7. Exposition of

2 Cor. v, 14. 8. The Topography of Jerusalem. 9. Exploratious in Palestine. Christian QUARTERLY, July, 1870. (Cincinnati.)-1. The Law of Liberty. 2. The

Law of Divorce. 3. Christian Experience. 4. Education of Childreu. 5. A Page of History and a Line of Revelation. 6. The Infallibility Dogma.

CONGREGATIONAL QUARTERLY, July, 1870. (Boston.) 1. Joseph Abbott. 2. The

Pilgrim Fathers. 3. A Disquisition Concerning Ecclesiastical Councils. 4. The Biblical Position of Woman. 5. Veni, Sancte Spiritus. 6. Extempore Preaching.

7. A National Conference. 8. Luther's Prayer. 9. Congregational Necrology. CONGREGATIONAL REVIEW, July, 1870. (Chicago.)-1. Theism and Anti-Theism

in their Relations to Science. 2. The Roots of Infant Baptism. 3. Probation Beyond Death. 4. The Doctrine of the Divine Name. 5. Theron Baldwin, D.D. 6. An Address at the Pilgrim Memorial Convention, held in Chicago, April

28, 1870. EVANGELICAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1870. (Gettysburgh.)-1. Schmid's

Dogmatic Theology. Translated from the German and Latin. 2. Reminiscences of Lutheran Ministers. 3. Luther at the Diet of Worms. Translated from the Original Narrative. Published at Jena, in 1557. 4. Mission Work in the Lutheran Church of this Country. 5. The Divine Government: Rev. iv. 6. Martin Chemnitz and the Council of Trent. 7. Life and Writings of Flavius Josephus. 8. In Essentials, Unity. 9. Tennyson. 10. Eight Years among the

Hindoos. 11. The Music and Song of the Ages. MERCERSBURG REVIEW, July, 1870. (Philadelphia.)-1. Organic Redemption.

2. Casper Schwenkfeld and the Schwenktelders. 3. Union with the Church. 4. The Ministry Adapted to the Times. 5. What is Heaven? 6. The Mystery

of Iniquity. 7. Dogmatic Theology. NEW ENGLANDER, July, 1870. (New Haven.)-1. St. Francis and bis Time. 2. Is

there a Probation between Death and the Judgment? 3. Henry Ward Beecher. 4. The Free Churelies of England. 5. Yale College--Some Thoughts Respecting its Future. 6. How the Rev. Dr. Stone Bettered his Situation. 7. Address of M. de Pressensé, at Amsterdam, on the Bible and the School. 8. President


JOURNAL, July, 1870. (Bostou.)– 1. Discourse of the Rev. Edmund F. Slater, A.M. 2. Thomas Sherwin, A.M. 3. The Preble Family. 4. The Squam scott Patent. 5. Letter from Rev. Solomon Stoddard to Governor Dudley. 6. Commissions from Royal Governors of Massachusetts. 7. An American Shrine- The First Church in Charlestown. 8. Instructions to Matthew Cary about bringing Prisoners from Canada. 9. Unpublished Letters. 10. Josiah Barker, and his Connection with Ship-Building in Massachusetts. 11. The Coffin Family. 12. Stephen Bryant and his Descendants. 13. Bibliography of the Local History of Massachusetts. 14. Documents Relating to the Colonial History of Connecti.

15. Notes and Queries. 16. N. E. Historic and Genealogical Society. NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, July, 1870. (Boston.)-1. American Art Museums.

2. The Session. 3. Competitive Examinations in China. 4. Our Currency, Past and Future. Luther, and the early German Struggles for Freedom. 6. The

Labor Question. 7. Chancer. UNIVERSALIST QUARTERLY, July, 1870. (Boston.) – 1. Credibility and Inspiration

of the New Testament. 2. The Time of Job. 3. The Septuagint. 4. The Morarian Missions. 5. Punishment. 6. The Historical Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans with Especial Reference to Baur's Theory. 7. The Vestry, and its Uses. 8. Universalism a Practical Power. 9. Contributious to the History of Universalism.


English Reviews. Britisu QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1870. (London.) 1. Freeman's History of the

Norman Conquest. 2. The Education and Employment of Women. 3. Sugges. tions for the Repression of Crime. 4. The Congregational Ministry and its Education. 5. The Literary Character of Mr. Disraeli. 6. The Council of the Vati

7. Mr. Matthew Arnold and Puritanism.


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