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it also may, and if any power could make it then seventy millions of people magnificently with success, it is the German Confederation. organized for warfare by land will be posted That cumbrous and multiform body, with its on all northern seas, with harbors in abunabsurd constitution and powerless Parliament, dance, arsenals only limited by the wealth its divided principalities and hostile courts, of the third richest race in Europe, and a has shown that whenever inflamed by ambi- maritime population of six millions, of which tion it can act as a whole,-act with rapid- one-fourth is Scandinavian. Grant her but a ity, act with a perfect forgetfulness of the genius at her head, and what is to resist such local jealousies of its States. The Cimbric Pe- a power, or stop her from regaining Alsace, ninsula is now garrisoned by the troops of the overflowing Hofland, reconquering Italy, or entire Confederation, and of all its subject crushing the rising hope of the Slavon tribes peoples. Nothing can be more perfect than of European Turkey? France? France with the unity for offence which pervades that mis- a Napoleon for chief drove Austria alone with cellaneous mass. Napoleon was not obeyed difficulty out of a foreign province, and who more rapidly than Prince Charles of Prussia. reckons on a succession of Napoleons? Italy? Berlin may hate Vienna, and Frankfort dis- Can Italy even face South Germany? Russia? trust both; but no reasonable politician doubts Russia is governed by Germans, is a sharer in that if Prince Charles were defeated, Count the spoils of Poland, and would sell the von Gablenz would hasten to his support; or world for ten hours' undisturbed possession that if both encountered a check the, troops of Constantinople. Great Britain? Great of the Diet now in Holstein would in twelve Britain is shrinking from the battle now, hours be streaming to their aid. The nation when Germany has no fleet and Denmark is for offensive purposes, when warmed by the alive, is plunging deeper and deeper into the lust of conquest or the passion for vengeance, trade which makes her prosperity and enfeeis one, and a most terrible one. Forty-five bles her sense of right, and is governed and millions of persons, one in language and opin- will be governed by a house German in blood ion, in civilization and institutions, trained and sympathies. We believe firmly if the under an admirable military organization, career be once commenced, if Germany once active as any race but the French, and brave pass through a time of exaltation, there will as any people on earth, wield all the military be no remedy for Europe till it has tasted resources of thirty millions more in addition what German domination means,-till it has to their own. The greatest rivers of Europe felt the rule which has in three centuries are within German frontiers; Germany is made all Italians the sworn enemies of all seated in full strength on the North Sea and Germans, has in ten centuries failed to recthe Mediterranean, and she alone of European oncile Hungarians, has in eighteen months powers strikes at every enemy from the in- made of the Roumans allies of their Magyar side of the campaigning circle. Her litera- oppressors, has in a century and a half ture influences the world; her alliances are changed Poles from prosperous enemies into absolutely ubiquitous; she can control an elec- pauperized foes, and has so alienated its tion in North America as easily as a succes- own people that no German conquered by a sion in Denmark; and of all the kings of Eu- Frenchman has in three centuries ever struck rope there are but two not sprung of a Ger- one blow for German dominion. When the man stock or thinking in the German tongue. Germans move to the north, the east, or the The nation which wields this extraordinary south, they drag with them irreconcilable power has no hereditary enemies among first- foes,-soldiers whom they must watch as vigiclass States, and swallows nationalities on lantly as their adversaries in the field; when every side without incurring for a moment they move west, they are encountered by men
the charge of ambition or aggressiveness. of their own lineage, obeying their own traCrushing Poland to the ground, holding Hun- ditions, speaking their own language, but gary as we hold India, ravaging Denmark, who will resist their progress to the death. threatening Turkey, and striving to emascu- It is a people like this, thus powerful, thus late Italy, she is still popularly believed to aggressive, and thus hated, whom we are be a "stationary and Conservative power called upon to resist, if not in Denmark "essential to the peace and good order of while Germany is without a navy, then in Europe.' One limit only has for ages been Holland when she has a navy,-that is if the placed on her ambition. She has been able marriage of a Prince of Orange into the to do little at sea; but with the conquest of English house should happily for the world Denmark even this disability disappears. enable us to perceive that Holland is defensiGermany does not assimilate as France does; ble. but she has the talent shown by our own race on the American continent,-the capacity for eating out all weaker nationalities. Denmark conquered will be digested, and
But nothing, we shall be told, will happen of all this; for Germany is not united, and in the long run is peaceful. We heard that argument of disunion ad nauseam before Ma
