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ART. XIX. Catechisme D'Economie Politique, ou Instruction familiere, qui montre de quelle façon les Richesses sont produites, distribuées et consommées dans la Societé, &c. &c. Par Jean-Baptiste Say, Auteur de Traité d'Economie Politique. Paris. 1815.

WE have long had chemical catechisms, and dialogues on chemistry, but we believe this is the first child's book in the department of political economy. The author, however, capable of instructing the highest class of thinkers in this country as well as in his own; and his large work (Traité d'Economie Politique), to which we shall very soon direct the attention of our readers, has afforded us much entertainment, and no small share of information. This little volume, which is drawn up in the form of question and answer, appears to us admirably calculated for the use of students; and, as it brings into view the leading doctrines and maxims of political economists, we would even venture to recommend it to those who, having read more than conversed on this difficult subject, may not have reduced their knowledge to first principles, or clearly traced the relation of its several parts. We give a specimen of the "Catechisme," and of M. Say's reasoning on the question of Production.

"Vous m'avez dit que produire c'etait donner de l'utilité aux choses: Comment donne-t-on de l'utilité ? Comment produit on? "D'une infinité dé manieres; mais pour notre commodité nous pouvons ranger en trois classes toutes les manieres de produire. "Quelle est la premiere manière dont on produit?

"C'est en recueillant les choses que la nature prend soin de creer, soit qu'on ne se soit melé en rien du travail de la nature, comme lorsqu'on pêche des poissons, lorsqu'on extrait les mineraux de la terre; soit qu'on ait, par la culture des terres, et par des semenees, dirigé et favorisé le travail de la nature. Tous ces travaux se ressemblent par leur object. On leur donne le nom d' industrie agricole.

"Quelle utilité donne a une chose celui qui la trouve toute faite, comme le pecheur qui prend un poisson, le`mineur qui ramasse des mineraux ?

"Il la rend propre a l'usage. Le poisson dans la mer n'est d'aucune utilité pour moi. Du moment qu'il est transporté a la poissonerie, J'en peux faire usage; de la vient la valeur qu'il a, valeur crûe par l'industrie du pêcheur. De meme la houille a beau exister dans le sein de la terre, elle n'est là d'aucune utilité pour me chauffer, pour amollir le fer d'une forge: c'est l'industrie du mineur qui la rend propre a ces usages, en l'extrayant par le moyer de ses puits, de ses galeries, de ses roues. Il crée, en la tirant de terre, toute la valeur qu'elle a, etant tirée.


"Quelle est la seconde maniere dont on produit?

"C'est en donnant aux produits d'une autre industrie, une valeur plus grande par les nouvelles façons qu'on y ajoute, par les transformations qu'on leur fait subir. Le mineur procure le metal dont une boucle est faite; mais une boucle faite vaut plus que le metal qui y est employé. La valeur de la boucle pardessus celle du metal, est une valeur produite, et la boucle est le produit de deux industries; de celle du mineur, et de celle du fabricant Celle-ci se nomme industrie manufacturiere.

"Quelle est la troisieme maniere dont ont produit?

"On produit encore en achetant un produit dans un lieu où il a moins de valeur, et en le transportant dans un lieu où il en a davantage. C'est ce qu' execute l'industrie commerciale.

"Comment l'industrie commerciale produit elle de l'utilité, puisqu'elle ne change rien au fonds ni a la forme d'un produit, et qu'elle le revend tel qu'elle l'a acheté?

"Elle agit comme le pêcheur de poisson dont nous avons parlé ; elle prend un produit dans le lieu où l'on ne peut pas en faire usage, dans le lieu du moins où ses usages sont moins etendus moins precieux, pour le transporter aux lieux où ils le sont davantage, ou la production est moins facile, moins abondante, plus chere. Le bois de chauffage et de charpente est d'un usage, et par consequent d'une utilité, tres-bornée dans les hautes montagnes, où il excède tellement le besoin qu'on en a, qu'on le laisse quelquefois pourrir sur place; cette utilité presque nulle devient fort considerable lorsque le même bois est transporté dans une ville. Les cuirs de bœuf ont peu de valeur dans l'Amerique meridionale, où l'on trouve beaucoup de bœufs sauvages; les mêmes cuirs ont une grande valeur en Europe, où leur production est dispendieuse et leurs usages bien plus multipliés. L'industrie commerciale, en les apportant, augmente leur valeur de toute la difference qui se trouve entre leur prix du Brezil et leur prix d'Europe.