genta; but we do not hear much of it now; | crimes of Russia, and the unfeeling compliand union for aggression is to the world more city of Prussia. The Emperor Alexander dangerous than union for internal improve- and Prince Gortschakoff must have received ment. Bavaria may obey laws which West- with gratified surprise an application from phalia rejects; but if Bavarians assist West-England for armed assistance against the agphalians in cutting Danish throats, their gressions of Austria and Prussia; yet their internal jealousies are not of perceptible satisfaction would have been incomplete if advantage to Danes. Every statesman who France had not taken the opportunity to prohas spoken this week admits that if we de- claim the interruption of the English alliance. fend Denmark, we must fight all Germany, Such results would have been almost worth and if all Germany fights, the difference be- obtaining at the cost of war, and when they tween Austrians and Prussians matters no were gratuitously offered, it was natural that more than the discontent of Ireland or the they should be thankfully accepted. The separate Church of Scotland matters to the policy of Russia on this special question has enemies of Great Britain when the Scots not yet been fully disclosed. In all the neGreys charge. Peaceful and unaggressive! gotiations which have taken place, and more Well, the German Diet of Vienna has voted particularly in the conference, the Russian that Venice is a port of the Confederation; ministers have been more forward than even Prussia will not give up one inch of Posen; their English colleagues in demonstrations the Reichsrath refuses to condemn the state of friendship to Denmark. The remarkable · of siege in Galicia; and Germany from end summary of the proceedings which appears to end is ringing with delight because Ger- to have been drawn up by an eager Danish man troops are cutting the unripe corn which partisan is generally attributed to the Rusmight encourage Danish Jutlanders to resist sian plenipotentiary. Except with fleets and their German invaders. Our opponents put armies, the Emperor Alexander has apparto us a prediction, and in reply we only state ently been ready to oppose the pretensions what is. of Germany; but the support of Austria and Prussia in Poland concerns his interests more closely than the safety or independence of Denmark. It is not improbable that Russian influence may be exerted to obtain comparatively favorable terms of peace, while France and England are excluded by different circumstances from all share in the negotiations. It is strange that, any statesman can have believed that Russia would engage in war with the German powers while Prussian troops are watching for Polish insurgents on the frontiers of Posen, and during the continuance of military law in Galicia. The German fleet of the future at Kiel and the contingent Scandinavian monarchy involve remoter dangers than those which at present occupy the attention of Russian statesmen.
From The Saturday Review. DANISH POLICY OF FRANCE AND RUSSIA.
THE vituperation of England which at present occupies and amuses the Continent may serve as a warning against basty and indiscriminate censure of foreign nations and governments. The annoyance will not be abated or alleviated by recriminations on those neutral powers which have combined secure inaction with a fortunate immunity from popular criticism. It is evident that France and Russia, if not more generous, have been more adroit than England; and it is useless to find fault with a policy which has been successful, as a passenger is successful who makes his way through a riotous crowd without being forced or tempted to interfere. It would be more meritorious to suppress the tumult; but an abortive effort to restrain the passions of the combatants exposes the baffled peacemak-peror Napoleon foresaw that he might possier to temporary ridicule. Of all European bly find profit by fishing in troubled waters. States, Russia has profited most immediately Two or three alternative courses presented and most cheaply by the Danish quarrel. In themselves for his choice at different stages the midst of an excitement nearer home, the of the controversy. After the rebuff which western nations have suddenly forgotten the had been received from Prince Gortschakoff wrongs and the very existence of Poland. in the Polish correspondence, it would have Only a year ago, almost every European been undignified to cultivate a close union State, with the exception of Prussia, was with Russia; and England had, in the same remonstrating with Russia in tones of indig- negotiation, incurred the imperial displeasnation and of menace. England, France, and ure. Mr. Disraeli probably exaggerates the Austria denounced in concerted language the bad effects of Lord Russell's withdrawal from
The conduct and motives of France are somewhat obscurer, and it may be doubted whether they deserve the indiscriminate eulogy of rival politicians in the House of Commons. Like Russia and England, France undoubtedly felt a certain good-will to Denmark, and, as in all similar cases, the Em
diate the unfortunate treaty of 1852, because the arrangement was equally unpalatable to the sovereigns who had signed it under coercion, and to the nation whose rights it had confiscated. It remained to watch for possible or probable divergence of opinion between the lukewarm patrons of Schleswig at Berlin and Vienna, and the enthusiastic advocates of the Augustenburg claims in the minor States. The interests of Denmark were postponed to considerations more immediately interesting to France.