"Que comprend-on sous le nom d'industrie commerciale?

"Toute espèce d'industrie qui prend un produit dans un endroit. pour le transporter dans un autre endroit où il est plus precieux, et qui le met ainsi a la portée de ceux qui en ont besoin. On y comprend aussi par analogie l'industrie qui, en detaillant un produit, le met a la portée des plus petits consommateurs. l'epicier qui achete des marchandises en gros pour les revendre en detail dans la même ville, le boucher qui achete les bestiaux entiers pour les revendre piece-a-piece, exercent l'industrie commerciale.


"N'y a-t-il de grands rapports entre toutes ces diverses manieres de produire?

"Les plus grands. Elles consistent toutes a prendre un produit dans un etat et a le vendre dans un autre on il a plus d'utilité et de valeur. Toutes les industries pourraient se reduire a une şeule. Si nous les distinguons ici, c'est a fin de faciliter l'etude de leurs resultats, ct malgré toutes les distinctions, il est souvent


fort difficile de separer une industrie d'une autre, Un villageois qui fait des paniers, est manufacturier; quand il porte des fruits au marché, il fait le commerce. Mais de façon ou d'autre, du moment qu'on crée où augmente l'utilité des choses, on augmente leur valeur, on exerce une industrie, on produit de la richesse."

ART. XX. Practical Observations on Telescopes. 12mo. 114 pp. S. Bagster. 1815.

THE purpose of this little work, is to advise astronomical amateurs to furnish their observatories with good glasses, rather than large ones. Its author, with whose name we are not favoured, but who sufficiently designates himself as the purchaser of a wellknown refractor at the sale of the collection of the late Mr. Aubert, gives the public the result of his experience in plain, intelligible language. The book, therefore, may be usefully consulted by those who are about to make choice of a vehicle, before they take their departure for the milky way. Page 112 moreover, contains a brief description of an eye-glass, which was altogether new to us. To employ our microscope on every little error, which may have crept into a work of this kind, might be deemed censorious; but, should a second edition be called for, we would advise the author to omit the paragraph (p. 4.) on "l'esprit du corps" of the opticians (a class of gentlemen to whom we reviewers are under peculiar obligations) of many of whom he afterwards speaks, in a style of deserved panegyric. The pruning knife might be applied, with equal success, to what is said (p. 47.) on the ladies, their sweet-hearts, and diagonal eye-glasses. It may just be observed, that perfection is the last term of a series of progressive improvements. Dollond's achromatics, and Short's dumpy, (p. 35.) are but approximations to this impassable point. When, therefore, our author talks of viewing the "acme of perfection," he, no doubt, used the highest magnifying powers of his glasses. With these trifling exceptions, the book may be safely recommended. It has the additional merit of being short. Placing ourselves, therefore, at the title page, we have the satisfaction of contemplating the end, as a point, not so unpleasantly remote, as to require the unwieldy aid of a very ponderous telescope.

ART. XXI. The Theology and Mythology of the antient Pagans, written particularly for Female Education. By Miss Hatfield, Author of "Letters on the Importance of the Female Sex, with Observations on their Manners and Education." WE perceive no necessity for the female sex to be initiated into the arcana of heathen mythology; but the fair author of the work


before us is of a contrary opinion. Miss Hatfield acknowledges "that the generality of parents, and other sensible individuals, suppose the heathen mythology to be a study prejudicial to revealed religion and morality." She acknowledges that an indiscriminate perusal of the pages of the fabulous hypothesis of the heathen world, is not unlikely to produce the pernicious effects which a zealous care and tender regard for the happiness of youth are careful to avoid. But the author conceives no danger can arise against "that elegant branch" of female education, provided it is "under proper explanations." It is but justice to say, that Miss H. has rendered the fabulous stories of the heroes and heroines of the heathen mythology as little offensive to modesty as possible. The work is introduced with a concise view of the theology of Moses, in which we find the following pertinent observations.

"The primitive perfection of nature, its fall from that exalted state, and its restoration to happiness by the expiatory sacrifice of some divine person, has been a tradition coeval with the world. It is that which conveys to us the first intelligence of the gospel covenant, it is the sign of the divine goodness, and forms the basis of that religion which the second father of mankind, Noah, transmitted to his children."

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The theology of the antient Pagans embraces the whole compass of the different systems of Polytheism of the nations of antiquity; in the following disquisition on Mountain Worship, there is much to commend.

"In the first ages of the world man paid his homage to the great Creator in the open air. Various parts of sacred history mention that the tops of high mountains were particularly chosen for that purpose; by order of the Almighty, Abraham prépared for the burnt-sacrifice of his son on a mount in Moriah. This spot indicated by the Deity for so extraordinary a purpose, was not only distinguished afterwards as the seat of the Jewish empire, and for the most superb and magnificent temple in the universe, but most of all, it was distinguished by a sacrifice, infinitely more important, infinitely more valuable than the offering of the son of Abrahamthe Mediator there performed the part of atonement.

"On Mount Sinai, Moses received the Commandments from God, from the summit of Nebo, he had permission to behold at a distance the land of Canaan, to which he was conducting the Israelites, and it was on Nebo that shortly after this pre-eminent chief, legislator and historian, terminated his sublunary career in the 120th year of his age. The lovely daughter of Jeptha required permission to retire to the mountains with her companions, that she might there indulge herself in lamenting her unhappy fate before she resigned her being to fulfil the rash vow of her father, and in compliance

with the existing customs of the times in which he visited the abode of mankind; the Son of God chose those places for his own retirement, for private prayer, and for exhortation. On the Mount of Olives he delivered his incomparable sermon to his disciples; and on those situations were performed his transfiguration, temptation, final sufferings, and ascension. The heathen nations, in the vicinity of Judea, following this practice, chose mountains for every solemn purpose: the doubting Balaam, who halted be tween the two opinions of the true and false worshippers, a prophet whose prediction first informed the Eastern magi of the appearance of an extraordinary star which would be visible at the Messiah's birth, was conducted up to Mount Baal by the idolater Balak, that he might curse Israel from thence. Hector was commended by Jupiter for the number of sacrifices he performed on Mount Ida, and when temples began to be built, the summits of mountains were chosen for that purpose. In Rome and Athens, the most sacred temples were erected on the highest eminences of the cities, and the highest mountains were by the heathens commonly sacred to Saturn, Jupiter, and Apollo." P. 16.

We close with observing, that to those of the female sex who may wish to make themselves acquainted with Pagan Mythology, there are few books more calculated for that purpose than Miss Hatfield's work.



A familiar and practical Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion of the united Church of England and Ireland. By the Rev. H. C. O'Donnoghue, A.M. of St. John's College, Cambridge. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

The Tyrant of the Church. 8vo. 2s.

Asiel, or the Young Convert. By the Rev. Thomas Young, of Margate, Kent. 12mo. 7s. 6d.

A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Huntingdon, at the primary Visitation in the Year 1815. With an Appendix and Notes. By the Rev. James Hook, L.L.D. F.R.S. and S.A. Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 4to.


Discourses on the Principles of Religious Belief, as connected with human Happiness and Improvement. By the Rev. Robert Morehead, A.M. late of Baliol College, Oxford, Junior Minister of the Episcopal Chapel, Cowgate, vol. 2. 8vo.

Vetus Testamentum Græcum, cum variis Lectionibus: editionem a R. Holmes, S.T.P. R.S.S. Decano Wintoniensi, inchoatam, continuavit J. Parsons, S.T.B. Tomi Secundi, Pars Quinta: complectens Tertium Librum Regum. fol. 11. 1s. Sermons on various Subjects. By A. Huratt, D.D. 3 vols. 8vo. 11. 7s. Lectures, explanatory and practical, on the Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans. By the Rev. John Fry, A. B. Rector of Desford, Leicestershire, &c. 12s. A Treatise on the Law and Gospel. By the Rev. John Colquhoun, D.D. .6d.

Lectures, explanatory and practical, on select Portions of Scripture. By the Rev. Andrew Thompson, A.M. Minister of St. George's, Edinburgh. 2 vols. 14s.


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