co-operation in the matter of Poland, as well as of his subsequent refusal to attend the Congress; but there is no doubt that in both cases a feeling of resentment was left behind, to be treasured up until it could be made a collateral reason for some measure which was in itself thought expedient. The Danish complication, while it has conferred unmixed benefit on Russia, has indirectly tended to counteract the cherished policy of France. For nearly three centuries, the traditional project of encroaching on German territory has been pursued by successive About the beginning of the present year, French governments, with varying success. at the time of the Federal execution in HolRichelieu, Louis XIV., and Napoleon induced stein, French diplomacy was more than ordiGerman armies to ravage and dismember narily busy and sanguine; and perhaps it their native country for the aggrandizement may for a moment have seemed possible to of France. Even Louis XV., on the extinc- revive the former Protectorate or the Confedtion of the Austrian male line of Hapsburg, eracy of the Rhine. Austria and Prussia thought it possible to divide the German had been defeated in the Diet, and they afterEmpire into four dependent kingdoms, to be wards had some difficulty in procuring a vote governed by as many satellites of France. that Schleswig should be occupied, and not It was always understood that, once united, avowedly conquered. Popular orators everyGermany would be invulnerable, if not act- where declaimed against the treason of the ually dangerous. French diplomacy used its great powers, and the petty princes followed utmost efforts to discredit and thwart the at- the prevailing current the more readily, betempt of the Austrian Emperor, in the course cause the arbitrary dethronement of the house of last summer, to draw the bonds of the of Augustenburg constituted a precedent Confederacy tighter, and to place Austria at which might be dangerous to themselves. Acits head. The quarrel with Denmark once cordingly, the legitimate pretender received a more directed the attention of France to Ger- welcome at the Tuileries, and the Diet was many; but the means of profiting by the oc- induced to believe that Germany might count casion were not easy to discover. on French assistance in an internal conflict with the two great monarchies of the Confed
As the agitation increased, it became evident that the governments were but imperfect-eration. The Prussian minister, by his unly expressing the unanimous convictions and scrupulous energy, leading Austria in his feelings of the German people. For the first train, has since effectually baffled for the time since the days of Frederick Barbarossa, or present the ambitious designs of France. perhaps of Otho, the whole nation was de- Notwithstanding the protests of the national voted to the entertainment of a common ob- party at Berlin and Frankfort, it was certain ject; and while some patriots advocated har- that an army which, on any pretext, attacked monious action for the sake of redressing the Denmark would be regarded as the most efwrongs of Schleswig, politicians of more com- fective instrument of the popular will. Every prehensive views urged on the invasion of angry speech which is uttered in England Denmark, because the enterprise seemed like- confirms the faith of Germany in Prussia, ly to promote the cause of German unity. because it expresses a feeling of indignation The joint intervention of France and England against the relentless enemy of Denmark. might perhaps have saved Denmark from Even the easy victories which have been invasion; but it would also have cemented won please the general fancy, and at present the union of all parties and of all local sub- a foreign assailant of Prussia would find at divisions in Germany. The alliance which her back a united and formidable nation. Lord Russell failed to effect would have been The minor princes are, perhaps, more alarmed dangerous to England, because it might have by the predominance of Prussia than by the involved practical participation in schemes of agitation which produced the war. It is conquest; but, on the other hand, France even possible that they may be still intriguwould have created a hostile feeling on her ing for French support; but if they draw own frontier, while England, in case of the back, they will no longer represent the wishes worst, would have been inaccessible to Ger- or passions of their subjects. If kings were man revenge. The only hope of political mere proprietors, with provinces for their victory through the intestine divisions of private estates, there would be a superficial Germany rested on separate vigilance, to be kind of poetical justice in the loss of the followed by activity if an opening occurred. Rhine as a penalty for the acquisition of the it was, above all things, necessary to repu- Eyder. The Germans are the less concerned
to dispute the theoretical fitness of retribu- travelling abroad owes some of its most obvition, inasmuch as they have no present reason ous drawbacks. The change of life, the for dreading foreign aggression. The Danish scenery, the amusements, the information war has gone far to redeem the failure of gained by a tour along the principal highFrankfort, because every German regiment roads of Europe, have their charm, and make would be available if it were required for the travelling worth all its many inconveniences. prosecution of the campaign. The union of But the operation by which the pleasure is the petty Italian States, was highly unwel- won, in itself is usually a mixed pleasure. come to France, although the new peninsular In the first place, there are invariably rekingdom is still held in leading strings; but strictions connected with it which all Engunited Germany would be more unmanagea-lishmen hate, and to which they are little ble, nor would it consent to-forfeit any Savoy accustomed to submit. The Briton who enor Nice by way of fine on its enfranchise- ters a continental railway station leaves at the door his liberty, and becomes for the journey the miserable slave of a paternal government. In happy unconsciousness of his crime, he is forever sinning against some important regulation, and forever being called to order by authoritative officials. If he sits down, he thereby contravenes a by-law of which he never heard; but the violation of which is looked upon by every gens-d'arme. and railway guard as a deliberate outrage upon their own dignity. If he stands up, he is sure to find himself standing at the wrong place. It seems as if destiny, on such occasions, had marked him out as the one sheep which was always getting into trouble with the shepherds of the railway flock, and he sees the natives eying him with astonishment, as if he were a wild and insubordinate animal, wherever he either opens a door or shuts it. Iron statutes of the same nature as those of the laws of the Medes and Persians govern him at every stage. He is forbidden to look after his luggage; he is forbidden to enter the platform before the bell rings; bearded officers prevent him loitering on the way to the carriage, or from stretching his head out of the window when he is there. The most remarkable thing of all is, that the inhabitants do not appear to mind this rigid discipline, and regard the foreign guest as an evil-mannered person, should he accidentally infringe upon it. Nor are Eng
DURING the last few weeks, travellers returning from Germany have brought home the intelligence that travelling in Germany has become, for English gentlemen and ladies, a difficult and annoying business. Com-lishmen-unless they happen to be familiar plaints are made, not merely of the rudeness with the Continent-at all prepared for the of officials, but of the rudeness of those who power and dignity of foreign officials. are casual passengers as well. The Prussians, England no gentleman pays more than a in particular, are said to visit on the heads very limited attention to the discipline of of unfortunate English individuals the politi- the railways. Railway guards are not gencal sins and shortcomings which they attrib-erally considered servants of the nation; and ute to the English nation. A few years ago if a traveller wishes to smoke, he smokes an awkward quarrel between German officials and gives the guard a shilling. The conseand Englishmen at Cologne gave people who quence is, that Englishmen abroad are connever went abroad an insight into some of tinually in trouble. It takes a long expethe misfortunes to which Coelebs in search of rience to teach them that by-laws may not scenery is liable; and it cannot be doubted be broken. In Germany, above all countries for a moment that travelling in German rail- in Europe, this is peculiarly the case. Nor ways and steamboats may be made intensely is the supervision of the law confined by any unpleasant, if the natives of that favored means to public conveyances. It is long odds country choose to make it so. But it is not that an Englishman cannot ride along a highmerely owing to political complications that road in Germany for half a mile, on horse
The policy of France has thus far consisted in prudent submission to unavoidable circumstances. If a disappointment is incurred, it is better to hear it in silence than to burst out in useless lamentations; but there is little tact in loudly congratulating a loser because he looks as if he had won the stakes. If England had maintained the treaty of 1852, an undesirable or pernicious result would have been overlooked in the complacent feeling that English influence had been found irresistible. The unresistant invasion of Denmark is rather mortifying than injurious, and future French politicians will not fail to point out the perfidious astuteness of a government which, by apparent opposition and hypocritical threats of hostility, has helped to raise up a great power in the immediate vicinity of France.
From The London Review, 25 June.
back, without exposing himself to the penal- | sally agreeable. The French, since the Revoties of a misdemeanor. Either he is riding lution, are a polite, but are not essentially a too fast, or to slow. If not, he is probably chivalrous, nation. They look upon women, riding on that perfectly indistinguishable not with the exaggerated homage of the side of the highway which it is the pleasure American, nor with the inbred reverence of and custom of the natives in the neighbor- an Englishman, but with the gallantry of a hood to consider dedicated to the use of foot-nation that adores, without respecting, beaupassengers. As he ambles pleasantly along, ty. A lady represents to a Frenchman gaya shout is heard from some field or cottage ety, pleasure, elegance,-in fact, the luxuries at the side. A native, dressed in a blouse, and the perfume of life. It is obvious that rushes with loud cries at his horse's head. this is not a species of worship which is calcuIt seems that the Englishman has done some-lated to intoxicate Englishwomen. With all thing for which he must anyhow submit to a Frenchman's finished ease in talking to a be fined. If he attempts to escape, the only woman, there is always something intensely difference is that he will be imprisoned. disagreeable at the bottom of his tone and in the inmost recesses of his eye. The truth is, that the French, with all their idealism, mix materialism in still larger quantities. They are at best divine monkeys; and when Talleyrand tells us that you have only to scratch a Russian to get at the Cossack underneath, he forgets that the maxim might be turned against his own race. Scratch the Parisian, you will find underneath a Gaul.
The courtesy itself which is commonly said to be characteristic of foreigners is of a peculiar kind, and is not of very much use to Englishmen and Englishwomen on the Continent. An Englishman may be quite sure that if he takes off his hat to the poorestlooking man in the streets, the poorest-looking man will, in return, take off his hat to him. If he knocks at a door, the maidservant will receive him with a smile. The Even in the early literature of France, this traveller opposite will cheerfully offer him a strange connection between gallantry and light for his cigar. These amenities of life materialism is to be found. The amatory are of some value, and are too apt to be poets of France have not in bygone times underrated by English people. They pro- been usually over-complimentary to women. ceed, however, not so much from unselfishness Many an old French writer (poets among the as from sociability. There is a wide margin number) tells us how man created all the genbetween the two. The absence of all aristo- tle, woman all the savage, animals. To Adam cratical distinctions gives the French ouvrier a we owe the sheep. Eve in her turn struck bearing and a good-humored dignity that seem the ground, and upsprang thereupon the wolf. charming at first sight; but it is a charm If it had not been for Adam's presence of that lies upon the surface; at least, the mind, who retaliated immediately with the French are not more courteous than the Eng-dog, according to the gallant rhymer, the lish, though they are gayer, and more friendly world might long ago have seen a scarcity, in manner towards each other. They will if not of inhabitants, at least of mutton. bear the adventures and roughness of a jour- The story is more suitable, perhaps, to the ney with more composure. They will break- character of French Eves than of English. fast merrily on sour bread, drink bad coffee, Like the French Adam, the French Eve, with dine on worse soup. They will not, however, all her graces, has generally a tolerable share go so far as an Englishman to do a real of selfishness. For conversation, for grace, service to a lady, and if you vacate for a for social talent, she is unrivalled; but exmoment the last seat in a railway carriage, perience tells us that for real delicacy of it is by no means certain that some one will heart, we had better remain on this side of not pounce upon your place. To English- the Channel. women, French manners are far from univer